Treatment of fruit trees after biting
How to save a damaged apple, apricot, pear
If a tree in your garden has been gnawed by hares, mice, goats, as well as water voles, incorrectly called water rats, then a lot depends on who exactly gnawed, where, and most importantly, how quickly you missed it.
If right away, or at least before the spring heat, it means that everything is not lost, the cambium is alive, and much is fixable. Therefore, the sooner you find a gnaw, the less the loss.
For those who don't know, cambium is the thinnest juicy layer between bark and wood. But it is he who is the most important in the tree. It is to them that it grows in thickness, laying off annual rings, and also building up the bark.
Therefore, if a cambium is damaged in some part of the trunk (it is especially dangerous if it is damaged by a ring or almost around the circumference), then the tree dies, unless, of course, proper measures are taken. This is the kind of damage that some animals do. Moreover, different breeds of fruit crops suffer from gnawing to varying degrees.
The apricot is damaged the most, but it is still a fairly new and rare crop in the middle lane, so it is not so noticeable. However, those gardeners who grow apricots need to take special care of their safety.
In most gardens, apple trees are most often affected by gnawing - both the most common and the most preferred by the beast to taste. Then comes the irga, but it is very tenacious, in addition, it gives a lot of new offspring, so the damage on it is not so noticeable. Plums, cherries and other less common fruit trees are the next most frequently damaged. And, finally, this list ends with a pear, which animals for some reason do not like very much (luckily for us).
The damage caused by different animals is also very different in nature.
For instance, mice usually gnaw the outer layer of the bark with a narrow ringwithout even getting to the cambium. Therefore, these damages are the easiest. But if they are not treated, then they can lead to the death of the tree. Usually, in case of gnawing of the bark by mice, it is enough to tightly wrap the damaged area with plastic wrap.
This should be done as soon as possible after discovering damage to the tree. The time factor for such and those described below plays a very important role. After tying, if the remaining thin layer of bark, and with it the cambium, is not dry, then everything will be fine. If the bites were discovered late, and the bark with the cambium died, then to save the tree, it may be necessary to erect bridges or to inlay the bark from another tree. However, if the dying off of the cortex and cambium, although annular, is rather narrow, no more than a centimeter, then under the film the influx of callus formed from above and below will close, and the wound will heal. In any case, since the mouse bites are shallow and go in a rather narrow ring, this is still half the trouble.
Worse, if the bark is gnawed by hares or goats... Both of them usually gnaw or rip it off from a large area. Moreover, they do it before the cambium, with a "net", i.e. leaving only small pieces of uneaten bark in places of bites on the trunk. However, goats sometimes strip off the bark in a narrow, albeit long strip. If such a wound is not wider than half the diameter of the fruit tree, then the position can be corrected quite easily, even if the cambium is already dry.
Such a wound is covered up. It is best to do this with cow dung in half with clay or garden pitch, and tie it with plastic wrap on top in case the cambium survived. And then cover it with roofing material for warmth and eliminate the negative effects of light.
If the cambium is preserved on such a wound, then a thin young bark will gradually form under the harness, and then everything will be in order. In summer, only the wound will need to be looked at, if necessary - cleaned of dead tissue, again cover and wrap.
If the cambium is dead, then the healing will take much longer. The edges of the wound will gradually come closer for several years until they close. It is only necessary to periodically look after it - to apply scratches along the edge of the growing roller of living tissues - this stimulates their growth - and to cover up the wound with pitch. In the end, only a scar will remain.
If more than half of the trunk diameter is damaged, or even the entire bark is circular, things are worse, but even here all is not lost. If you find bites in time, cover them or wrap them, it is best of all with stretch film - it stretches well, adheres tightly to the surface, even uneven, creates a completely air and moisture resistant coating. But you can also use thin polyethylene. And from above everything is covered with roofing material. If everything is done on time, then perhaps you have saved the cambium, in this case the crust will grow. But if he died, be prepared to put up long bridges at the end of spring. If the bark is partially damaged, then there may even be one bridge across a not too wide wound. However, if the damage is annular, then there should be at least two, or even much more. To do this, when gnawing is detected in winter or early spring, long shoots are cut off, 15 centimeters longer than the wound.
It is best if they are of this variety or any other, but only necessarily highly winter-hardy; they are wrapped in wet plastic wrap and buried in a large snowdrift on the north side of the house or shed, then covered with sawdust on top of the snowdrift. In mid-May, when the trees begin to wake up, you need to make sure that the cambium is dead. To do this, unwind the harness and see if there is a juicy whitish layer on the wound - cambium. If there is, then it is closed again. If not, they are vaccinated, put bridges.
Remember: if more than half of the trunk diameter is damaged, they still need to be installed, although, of course, the preserved "strap" of the living bark will make a lot easier for you.
For example, if for some reason you cannot put bridges this year, then the operation can be postponed until next. But if the damage is annular, and measures are not taken in a timely manner, then the tree will dry out. There were cases when I was invited to help in such situations, and I only had to shrug my shoulders. Late. In this case, there is only one thing left - to cut down the dried trunk, cover the cut with a varnish and try to grow a new tree from the awakened sleeping buds.
The worst situation if your tree is gnawed by a water vole... The particular danger of damage caused by it is that they are not visible. This rodent does his dirty work underground, gnawing at the roots of a tree, and the gardener often does not notice anything until it suddenly falls or dries up. And it is too late to improve the situation.
If the trouble is discovered in time, then something can be done here. To correct the situation to the tree from two sides, and if it is large, then from four, saplings are planted and grafted, the tree itself, so that it does not fall, is tied to stakes. And the crown, in order to balance the aboveground and underground parts of the tree, is heavily cut.
All of the above techniques - better or worse - help to correct an already existing situation. But it is better that in the spring you do not have to heal the trees, do not bring them to this, and in the fall, properly protect your garden from rodents and goats.
However, the latter are dangerous at any time of the year, so watch them carefully, do not leave gaps and loopholes in the fence, as well as open gates.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Preventive measures for pest control
The system of preventive measures provides for:
- removal and burning of winter hawthorn nests with a pole with a cleft at the end, golden-tails - with a stiff brush or scraper, ringed silkworm - with pruning shears until the buds swell. Collection and destruction of mummified fruits affected by fruit rot. Cleaning of bark on trunks and branches with the removal of wintering moth caterpillars, adults of pear saplings, weevils, tick eggs, etc. Cleaning branches from egg-laying. Incineration of collected cleanings.
- whitewashing boles and twigs with freshly slaked lime (2-3 kg per 10 liters of water) with the addition of 0.5 kg of copper sulfate. Lime is slaked in separate emulated buckets and vitriol is dissolved using hot water. Then the solutions are poured together. If there is no lime, use ground chalk, adding skim milk (2 liters per 10 liters of solution), wood glue (50-100 g per 10 liters) or clay, mullein for stickiness. The same additives are added to lime.
- digging up the soil, which leads to the death of individuals of pear saplings, weevils and other pests wintering in the soil. Leaves with pathogenic fungi in the wintering stages are also embedded in the soil.
- cleaning of hollows and cancerous wounds, processing them with copper sulfate (50 g per 1 liter of water). Sealing hollows with cement mortar, cancerous wounds with nigrol putty (6 parts of nigrol, 2 parts of molten rosin and 2 parts of paraffin) with a gauze bandage 5) spraying (washing) before swelling of the kidneys with nitrafen (300 g per 10 l of water). It is called eradicating, since it destroys the eggs of aphids, honeydews, ticks, silkworms, scab pathogens, leaf spot. Nitrafen is also sprayed on the soil under trees and grass.
- in the absence of early spring treatment with nitrafen, a "blue" spraying of 3-4% Bordeaux liquid is carried out during budding against the causative agents of scab vi other fungal diseases. To prepare 10 liters of Bordeaux liquid, take 300-400 g of copper sulfate and the same amount of quicklime
- if early spring spraying with nitrafen or KZM and No. 30 in the phase of pink buds is not performed, trees are treated with karbofos (30 g per 10 l). It can also be done following bud break.
- if no chemical treatments were carried out early in the spring, then copper oxychloride is added to the malophos solution against fungal diseases when spraying before flowering. The concentration of copper oxychloride is 30 g per 10 l of water with a content of 90% of the active substance in the preparation and up to 70 g per 10 l if a 50% preparation is used.
- with a relatively small number of pests and pathogens, these treatments are quite enough to protect trees at the beginning of the growing season, if spraying is done carefully. Unfortunately, windy weather makes it difficult to even cover all branches, leaves and buds with pesticides.
- sowing dill, anise, caraway seeds, coriander in the garden to attract predators and parasites of harmful insects.
- subsequent preventive treatments are carried out with a combined composition against the codling moth, scab and fruit rot. Use fosalon (20 g / 10 l) or karbofos (30 g / 10 l), in combination with copper oxychloride (30-80 g / 10 l - depending on the concentration of the drug). The first spraying is carried out approximately in the middle of the second or the beginning of the third decade of June, when a petiole fossa begins to form at Antonovka. The interval until the next spraying depends on the persistence of the pesticide.
- the imposition of trapping belts made of burlap, straw, corrugated paper impregnated with karbofos, fosalon or trichlorometaphos-3 (100 g / 10 l) on the stems. When using trapping belts, they are viewed after harvesting. After harvesting, paper belts are burned, and from burlap they are boiled, dried and stored until next year.
- daily evening collection of carrion moths (you cannot leave it until morning, since at night the moth caterpillars crawl out of the fallen fruits). If it is not possible to use it, the carrion should be buried to a depth of at least 50 cm. Collection and destruction of fruits affected by rot. In orchards where pesticides were used against the codling moth, economically valuable volunteers can be processed into juices, jam and jams after 15-20 days and only after thorough washing and subsequent peeling.
- autumn cleaning of the garden from fallen and dried fruits and diseased leaves.
Diseases of trees and treatments
This disease affects the fruits of garden trees. Its causative agent is a mushroom. It develops both on pome crops - apples, pears, etc., and on stone fruits - plums, cherries, apricots, sweet cherries, peaches, etc.
Initially, a small brown spot appears, which grows. Over time, covers the fetus completely. The pulp becomes brown and soft. Its consumer properties are lost. After a week or two, yellowish specks form on the surface, these are fungal spores.
Damaged fruits are susceptible to infection. A healthy skin does not allow spores to pass through. An exception would be close contact with an infected fruit.
The ideal conditions for the development of the disease are warm and humid weather, dense tree crowns.
Treatment and prevention:
- Sanitary pruning in spring and fall. The crown must be ventilated
- Destruction of infected fruits, both hanging on the tree and lying on the ground
- Irrigation with fungicides. They restrain the development of rot
- Protection against mechanical damage
- You can only store whole and healthy fruits.
The disease is manifested by peeling of the skin, sores, spots, pustules. Lesions can be on leaves, fruits, roots, shoots. It is caused by a number of microscopic fungi and bacteria.
The optimal conditions for breeding are high humidity up to 70% and moderate air temperatures from 15 to 20 degrees. Scab is difficult to diagnose. Obviously, it manifests itself at a late stage, so it is necessary to carry out preventive measures. This disease does not kill the plant itself, but makes it susceptible to other more dangerous infections.
Scab is dangerous for 160 cultivated plants. These include both fruit trees and tuberous vegetables. It can spread to the entire infield.
Treatment and prevention:
- Sanitary pruning of the crown 2 times a year
- Fall foliage must be burned
- Damaged fruits must be plucked from the tree and burned
- Spray the tree with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride. It needs to be carried out 3 times a year: during the formation of buds, after the end of flowering and after harvest
- If a disease is diagnosed during the ripening of the fruit, the tree can be treated with a saline solution. To do this, 1 kilogram of salt is dissolved in 10 liters of water.
- The tree trunk circle needs to be dug up in autumn and spring
Treating the bark of apple and other fruit trees
In fruit trees, the outer layers of the bark on the trunk and skeletal branches gradually die off, peel off and crack, become covered with mosses and lichens, which creates conditions for the reproduction of various garden pests. In addition, the dead layers of the bark prevent the thickening of the trunk and branches. Therefore, the trunks and main branches of fruit trees must be cleaned annually, preferably in autumn in damp weather, when the bark is easier to clean. In younger trees, the bark is cleaned with straw bundles or wooden scrapers. In older trees, metal scrapers and wire brushes are used to clean the hardened bark. Under the trees matting, thick paper or cloth are laid to collect garbage from cleaning, which is immediately burned.Fruit tree bark disease
During work, you must carefully monitor so as not to damage the living bark. After cleaning, the stems and skeletal branches are whitewashed with a thick solution of freshly slaked lime. Whitewashed trees heat up less and therefore suffer less from winter-spring sunburn. If the coating has washed off, it is useful to renew it in late February - early March.
For whitewashing, use only freshly slaked lime, which is diluted with water before use until the thickness of liquid sour cream (2-3 kg of lime per 1 bucket of djda).If the lime is of poor quality, for the strength of the whitewash add 50 g of flour paste or a liter of skimmed milk, skim milk, for each bucket of solution, in extreme cases - a small amount of oily clay (one shovel per bucket).
The main causes of tree cracks: how and why cracks appear, solutions and prevention
According to the calendar, spring is already dominating with might and main, but in fact winter does not recede, surprising with frost and flying snow. When examining the overwintered garden in early spring, the conscientious owner of the personal plot will first of all pay attention to the condition of fruit trees and shrubs. It is no secret that overwintering woody plants, pretreated, trimmed and prepared for wintering, are subject to natural changes that do not depend on the presence of autumn sanitation. On examination, one can find breaks and cracks in the bark and branches, gnawed trunks of young plantations, sunburns of bare tree bark.
How to properly clean a wound in a tree?
It is very important to preserve on the surface of the wound the living remnants of the tissues of the cambium, bark and the surface layer of wood during the spring finishing of the wound, since if these tissues are kept alive (in the form of different sizes of foci, bridges, areas), more rapid further regeneration of connective tissue (callus) is possible ... For example, in the treatment of wounds with circular lesions of the bark on not very thick stems and branches of the crown.
When treating any wounds, great attention must be paid to their cleanliness. Wounds are open windows through which putrefactive microflora from mice excrement, putrefactive microflora contained in snow (snow mold, etc.), putrefactive and infectious microflora, spreading with air currents and water jets, with unwashed hands and dirty tools can enter the plant , through visits by insects. Therefore, for example, before isolating a wound when a tree is damaged by mice, it must be rinsed with water from a watering can or from a bucket.
Usually, when cleaning wounds caused by mechanical, thermal, electrical and other influences and free from putrefactive and dangerous infectious diseases, disinfection of the wound, instrument and hands is not required. However, in this case, disinfection of the instrument and hands is desirable. And in the case of cleaning hollows from decayed parts of wood and removing branches or sections of these branches and trunk affected by infectious diseases, such disinfection of wounds, tools and hands is necessary.
So, after cleaning the hollows from rotten wood, they are disinfected with a 5% solution of copper or 10% iron sulfate, the tool and hands are washed with soap or wiped with cologne or vodka.
When treating wounds of trees affected by black and ordinary (nectria) cancer and cytosporosis, the cleaned wound is treated several times with a solution of copper sulfate or 5% solution of ferrous sulfate, and the tools used to clean out such wounds are disinfected with 2% formalin solution or alcohol, hands washed with soap and disinfected with vodka or alcohol.
It should be said that any such disinfection causes partial or complete death of a certain number of living cells and significantly impairs and lengthens the wound healing process. But it is imperative to disinfect the wound in case of its possible infection with the named infectious diseases.
Let us consider in more detail the process of treating various wounds, without dwelling especially on the already discussed issues of cleaning the wound and the need for its disinfection.