Sempervivum marmoreum is a perennial herb forming basal rosettes up to 2.4 inches (6 cm) in diameter, of succulent leaves. The center of…
Hungarian Cultural Garden
The Hungarian Cultural Garden began with the dedication of a bas-relief to composer Franz Liszt (1811-1886) on the site in 1934 it was completed and formally dedicated in 1938. The Garden is constructed on two levels along the upper boulevard, and overlooks lower East Boulevard. Designed by a well-known architect of Budapest, Hungary, its design is distinguished by a compact, opulent, and formal landscape style. The original design and intentions have been well maintained, with hedges cut to a larger size. This lends the spaces a contemplative feel of discovery.
The Hungarian population's first significant immigration to Cleveland began in the 1870s. The Buckeye Rd. neighborhood, on the easternmost edge of the city at that time, was the first Hungarian settlement area. A separate settlement arose in the 1880s between Madison St. (now E. 79th) and E. 65th St. along the south-side of Woodland Ave. The largest wave of Hungarian immigration occurred between 1870 and 1924. In 1900 the U.S. Census recorded 9,558 Hungarians (or 8% of the city's foreign born population) in Cleveland. By 1920 this number was 43,134 (18%). During these years Hungarians would come to Cleveland and then encourage relatives and friends to emigrate as well. Called "chain migration," this eventually created a community on the west side of Cleveland where several hundred immigrants from the same village settled.
After 1920 the original Buckeye Rd. neighborhood expanded to Woodland Ave. and ran between E. 72nd St. and E. 125th St. It is estimated that the years 1947-53 brought 6,000 Hungarian immigrants to Cleveland with 6-9,000 more arriving in 1956 after the Hungarian Revolution. By the 1960s with the trend to the suburbs, the Buckeye Rd. neighborhood began to decline. The 1990 U.S. Census recorded 61,681 Cleveland area residents asserting Hungarian descent.
From East Boulevard, visitors enter the Hungarian Cultural Garden through a patterned wrought-iron gateway gifted by the Verhovay Insurance Association. Crafted by Handcraft Metal, whose crafts people trained at the renowned Rose Iron Works, the gate is like the traditional type of archway leading to country estates in the Szekely region of Hungary. The Szekely Kapus is decorated with two small, delightful peasant figures in bronze it also bears the year 1938, signaling the Gardens' formal dedication. Though "rehabilitated" in recent years, the gate remains a remarkable tribute to the delicate artistry of early twentieth century ironworkers in Cleveland.
Clara Lederer, writing in "Their Paths are Peace", describes the principal plot on the upper level as "a rectangular reflecting pool and fountain. set in a pattern of low walls and geometric walks of brick, stone, and marble, and rich plantings of the growths best known in Hungary--hawthorn, yew, cotoneasters, and azaleas. Two linden trees, formal flower beds, and brick, stone, and marble walls and walks are the features of the lower garden. Two wing sections, formal arrangements of lawn, brick paths, and sculptured stone benches, adjoin the larger upper garden. In the section to the left of the entrance is a bas-relief of Franz Liszt."
The Garden contains three busts and an additional bas relief commemorating Bela Bartok, a composer and collector of folk music (1881-1945) Endre Ady, a poet, writer and journalist (1877-1919) Imre Madach, a writer, poet, lawyer and politician (1823-1864) and Joseph Remenyi, a writer who taught at Case Western Reserve University (1892-1956).
The Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden is one of the oldest in the world. The idea of the foundation dates back to 1820-30s but it opened only on 9 August 1866. It was an initiation of a group of patriots among others Ágoston Kubinyi, geologist József Szabó, Ágoston Kubinyi, the Director of the National Museum, József Gerenday, the Director of the Botanical Garden of Budapest, and János Xántus, a zoologist, ethnographer, and the first director of the zoo.
At that time, the zoo displayed mainly Hungarian species and some rare species of monkeys, parrots, camels, and kangaroos, among others. Franz Joseph and Queen Elizabeth donated a giraffe and other animals to the zoo. The first lion house opened in 1876 with lions and tigers. An elephant, a hippopotamus, and a rhinoceros joined later on.
However, the initial enthusiasm waned and popularity of the zoo decreased. The new animals were expensive and the expenses of the company founded by the patriots exceeded the revenues. The management hired entertainers and comedians and the corporation was transformed into an animal and plant naturalizing company.
In 1873, Károly Serák was mandated zoo director. He directed for more than 30 years and he managed to maintain the zoo. He hired several artists, such as fire eaters, sword swallowers, and tightrope dancers in order to attract people. The revenues increased and the zoo was able to buy several special or rare animals, such as a hippopotamus and a Sumatran rhinoceros. The zoo housed about 2,000 species. However, as the authorities increased the rental fee and the financial situation of the zoo deteriorated. The company went bankrupt after the Millennium in 1896.
In 1907, the zoo was auctioned and taken over by the capital city, Budapest. Supported by the mayor of Budapest, István Bárczy and his city developing program, a complete reconstruction took place between 1909 and 1912. The zoo was re-opened on 20 May 1912. The entertainers were separated from the zoo and a botanical garden was created. The historic buildings of the zoo are mainly from this time too. Adolf Lendl, a zoologist, was mandated the zoo director. The institution was one of the most modern zoos in Europe.
The development was interrupted by the First World War. The zoo was almost entirely destroyed in the Second World War. At the siege of Budapest, the zoo was bombed and most buildings and animals were destroyed. After the siege, the remaining animals were eaten by the starving people of Budapest. From 2,000 specimens only 15 survived.
In 1945, the zoo re-opened with a few dozen animals. The damage was restored slowly. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a major modernization. Between 1956 and 1967, the Director General of the zoo was Dr. Csaba Anghi. Under his guidance, the zoo became once again one of the most modern zoos of Europe.
In 1994, Miklós Persányi was appointed Director General. The historic buildings were reconstructed. The animal habitats have been modernized, enlarged, and made to look more natural.
In 2007, the first rhinoceros ever to be born with artificial insemination was born in the zoo. 
In 2012, the General Assembly of Budapest has decided, that the zoo will take over part of the Amusement Park’s territory and introduce Pony Park, a family game park and zoo. 
On 14 February 2013, the zoo welcomed its first elephant calf since 1961. 
In 2013, the zoo will acquire most of the Amusement Park’s territory and use it to display subtropical fauna and flora in a spacious glasshouse. 
The newest attraction of the zoo is The Magical Hill, found in the Great Rock. It presents the diversity of flora and fauna, the evolving of the diversity and the relationship between humankind and nature. It features more than 100 species, interactive games, and illustrative models. 
America Tropicana is the new name of the Palm-house. It presents the flora and fauna of the tropical climate American continent. 
The Savannah Zone displays giraffes, gazelles, white rhinoceros, and many species of birds. The building also displays small mammals and insects. 
Australia Zone is found next to the Great Lake. It displays unique birds, reptiles, and amphibians of Australia. The showrooms of the northern part of the house presents animals active at night in reversed lighting scheme. The Hillhouse is also a part of the Australia Zone. It displays cassowaries, kangaroos, and wombats. 
India House, the central building was built in 1912 by the plans of Károly Kós and Dezső Zrumeczky. It presents Indian lions, striped hyenae among others. 
The building named after the first director of the zoo represents the wildlife of South-East Asian flora and fauna. 
The zoo shows especially many species of primates group though not definitely in the neighbourhood of each others. In the South America House, squirrel monkeys are on display. In the Xántus János house, visitors can see Javan surilis. The Madagascar House houses ring-tailed lemurs, black and white ruffed lemurs, red ruffed lemurs, black lemurs, red-fronted lemurs as well as one of Europa's oldest Siamangs. The Great Ape house is home to the extremely endangered species of apes including six western lowland gorillas and five Sumatran orangutans. Visitors may also view a troop of hamadryas baboons, golden-bellied mangabeys, emperor tamarins, golden lion tamarins, red-handed tamarins, owl monkeys, white-headed marmosets, and pygmy marmosets.