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Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella)

Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella)


There potato moth, Phthorimaea operculella, It is one of pests of potatoes more problematic. It is an insect belonging to the order of Lepidoptera, and damages these tubers both in the field and in the warehouse.
It is present throughout Italy, but it is above all in the potato fields of the southern regions that it causes the greatest damage.
Fortunately, with adequate preventive agronomic techniques and targeted biological defense interventions, this insect can be kept under control, so as to avoid infestations.
In this article we proceed to the recognition of the moth and understand its biological cycle. We also see the damage it causes to crops and defense techniques.

Description of the potato moth


The potato moth is a phytophagous insect native to the American continent, as well as another known parasite of this tuber, namely the Colorado beetle.
It appears in the adult stage as a small butterfly, a typical moth very similar to the absoluta tomato suit.
Here are the main features to recognize the potato moth:

  • wingspan from 10 to 17 mm;
  • front wings gray, streaked with black;
  • on the rear edge it has a linear series of three black spots, alternating with two lighter ones;
  • long dark antennae;
  • hind wings of gray-fringed color.

Eggs

Small egg (0.5 x 0.3 mm), oval shape, initially whitish color, then turns yellow.

Larvae

The potato moth larvae are 10 to 12 mm long. The body is whitish with pink hues. It also has a darker vascular line.
The head is brownish.

Chrysalis

The chrysalis is 6 to 8 mm long, reddish-brown in color. It has the caudal end equipped with a small hooked spine, surrounded by 12 ventral and 10 dorsal bristles.

What plants does Phthorimaea operculella affect

Phthorimaea operculella is a moth species that mainly attacks potato crops.
To a lesser extent, however, it also causes damage to other crops Solanaceae Which: tomato, aubergine, sweet pepper, tobacco.
Its presence is also found on spontaneous plants of the family, such as Solanum nigrum is Datura stramonium, it's about poisonous plants we have already told you about.
They are eventually partially affected, too plants belonging to other families, how Scrophulariaceae, Boraginaceae, Rosaceae, Typhaceae, Compositae, Amaranthaceae is Chenopodiaceae.

Damage of the potato moth to crops


The damage of the potato moth is due totrophic activity of the larvae, or their nutrition.

On the field

On potatoes in the open field they dig tunnels, whose entrance is usually in correspondence of the shoots (or eyes).
For ease of entry, they prefer tubers partially uncovered on the ground.
On the leaves of the plant, they sneak under the lamina, digging filiform mines. These then extend until the leaf dries up.
The attack of the moth larvae can also affect the stem, always with the formation of tunnels.

After the harvest

Often the presence of moth larvae is not noticed when the tuber is harvested. The damage, therefore, continues even once the potatoes are stored in stock.
The tunnels practically invade the entire tuber, which at that point is no longer edible and undergoes rot.
Furthermore, the presence of the larvae becomes the gateway for bacterial rot, such as theErwinia carotovora.

Damage of potato moth on other plants

On other crops very common in domestic gardens, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper, the damage of this moth is mainly concentrated on the stem.
The tunnels dug cause a general deterioration of the plants.
More rarely they attack the fruit, causing rot and early fall.

Potato moth biological cycle


The potato moth completes a variable number of generations in a year. This variability is essentially due to climatic reasons. In areas with a milder climate, the successive generations will be more numerous.
Generally there are 6 generations, with peaks of 8 in the southern regions.
It can overwinter in different ways, such as:

  • larva, in tubers stored in the warehouse;
  • chrysalis, in storage containers (wooden boxes, jute bags, etc.);
  • larva, in infested potatoes left in the field.

The first flight of adult moths occurs in early spring, when temperatures begin to exceed 13 ° C.
The butterflies are very active at night, while during the day they return to their shelters.
On average an adult potato moth lives about 15 days.

Reproduction

Coupling occurs when temperatures rise and exceed 16 ° C.
A female is able to lay up to 80 eggs, which are left in the armpit of plant leaves, or perhaps near the tubers that sprout from the ground.
The time of the embryonic development of the eggs is variable, a few days in summer, from 15 days to a month in autumn-winter.

Larvae cycle

The moth larvae complete their cycle by going through 4 stages of mutation. The total time varies according to the season (2 weeks in summer, 3 months in winter).
At full maturity, the larvae emerge from the tubers or other vegetative organs of the plants, and crysalize forming a sketch, on the skin of the tubers themselves or in the ravines of the warehouse. Basically, this insect causes damage at different times of the year, both in the field and in the warehouse.

Potato moth prevention

Agronomic prevention is essential to avoid large infestations and damage from potato moths.
Beyond the location of plants, the main techniques consist of:

  • use healthy tubers for planting, without the presence of old generation larvae;
  • choose early ripening potato varieties, which develop tubers deep in the soil;
  • carry out the tamping, in order to keep the tubers as covered as possible and less exposed to attack;
  • remove all potatoes from the soil during harvesting, especially if already affected by the larvae;
  • keep the potatoes in clean and sanitized storage rooms.

Eliminate the potato moth

Pheromone traps

For the species Phthorimaea operculella, the pheromone sexual aggregation traps.
These have the dual function: they monitor the presence of adult moth specimens and at the same time carry out mass capture.
A trap model that has shown good results in the field is the “Pagoda-shaped Traptest”, activated with the specific pheromone.
This type of trap must be placed, starting from March, at a density of 2 per hectare in the field. The pheromone lasts about 4 weeks, then it must be replaced.
It is also possible to use the pheromone trap inside the storage rooms.

Bacillus thuringiensis

For the control of potato moth larvae, excellent results have been recorded with the use of bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki.
It is a bio insecticide, allowed in organic farming, with specific action on moth larvae and other moths.
It is a product that does not require the possession of license for the use of plant protection products. You can, therefore, buy safely online too.

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Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella) - garden

Description, Biology, Life Cycle, Damage, Common Names, Images [R] Description
- Adult: 10 to 12 mm wingspan. Gray abdomen, antennae almost as long as the body. Very narrow wings, the anterior pair yellowish gray sprinkled with little black spots the gray hind wings bear long bristles.
- Egg: oval, smooth, milky white with a pearly sheen.
- Larva: 10 to 12 mm, rosy white, brown black head and prothorax, a few black points with a small number of bristles on each segment.
- Cocoon: Very narrow, 12 mm long, whitish.

[R] Biology
- The caterpillar develops generally in potato tubers (*), but also occurs in the fruit, stem and even in the leaves of Solanaceae, particularly egg-plant, tomato, tobacco.
- Adult: ifespan about 1 week. It feeds on nectar or dew it flies little, having a jerky zig-zagging flight. Mating begins 24 hours after it has emerged. The average fecundity is about a hundred eggs.
- Eggs: Laid singly or in small clusters in the cracks and indentations of the eyes of stored potatoes, of leaves or of fruits. Embryonic development lasts 3 to 6 days.
- The caterpillar moves about rapidly and penetrates the tuber at the level of a crack it makes a small silken sheath and moults. It then forms a gallery which it coats with silk threads and ejects its frass to the outside. When the caterpillar emerges on leaves, it forms a gallery and then penetrates the petioles, the stems or other leaves. After 15 to 20 days, its growth finished, it leaves the plant and pupates in various situations: on potato bags, walls, etc.
- Length of pupal stage: 10 to 30 days depending on climatic conditions.

[R] Life Cycle
- About 6 generations per year in Mediterranean regions.
- Hibernation occurs in the egg, caterpillar or adult state, often in potato seed storehouses. Generally, the moths appear from April to October, the generations overlapping each other. All instars may occur together. Larval development is interrupted by temperatures below 10 ° C.

[R] Damage
- In the event of a heavy infestation, 5 to 6 larvae may occur in one potato tuber however, one caterpillar is enough to spoil and destroy. Also fungi and mites develop inside the galleries, causing the decomposition of the tuber and the release of an unpleasant smell.
- Damage can also be important on the tomato, the moth boring into the stems, leaves and the green fruit (*).

[R] Common Names
DE: Kartoffelmotte ES: Polilla de la patata FR: Teigne de la pomme de terre IT: Potato moth. PT: Traзa da batata GB: Potato tuberworm, Potato split-worm, Potato moth

[R] Images

  1. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Larvae and damage on tubercle of potato
  2. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (BASF)
    Damage on tomato
  3. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Attacked potato cut in half (Photo F. Picard in Balachowsky & Mesnil)
  4. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Moth (Drawing INRA in Bonnemaison)

To read this page in French

HYPPZ on line: Species (scientific name), Pests (common names), Glossary, Crops.


Potato worm control

Potato worm control can be achieved by the following means: crop control, organoleptic control, or insecticide treatments.

Cultural control

Growing practices for potato worm control can include the prevention of soil cracking through regular irrigation, deep planting of tubers (at least 2cm deep), early harvesting, and garden hygiene through the removal of wild plants, crop rotation, clean storage practices, sowing uninfected seed chunks and destroying waste piles.
Each of these practices can reduce the exposure of potatoes to female moths, thus reducing the damage caused by potato worms and helping to prevent their presence in potato crops.

Biological control

Control of potato tuberiform worms by a biological eradication method is achieved by using predatory insects such as braconid wasps, which kill the larvae by parasitism.
It is also possible to introduce beneficial nematodes as an environmentally friendly method of potato worm control. These nematodes seek out and kill potato tuber larvae that live in the soil without harming beneficial insects such as ladybugs or potato worms. They can be found for sale online.

Insecticide control

When all else fails in potato worm control, there are pesticides that can be applied (with mixed results) to aid eradication. If you try to be strictly organic, I have read the wording in Spinosad's Trust, which can have good results.
In addition, the use of pheromone traps can detect the activity of the coding moth and determine the right time to control insecticides. A simple jar of soapy water with a lid can be placed to hang a pheromone bait between potato crops in the garden, or a sticky trap can be used to catch moths.
The insecticide must be used before killing the vine, otherwise it will be ineffective. Potato tuberiform insecticides should be used at night, during the moth's peak activity, and can be found at local garden centers.
You should try to use cultural methods to prevent potato tuber worms in potato crops, such as irrigation to prevent cracking of the soil, sowing uninfected seed chunks, and deep decanting of the tubers before attempting to use a insecticide to control potato tuber worms.


Author information

Affiliations

Innovation Department, Biotechnology and Agriculture Division, CR Casaccia, ENEA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060, Rome, Italy

S. Arnone, S. Musmeci, L. Bacchetta, N. Cordischi, M. Cristofaro & A. Sonnino

Plant Protection Department, University of Tuscia, 01100, Viterbo, Italy

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Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella) - garden

Description, Biologie, Cycle de vie, Dégâts, Noms communs, Images [R] Description
- Adult: 10 to 12 mm of envergure. Abdomen gris, antennes presque aussi longues que le corps. Ailes trиs йtroites, les antйrieures gris jaunвtre parsemйes de petites taches noires les ailes postйrieures grises portent de longues soies (*).
- Oeuf: oval, straight, blanc laiteux а reflets nacrйs.
- Larvae: 10 а 12 mm, blanc rosй, tкte et prothorax brun noir, quelques points noirs avec un petit nombre de soies sur chaque segment.
- Cocon: trиs йtroit, long de 12 mm, blanchвtre.

[R] Biologies
- La chenille de cette Teigne se developpe le plus souvent dans les tubercules de Pomme de terre (*), mais on la trouve йgalement dans les fruits, les tiges et mкme dans les feuilles de Solanйes, en particulier l'Aubergine, la Tomate le Tabac.
- Adults: sa longйvitй est d'une semaine environ. The se nourrit de nectar ou de rosйe il vole peu, d'un vol saccadй, en zig-zag. L'accouplement dйbute 24 h aprиs sa sortie. Fйconditй moyenne, une centaine d'oeufs.
- Oeufs: pondus isolйment ou en petits paquets dans les fissures ou les anfractuositйs des germes de Pomme de terre emmagasinйs, des feuilles ou des fruits. Durйe du dйveloppement embryonnaire, 3 а 6 jours.
- La chenille se dйplaceassez rapidement et pйnиtre dans le tubercule au niveau d'une fissure elle confectionne un petit fourreau soyeux et mue. Elle creuse ensuite une galerie sinueuse qu'elle tapisse de fils de soie et refoule ses excrйments vers l'Extйrieur. Lorsqu'elle naоt sur des feuilles, elle y creuse une galerie puis pйnиtre dans les pйtioles, les tiges ou d'autres feuilles. Au bout de 15 а 20 jours, sa croissance achevйe, elle quitte la plante et se nymphose sur des supports divers: sacs de pomme de terre, murs.
- Durйe de nymphose: 10 а 30 jours selon les conditions climatiques.

[R] Cycle de vie
- Environ 6 gйnйrations par an en zone Mediterranean.
- L'hivernation se fait а l'йtat d'oeuf, de chenille ou d'adulte, souvent dans les entrepfts de stockage de semences de Pomme de terre. Gйnйralement, les papillons apparaissent d'avril а octobre mais, les gйnйrations йtant chevauchantes, on rencontre simultanйment tous les stades de insecte. Le développement larvaire est interrupted by a low temperature of 10 ° C.

[R] Dégâts
- En cas de forte pullulation, on peut trouver 5 а 6 larves dans un tubercule de Pomme de terre cependant, the suffit d'une seule chenille pour le souiller et le perdre. Par ailleurs, des champignons ou des Acariens if dйveloppent dans les galeries, provoquant la dйcomposition du tubercule et le dйgagement d'une odeur dйsagrйable.
- Les dйgвts peuvent йgalement кtre importants sur Tomate, la Teigne de la pomme de terre minant les tiges, les feuilles et les fruits verts (*).

[R] Noms communs
DE: Kartoffelmotte ES: Polilla de la patata FR: Teigne de la pomme de terre IT: Potato moth. PT: Traзa da batata GB: Potato tuberworm, Potato split-worm, Potato moth

[R] Images

  1. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Coutin R. / OPIE)
    Larves et dйgвts sur tubercule de Pomme de terre
  2. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (BASF)
    Dйgвts sur Tomate
  3. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Coupe dans une Pomme de terre rongйe par la Teigne (Photo F. Picard in Balachowsky & Mesnil)
  4. Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Papillon (Dessin INRA in Bonnemaison)

Voir cette fiche en anglais

Consulter HYPPZ en ligne: Espèces (nom scientifique), Ravageurs (noms communs), Glossaire, Cultures.


Potato moth, feared for a parasitic attack in the Fucino. A meeting tomorrow

Luco dei Marsi. Farmers ready to fight the “PhthorimaeaOperculella” to defend the Fucino potato. The ruthless competition of France and Morocco was not enough, now the Marsican tuber also has to deal with a parasitic attack that puts a strain on the crops. The moth is a phytophagous of American origin, small butterflies of different colors. The larvae attack the leaves of the plant and dig small tunnels. The tubers, where there is the greatest damage, can be attacked both in the field and in the warehouse, during storage. The damage to the tubers consists of tunnels dug in the amyliferous parenchyma and covered by characteristic whitish silky formations, very evident in section. These tubers are then subject to subsequent degenerative phenomena and / or rot, due to the aggression by wound pathogens. After the Chinese fly that is putting the production of chestnuts to the test, the Marsicans will have to deal with the moth. But how should we intervene? The sector experts will explain it tomorrow in a meeting “New acquisitions in the fight against the potato moth (Phthorimaea Operculella)”. The appointment is for 6 pm at the "Angizia" restaurant in Luco dei Marsi. Speakers: Domenico D'Ascenzo of the regional phytosanitary service, who will talk about the results of the 2013 experimentation in Fucino of the new national plan on the sustainable use of pesticides, Stefano Fabrizi director of Confagricoltura L'Aquila, who will opt for an intervention on the RDP and Paolo Dottorini of the DuPont Crop Protection, organizer of the event that will present the new insecticide for the control of potato moth


TRACER 120 Organic Spinosad Insecticide 1L

TRACER ™ 120 Basf it is an insecticide Biological based on Spinosad active ingredient of origin natural obtained from the fermentation of the alga Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

  • Tracer protects beneficial insects and has a short shortage period.
  • This biological insecticide acts by contact and ingestion.

The Agronomist's advice

It is recommended to treat with Spinosad in the evening, to improve its effectiveness against insects.

Read the full description of TRACER 120 Spinosad Organic Insecticide 1L. You did not find what you were looking for? Ask a question about TRACER 120 Spinosad Organic Insecticide 1L from the relevant section

Culture

Parasites

Dose (ml / hl)

Parasites n n n

Doses (ml / hl) n n Garlic ***, Onion ***, Shallot *** nAcrolepiopsis assectella, Agrotis spp., Dispessa ulula, Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci n80-100 n Apricot *, Black Cherry *, Cherry *, Nectarine *, Peach *, Plum * nEastern peach moth (Cydia molesta), Anarsia (Anarsia lineatella), Plum cidia (Cydia funebrana), Migrant and non-migrating peach thrips (Thrips meridionalis, Thrips major), Western thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), Capnode (Capnodis tenebrionis) n80-120 n Chard leaves and ribs ***, Spinach *** (including Baby leaf) nHeliothis armigera, Spodoptera littoralis n80-100 n Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci n100 n Artichoke *, Fennel *, Leek *, Celery * nAgrotis spp., Crioceris asparagus, Depressaria erinaceella, Frankliniella occidentalis, Gortyna xanthenes, Napomyza gymnostoma, Spodoptera spp. Thrips angusticeps, Thrips tabaci n80-100 n Chestnut *, Almond *, Hazel *, Walnut * nCarpocapsa (Cydia pomonella) n80-120 n Head and inflorescence cabbages *** Cauliflower, Broccoli cabbage, Red and white cabbage, Brussels cabbage, Savoy cabbage nAgrotis spp., Frankliniella occidentalis, Mamestra spp. Plutella xylostella, Pieris spp. Spodoptera spp., Thrips tabaci n80-100 n Cetrolo ***, Watermelon ***, Melon ***, Pumpkin ***, Zucchini *** nFrankliniella occidentalis n80 n Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera littoralis n80-100 n Liriomyza trifolii n200-300 n Ostrinia / Pyrausta nubilalis n60-80 n Green bean *, Bean *, Jackdaw * (mangiatutto pea) nCorn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis), Cabbage noctua (Mamestra brassicae) n100-140 n Floral *** Chrysanthemum, Carnation, Gerbera, Rose nCacoecia pronubana, Spodoptera spp. n80-100 n Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci n60-100 n Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza trifolii n200-300 n Strawberry *** nFrankliniella occidentalis, Spodoptera littoralis n80-100 n Raspberry ***, Blueberry ***, Blackberry ***, Currant ***, Gooseberry *** nCecidomy of the raspberry bark (Resselliella theobaldi), Cecidomia of the raspberry and blackberry (Lasioptera rubi), Sesia of the currant (Sinanthedon tulipiformis), Tentredine (Peteronidea ribesii), Tentredine fasciata (Emphytus cinctus), Tentredine fasciata (Notocelia udmanniana) n40-80 n European borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) n60-80 n Lettuce ***, Fresh herbs *** (including Baby leaf) Sorrel, Basil, Chervil, Watercress, Tarragon,Chives, Hyssop, Marjoram, Melissa, Mint, Nasturtium, Oregano, Nettle, Burnet, Parsley, Rosemary, Rue, Sage, Savory, Thyme, Valerianella Endive or Escarole **, Rocket ** nFrankliniella occidentalis n100 n Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera littoralis n80-100 n Liriomyza trifoli n200-300 n Corn * nEuropean borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) n140-200 n Sweet corn * nEuropean borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) n140-200 n Eggplant ***, Pepper ***, Tomato *** nFrankliniella occidentalis n80 n Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera littoralis, Tuta absoluta n80-100 n Liriomyza trifolii n200-300 n Ostrinia / Pyrausta nubilalis n60-80 n Apple *, Quince *, Pear *, Nashi *, Medlar *, Japanese Medlar * nAdoxophyes spp., Archips spp. Argyrotaenia pulchellana, Carpocapsa, Cydia pomonella, Cydia molesta, Eulia, Pandemis spp. n80-120 n Leucoptera / Cemiostoma scitella, Lithocolletis / Phyllonoricter spp, Cossus cossus, Zeuzera Pyrina n80 n Tree Ornaments nCameraria ohridella, Leucoptera scitella, Lithocolletis / Phyllonoricter spp. n80 n Galerucella luteola n80-100 n Hyphantria cunea, Lymantria dispar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Thaumetopoea processionea n60-100 n Metcalfa pruinosa n60-80 n Ornamental nurseries Forestry, Fruit, Ornamental and Vine (New plantings of Fruit bearing and Vine species not yet in production) nFrankliniella occidentalis, Hyphantria cunea, Thaumetopoeapityocampa, Lymantria dispar, Thaumetopoea processionea, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci n60-100 n Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza trifolii n200-300 n Metcalfa pruinosa n60-80 n Zeuzera pyrina n100 n Potato * nColorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa ​​decemlineata), Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella) n n Pea * nCorn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Nocturnal of the cabbage(Mamestra brassicae) n n Pistachio * nLeaf moth (Teleiodes decorella) n n Turf for ornamental and sports use nAgrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera spp. n n Lives* Table grapesWine grapes nClysia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana n40-80 (wine grapes) 60-80 (table grapes) n Frankliniella occidentalis and other Thrips n80-100 n Metcalfa pruinosa n60-80 n Oziorrinco n80 n * FULL FIELD u00a0 u00a0 ** GREENHOUSE u00a0 u00a0 *** FULL FIELD AND GREENHOUSE n "," description_short ":"

TRACER u2122 120 Basf u00a0 u00e8 an u00a0Insecticide u00a0Organic is based on u00a0Spinosad is active ingredient of u00a0origin u00a0natural u00a0obtained from the fermentation of the alga u00a0Saccharopolyspora spinosa. n

  • Tracer protects beneficial insects and has a short shortage period. n
  • This biological insecticide acts by contact and ingestion. n

The Agronomist's advice n

It is recommended to treat with Spinosad in the evening, to improve its effectiveness against insects. "," available_now ":" "," available_later ":" "," id ": 726," id_product ": 726," out_of_stock ": 2," new ": 0," id_product_attribute ":" 0 "," quantity_wanted ": 1," extraContent ": [<" title ":" Reviews "," content ":"


FlorBac WG is a biological insecticide based on Bacillus Thuringensis active against moth larvae.

Florbac WG is selective towards useful insects and pollinators, it is suitable for integrated and biological control programs.

The effectiveness of FlorBac WG, on young larvae, can be compared to the effects of conventional insecticides.

Treat when the first larvae are noticed, on dry vegetation and in the cool hours of the day.

Use equipment that allows medium to high volumes of water.

If possible add a adhesive wetting agent which will improve the distribution and persistence of the insecticide.

Composition:

Bacillus Thuringensis susp. aizawai strain ABTS-1857 g. 54

(Potency 15000 Ul / mg formulated on Trichoplusiani)

  • Citrus fruits: Citrus moth (Prays citri)
  • Pome fruits: Defoliating Lepidoptera, Capua (Adoxophyes orana), Brumale moth (Operophtera brumata)
  • Vine: Defoliating Lepidoptera, Vine Moth (Lobesia botrana)
  • Olive tree: Olive moth (Prays oleae), Ifantria (Hyphantria cunea)
  • Stone fruit: Defoliating Lepidoptera, Eastern Moth (Cydia molesta), Anarsia (Anarsia lineatella)
  • Actinidia: Eulia (Argyrotaenia pulchellana), Moth
  • Strawberry: European borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Pandemis spp., Eulia (Argyrotaenia pulchellana)
  • Potato: Potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella), Ifantria (Hyphantria cunea)
  • Corn: Corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Ifantria (Hyphantria cunea)
  • Brassicaceae (Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Turnip, Radish) (in open field): Yellow Tomato Nocturnal (Helicoverpa armigera), Small Nocturnal (Spodoptera exigua), Mediterranean Nocturnal (Spodoptera littoralis), Cabbage (Pieris rapae), Cruciferae Noctua (Trichoplusia ni), Cruciferous Moth (Plutella xylostella)
  • Solanaceae (Tomato, Pepper, Eggplant) Cucurbitaceae (Melon) (in open field): Yellow Tomato Nocturnal (Helicoverpa armigera), Small Nocturnal (Spodoptera exigua), Mediterranean Nocturnal (Spodoptera littoralis), Piralide (Ostrinia nubilalis)
  • Leafy vegetables (Escarole, Lettuce) (in open field): Yellow noctua of tomato (Helicoverpa armigera), Noctua small (Spodoptera exigua), Noctuids (Spodoptera spp.), Noctuids (Autographa gamma) Noctua on Cruciferae (Trichoplusia ni)
  • Leafy vegetables (Escarole, Lettuce) (in open field): Yellow noctua of tomato (Helicoverpa armigera), Noctua small (Spodoptera exigua), Noctuids (Spodoptera spp.), Noctuids (Autographa gamma) Noctua on Cruciferae (Trichoplusia ni)


Video: Presentasi hama penggerek umbi kentang Phthorineae operculella