Planting cabbage seeds in open ground and a greenhouse: the secrets of practitioners
Many gardeners like to cultivate cabbage, but not everyone succeeds. For various reasons, there is no way to grow seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. In this case, you can perform direct sowing of seeds into the ground, which is suitable for many types of this crop (white cabbage, kohlrabi, Beijing, broccoli).
Preparing a site for planting cabbage
Before you start planting a crop such as cabbage, you need to choose and prepare the site correctly. Future beds should be located in an open and unshaded place. To prevent the development of diseases and pests, it is necessary to follow the rules of crop rotation, alternating planting crops. Cabbage in the same place should be planted no earlier than after 4 years. The best predecessors for her are potatoes, onions, legumes, cucumbers.
Cabbage loves loose and fertile soils with sufficient moisture. To achieve a good structure, organic fertilizers such as manure or compost are applied to the soil at the rate of 5–7 kg per 1 m². It is best to fertilize the soil in the fall for digging.
When preparing a cabbage bed, in the fall, manure is introduced for digging
Until spring, the nutrients will be converted into a digestible form for plants. Depending on the type of soil, mineral fertilizers are additionally used:
- on peat soils, which are characterized by a lack of potassium, it will be necessary to add 20–40 g of potassium chloride per 1 m²;
- on sandy soils, which are poor in potassium and phosphorus, add superphosphate 40-60 g and potassium chloride 20-50 g per 1 m²;
- acidic loams must be deoxidized by adding lime or ash 80–100 g per 1 m².
In addition to organic matter, mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil, and loams are deoxidized by the introduction of ash
For cabbage, soils with an acidity close to neutral (pH 6.5–7) are most preferred. On acidic soils, the culture is subject to the development of a disease such as keela.
In the autumn, a plot for cabbage is dug to a depth of 20–25 cm and left undisturbed until spring. With the arrival of heat, the earth is leveled with a rake. Before sowing, the beds are dug to a depth of about 7 cm, followed by leveling. If the ground has not been prepared since the fall, then in early spring the site is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet and rake it.
How to choose cabbage seeds for planting
The choice of seed material needs to be given special attention, because the volume and quality of the future harvest directly depends on it. Let's consider in more detail what criteria should be taken into account when selecting seeds:
- Cultivation region. There are many varieties of cabbage that are bred for specific regions, which is always indicated on the seed package. If this information is not available, then a plate is provided by which you can determine when sowing and harvesting is carried out. The longer the period of cabbage cultivation, the warmer the region is needed for its cultivation.
- Characteristics of the soil. Depending on the variety chosen, you need to take into account the type of soil on which the crop gives the best yield.
- Ripening terms. Cabbage is divided into several ripening groups: early (ripens within 50–120 days), medium (90–170 days) and late (160–270 days). When choosing seeds, you need to take this indicator into account, and not plant a crop of the same type.
- What is cabbage grown for? The choice of variety also depends on what the vegetable will be used for: for salads, pickling, or for fresh storage. This information should be on the label or packaging.
- Resistance to diseases and pests. Each variety has its own characteristics. So, there are varieties that are endowed with resistance to diseases and pests, but they cannot boast of high yields, and there are fruitful varieties, but with less resistance. This indicator must be taken into account, since it will have to provide appropriate care.
- Resistant to cracking. It is better to give preference to varieties that are not prone to cracking, since because of this nuance, not only the appearance of the heads deteriorates, but also problems arise with storage: cracked heads of cabbage are not stored for a long time.
- Local varieties. To grow cabbage on your site, it is better to acquire zoned varieties, i.e., local selection. After all, it is such seed material that is best suited for your climatic conditions.
Video: how to choose cabbage seeds
How to get seeds yourself
Gardeners think about getting their own cabbage seeds if they like a certain variety, but they are not sure that next season there will be an opportunity to purchase it. It is quite within the power of everyone to produce seed material. The main thing is not to use hybrid varieties for these purposes, since they do not retain varietal characteristics.
First you need to understand that cabbage is classified as follows to obtain seeds:
- the mother plant is a plant that is familiar to everyone in the first year of cultivation, which forms a head of cabbage;
- testes - queen cells planted in the second year, from which flowers and seeds are formed.
Plants with a large head of cabbage, a small stump and a small number of leaves near the head are chosen as a mother plant.
For mother plants, only high-quality planting material of the variety that needs to be propagated is selected. Mid-late and late varieties are best suited for these purposes. This is due to the fact that they are better preserved until planting next season. Cabbage that will be used as a mother plant should have as large a head of cabbage as possible, and the stalk and green leaves should be as small as possible. Small plants with a thin stump and a small number of outer leaves at the head should be selected for mother plants.
From the cabbage stump next year, peduncles will develop, from which seeds are subsequently collected
The plants of the first year are harvested before the onset of frost. If they are slightly frozen, then you need to give them a little time to move away. For the purposes under consideration, it is better to sow cabbage directly into the ground. Such plants have a more powerful rhizome, a short stump, they are better preserved. The mother liquors are cleaned together with the root and earthen clod, after which the root system is dipped in liquid clay and the rosette foliage is removed. Then they are put away for storage in the basement, ensuring the temperature is + 1–2˚С. If the temperature indicator is less than 0 ° C, then the mother plants will freeze and when planted will be susceptible to diseases. When the temperature rises above + 10˚С, only leaves will grow together with peduncles.
For planting mother plants, you need to choose a site where snow does not linger for a long time in spring. Fertilizers are applied in the same amount as for planting cabbage. Plants are planted at the end of April, after having coated the rhizomes with a mixture of clay and mullein. The procedure is carried out with a distance between the queen cells of 60 cm, deepening the plants in the holes to the very head of cabbage. After planting, the bushes are watered and shaded in the first days, and also protected in case of recurrent frosts by covering with a film. Care comes down to the same procedures as with ordinary cabbage: weed removal, loosening, watering, top dressing.
On plants of the second year, flower stalks are formed, which are tied to supports
After 2 weeks, when the mother plants take root, remove the remaining old leaves and petioles to avoid decay. When peduncles are formed, they are tied to the supports. Shoots that do not bloom, as well as excess peduncles, are removed. The flowering period lasts about a month. After flowering, the seeds in the pods ripen in 1.5 months. They need to be removed without waiting for full ripeness, since the very first ones will begin to spill out onto the ground from the expanding pods. Seed material is dried and stored.
Video: picking cabbage seeds
Preparing seeds for planting
Preparing cabbage seeds for sowing is not a difficult process, but it is very beneficial. The future harvest largely depends on the correctness of the preparatory measures.
Seeds must be calibrated before sowing, for which they are soaked for 5 minutes in a 3% salt solution. In this case, the lighter grains will float up, and the heavier ones will sink to the bottom. The seeds on the surface are drained, and the rest are collected, washed in clean water and dried. They also need to be used for sowing.
Cabbage seeds are calibrated in order to select the largest: they are used for sowing
Cabbage seeds are tested for germination in order to understand how suitable they are for sowing and what you can count on. To do this, they are wrapped in a damp cloth for 5 days and placed in heat (+ 20-25˚С). During this time, you need to monitor the moisture content of the fabric and, if necessary, moisten it. For the convenience of counting, it is better to take 100 seeds. The seeds are inspected daily, sprouted are counted and removed. Seeds that hatch in the first 3 days indicate the amicability of seedlings, and by those germinated during the week, one can judge the germination rate.
Warming up and disinfection
By warming up the seed, it is possible to increase its quality and yield, as well as reduce the likelihood of developing diseases such as phomosis and bacteriosis. Heating can be done in several ways:
- The seeds are immersed for 1.5-2 hours in water at a temperature of + 60˚С. You should not exceed the value, since germination will deteriorate sharply.
- The seeds are heated for 2.5–3 months at a temperature of + 25–35˚С, while the possibility of their overheating is excluded. The grains are poured onto cardboard and placed on a heating battery to maintain the specified temperature.
In order to prevent the development of a number of other diseases, the seeds are soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 25 minutes.
To prepare a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, it is necessary to dissolve 1 g of potassium permanganate in 100 ml of water.
To disinfect cabbage seeds, they are treated in a 1–2% solution of potassium permanganate
So that cabbage seeds germinate better, they are immersed in a solution with nutrients for 12 hours. For these purposes, sodium humate, potassium humate, Ideal, Epin are suitable. At the end of this treatment, the grains are washed in clean water. You can also make your own nutrient solution from wood ash. For this, 2 tbsp. l. ash is poured into 1 liter of water and insisted for a day, after which the planting material is placed in the infusion for 3 hours.
Then the seeds are soaked in water for 12 hours until they swell. To do this, they are laid out on a saucer, filled with water (+ 15–20˚С) and placed in a warm place. The liquid must be changed every 4 hours, and the cabbage grains must be stirred. After swelling, they are laid out on a damp cloth and placed in a refrigerator (+ 1-3–C) for a day. Thus, hardening is carried out, which increases the cold resistance of the seeds and accelerates their germination.
You can accelerate the germination of cabbage seeds using an ash infusion, in which they are soaked for 3 hours
How to plant cabbage with seeds in the ground
For planting cabbage with seeds in the ground, it is important not only to prepare the soil and seed, but also to complete this procedure in a timely manner.
The timing of planting a crop depends on the variety, species and region of cultivation. Early varieties of cabbage are cold-resistant and can withstand temperatures as low as -5˚С. It is not suitable for long-term storage, so after harvesting it is immediately eaten. At the beginning of April, the bed is covered with a film so that after 2 weeks the earth is warmed up for sowing. In this way, cabbage can be sown, for example, at the latitude of the Saratov and Voronezh regions, and the harvest can be harvested in the second half of July.
In the south of Russia (Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region), cabbage seeds can be planted even earlier - in early March, and the harvest can be harvested in the third decade of June. As for sowing crops in open ground in the middle lane, here the dates fall on the beginning of May. In the Urals and Siberia, frosts in spring are more prolonged than in the European part of Russia, therefore, direct sowing of early cabbage is more difficult.
How to sow cabbage
When the plot and seeds are prepared, the time has come, you can start sowing. The whole process boils down to the following steps:
- Small holes are made in the beds.
After preparing the site, the beds are leveled with a rake and shallow holes are made
- Planting holes are shed with such an amount of water that they are soaked to a depth of 20 cm. After watering, the holes are left for 1–1.5 hours to warm up.
- The pits are lightly sprinkled with earth, nests are made and several seeds are planted to a depth of 1–2 cm, ground with soil and lightly tamped.
Place 2 seeds in each hole to a depth of 2 cm, sprinkle them with earth and lightly tamp them
- The plantings are covered with glass jars.
After sowing the seeds, the planting holes are covered with jars or plastic bottles.
Planting several seeds in one hole is due to the fact that after germination, one strongest sprout is left, and the weaker ones are removed.
The distance between the holes directly depends on the variety of cabbage. So, early-ripening varieties are planted at a distance of 40 cm, and mid- and late-ripening ones - 50–65 cm, since they are characterized by larger sizes. In most cases, when growing cabbage, they resort to square-nested and ordinary planting schemes. In the first case, planting is carried out at a distance of 60 * 60 or 70 * 70 cm, in the second - 90 * 50 cm. After the emergence of seedlings and as the plants develop, standard agrotechnical measures are performed: watering, feeding, loosening, removing weeds.
The planting scheme for cabbage depends on the variety planted and ranges from 40 cm to 70 cm between plants
Video: sowing cabbage in the ground
Planting cabbage seeds in a greenhouse
Sowing crops in greenhouse conditions, as well as in open ground, begins with the preparation of the soil and planting material.
Soil and seed preparation
Since cabbage loves moisture very much, this feature must be taken into account when choosing and preparing a soil composition, making it fertile and light. The land should consist of the following components:
- 2 parts of humus;
- 1 part of sod land;
- 1 part sand.
To prevent the development of a black leg, 1-2 tbsp should be added to the soil mixture for 1 m². wood ash. To enrich the soil with microelements, you will need to add potassium sulfate (20 g), ammonium nitrate (15 g), superphosphate (45 g) per 1 m². The soil of this composition will be able to provide plants with the necessary nutrition. With regard to seed preparation, the procedure is similar to those carried out when sowing in open ground.
When preparing the soil in the greenhouse, organic matter and mineral fertilizers are applied
The scheme for planting cabbage in greenhouses depends on the cultivation method. If you adhere to the basic principles of cultivation, i.e. make a dive, then a distance of 2 cm is made between the rows, and the seeds are planted with an interval of 1 cm.If the dive is not planned, then the distance is made somewhat larger:
- between rows of 5 cm;
- between the planting material 3 cm.
For sowing cabbage seeds, shallow furrows are made with a distance of 2 cm from each other
After preparing the furrows, they are spilled with water, the seeds are planted and covered with soil. To avoid confusion, it is recommended to label each variety.
For a faster emergence of shoots, the planting bed must be covered with a film. As soon as sprouts appear, the film is removed so that no obstacle to growth is created.
Planting cabbage in the greenhouse can be thicker if you plan to pick plants
For the normal development of seedlings, it is necessary to provide an optimal temperature regime. During the day, the temperature should be + 15-17˚С, in cloudy weather + 13-15˚С, at night + 7-9˚FROM. At higher values, it is necessary to take measures to bring them to normal. When shoots appear, the temperature is lowered to + 8–10˚С in the daytime, and the readings are corrected somewhat in cloudy weather. Subsequent actions for growing a crop consist of standard agricultural techniques followed by transplanting plants into open ground.
For the normal development of cabbage in the greenhouse, it is necessary to provide an optimal temperature regime.
As for the timing of planting cabbage in greenhouses, they depend on the region and cultivated variety. In addition, it should be borne in mind that seedlings are planted on the site at the age of 1-2 months.
Video: how to plant cabbage in a greenhouse with seeds
Cold sowing cabbage
When growing cabbage at home, plants need to be provided with good lighting and low temperature, otherwise the sprouts will be pale and elongated. Such conditions are easy to create on the street. In this case, the seeds are planted in a seedling box, lightly sprinkled with earth and watered well. After planting, the container is taken out to the balcony, if it is an apartment, or to the garden, when grown in a private house. The place for installing the box is chosen sunny, and a cover made of film is made on top. The emergence of sprouts should be expected in 10 days. The plant is transplanted to the site as soon as 1–2 true leaves appear.
When growing cabbage in a cold way, crops with a seedling box are taken out to the balcony or in the garden under a film
Growing cabbage in a seedless way, it is possible to reduce labor costs, which is especially important with the arrival of spring. In addition, some varieties are preferable to grow by direct sowing in the ground. Knowing how to choose and prepare seeds and soil correctly, as well as sowing according to the timing, getting a good harvest of cabbage will not be difficult.
Rate the article:
(1 vote, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
When to plant cabbage seedlings in the Moscow region in 2021 according to the lunar calendar
Cabbage is one of the most popular vegetables that housewives often use in the kitchen for cooking. Without it, you will not be able to cook cabbage soup or make sauerkraut for the winter. Of course, it's easier to buy a ready-made one in a store. But what a pleasure it gives to grow it with your own hands on your site, which is what many gardeners do. A rich harvest begins with strong and healthy seedlings. Today in our article we will tell you how to sow white vegetable varieties for growing seedlings in 2021 according to the lunar calendar.
What to plant in open ground and a greenhouse with seeds: a list of vegetables, root crops, flowers
The list of crops that can be planted with seeds in May is very wide, because during this period the conditions are most acceptable for seed germination and seedling growth. Let's take a look at the most popular, interesting and healthy crops that can be sown in open ground and in a greenhouse in the country this month.
Note! In order for the seeds to germinate together and quickly, it is recommended to cover the bed with plastic wrap or agrofibre after sowing the seeds (the material will additionally warm the soil and also retain moisture in the soil). When you see shoots, the shelter must be removed immediately.
During this period, you can safely plant the following vegetable crops in the garden:
- Cucumbers... It is possible to plant the seeds of a heat-loving culture only after the earth has warmed up to 15 degrees; in cold regions, it is better to plant at the end of the month. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3 cm at a distance of 20-40 cm (row spacing - 60-80 cm). Cucumbers are very often grown in polycarbonate greenhouses, in which you can sow seeds a couple of weeks earlier.
- Beans (curly and bush). Most often, beans are sown in the second half of the month, to a depth of 5 cm at a distance of 20 cm between seeds.
- Corn... In the second or third decade, corn is planted on a plot in several rows (4 or more) to a depth of 5 cm, the gap between seeds is 0.2-0.3 m, between rows - 0.5-0.6 m.
- Peas... It is planted quite early, when the soil warms up to 5-6 degrees Celsius, so it is better not to postpone the event and sow in early May. Planting in furrows: their depth is 3-5 cm, the gap between them is 50-60 cm, and between the seeds is 5 cm.
- White cabbage... Sowing of early and medium varieties of cabbage is carried out immediately into the open ground, as a rule, this is done in the first half. Make rows in the garden 1.5-2 cm deep at a distance of 50 cm, and between the seeds - 20-25 cm.
Roots (of course, we will not bypass our favorite root crops):
- Carrot... You can sow it at the beginning of the month, the depth of planting seeds is 2-3 cm at a distance of 3 cm, but the size of the row spacing is 15-20 cm.
- Beet... Planting can be carried out in the first half of the month, it is advisable to soak the seeds in water in advance or germinate, and then deepen them to a depth of 3-4 cm at a distance of 4 cm.
- Radish.This root crop is very cold-resistant, so it is better to plant radish seeds in April, the deadline is in early May. Standard sowing pattern: in rows 3 cm deep at a distance of 15-20 cm, the distance between seeds is 5 cm.
- Radish... It is optimal to plant seeds in the first decade, sow it in furrows (2 cm deep, with a distance of 0.3-0.4 m), you can sow densely, only then do not forget to thin out the seedlings.
- Turnip... Turnip seeds are planted in May for use in the summer; root crops are not used for storage at such an early sowing. Plant the seeds to a depth of 1-2 cm, and then thin out.
Greens are ubiquitous and loved by almost everyone, thanks to their benefits and ease of growing, they grow in almost every area:
- Dill... As a rule, sowing is done in April, but nothing bad will happen if you plant in early May. It is recommended to sow treated seeds (after soaking or bubbling) to a depth of 1-1.5 cm at a distance of 1-2 cm.
- Parsley. Similar to sowing dill.
- Spinach... It is also better to plant in the first decade, planting to a depth of 2 cm with a gap between seeds - 7-10 cm.
- Leaf salad... The salad is a very cold-resistant plant, so you can safely plant a salad in the first decade. Sowing is carried out in furrows 1 cm deep with a distance between seeds of 15-20 cm.
- Cabbage salad. The sowing scheme and timing are the same as for the leaf variety.
Melons and gourds
Melon crops are very thermophilic, therefore they should be sown in open ground in cold regions only at the end of May, in the greenhouse it is possible 1.5-2 weeks earlier. They are sown in holes 3-4 cm deep, the distance between holes is about 0.7-1 meter.
As far as flower crops are concerned, practically all annual flowers can be sown in the garden in May. In warm regions, it is better to do this at the beginning of the month, in colder ones in the middle or at the end. For example, you can plant marigolds, cosmea, ageratum, nasturtium, calendula, decorative flax, escholzia, kobei, gatsania, zinnia and many, many other annuals in open ground!
You can also sow seeds at the beginning of the month. sunflower (regular and decorative).
2. Buying quality seeds
Last but not least, the quality of the seedlings will depend on the seeds, and therefore the yield of cabbage. Therefore, get good seed.
We buy only high quality seeds
How to buy seeds correctly, so as not to acquire expired, lost germination due to improper storage, or even counterfeit seed, is described in detail in the publications:
- 10 most popular seed producers
- How to buy seeds online
- 10 rules for buying seeds
- 10 common mistakes when choosing seeds
- 7 essential rules for choosing seeds
- Top 5 Questions and Answers About Seeds