Ardisia - How to care for and cultivate your Ardisia
HOW TO GROW AND CARE FOR OUR PLANTS
The Ardisia they are shrubby, evergreen plants, very characteristic as the berries are very persistent and last almost a whole year giving the plant a very decorative aspect.
Species: see the paragraph on "Main species"
Inside the kind Ardisia, belonging to the family Myrsinaceae, we find species native to the hot areas of Asia and Africa even if they are found naturalized in many other countries of the world.
They are evergreen shrubs that in their places of origin look like real trees characterized by generally leathery leaves, arranged alternately along the branches and flowers gathered in mostly panicle inflorescences in hanging racemes that form very colored berries. Both the fruits and the flowers can be present at the same time on the plant (as happens with the strawberry tree) and generally the berries last until the next flowering giving the plant a very decorative appearance.
There are about 400 species belonging to the genus among which we remember:
ARDISIA CRISPA or CRENATA
L'Ardisia crispa it is the most widespread and cultivated species as a garden and houseplant. It is native to China and India and is the most cultivated species.
It has dark green leaves, pointed, leathery and with wavy margins. The flowers are small and white, star-shaped that gather in panicle inflorescences, slightly scented that form bright red and glossy berries, very persistent.
The plant blooms in late spring-early summer, and the fruits ripen in the fall and often last until the next flowering.
ThereArdisia humilis (photo below) differs from the previous one in that it is a plant that remains smaller in size and the flowers are pink, always gathered in pendulous panicles that form reddish-colored fruits (berries) that gradually turn black as they mature.
There Ardisia solanacea it has reddish-brown branches with light green leaves, small, narrow and leathery. The flower is pink - violet while the fruits are glossy black.
The Ardisia they are plants that do not present particular difficulties of cultivation.
It is a plant that loves light and heat. During the warm seasons the optimum temperatures are around 21 ° C. Higher temperatures cause leaves and fruits to wilt and fall off. During autumn and winter the optimum temperatures are around 15 ° C.
They require a lot of light but not direct sun during the hottest season while during autumn and winter also direct sun.
They are very slow growing plants.
Throughout the spring - summer period the plant should be watered regularly so that the soil always remains humid while during the autumn and winter it is necessary to water so that the soil remains just humid and waiting for it to dry on the surface before proceeding with the next watering. .
TYPE OF SOIL - REPOT
They are plants that are repotted no earlier than 3-4 years in consideration of the fact that they are slow growing.
A good fertile soil is used, to which it is advisable to mix a little coarse sand to facilitate the drainage of irrigation water.
Starting from spring and throughout the summer, it is fertilized using a liquid fertilizer diluted in the watering water every week, however reducing the dosages by one third compared to what is stated in the fertilizer package.
It is important to use a liquid fertilizer equally balanced in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) also has microelements such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), magnesium (mg) all important for a correct and balanced growth of the plant.
The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer.
The berries ripen in autumn and are very persistent and can last until the next flowering.
In early spring the branches of theArdisiawhich have grown excessively and give the plant a disordered appearance, should be pruned by cutting them at the height of the stem.
Whatever operation you do with cutting tools on plants, remember to use clean and disinfected tools (possibly with a flame), to avoid infecting tissues.
Multiplication occurs by seed or by cutting. If you use the technique of reproduction by seed, it must be borne in mind that, when genetic variability takes over, you are not sure you have a plant that is the same as the mother plant, therefore, if you want to obtain a precise specimen, it is advisable to multiply by cutting.
MULTIPLICATION FOR TALEA
In spring, shoots are taken from the secondary branches with a piece of bark about 10 cm long, cutting under the knot and obliquely using a sharp knife to avoid fraying the fabrics, cleaned and disinfected (flame or alcohol or bleach).
The lower leaves are eliminated and the cut part is immersed in a powder that contains rhizogenic hormones that favor the emission of the roots.
The cuttings are planted in a small pot (about 8 cm) in a soil formed by peat and coarse sand in equal parts and watered so that it remains moist. Once this is done, the pot is closed with a transparent plastic sheet or a bag that will guarantee a constant temperature and prevent the soil from drying out too quickly.
The pot thus prepared must be placed in a warm place with temperatures around 24 ° C and in the light.
Remove the plastic every day both to check the soil moisture and to eliminate any condensation that has formed from the plastic.
After about two months the cuttings should have rooted and we realize this as the first shoots will begin to appear. At that point the plastic is removed and the cuttings are expected to harden. At this point they can be repotted in the pot and in the final soil as indicated for adult plants.
We specify that the temperature of 24 ° C is essential for the rooting of the cuttings and if you cannot guarantee this temperature, it is difficult for them to root.
MULTIPLICATION BY SEED
Also in this case the essential condition for the germination of the seeds are the high temperatures that must be constant at 24 ° C so it is necessary to have a multiplication box or necessarily use a tray that is covered with a transparent plastic sheet placed in the sun.
The operation is very long and difficult also in consideration of the fact that they are very slow growing plants so after one year you will have seedlings no higher than 2 cm.
PARASITES AND DISEASES
The Ardisia they are not particularly prone to diseases, it is necessary to pay attention to the right watering, the temperature and the correct fertilizations and the plant will grow without many problems.
The leaves and fruits wither
This symptom is caused by too high temperatures.
Remedies: move the plant to a cooler place with temperatures around 21 ° C.
Mealy cochineal on fruits
Lacoccinigliafarinosa is an annoying parasite that forms easily recognizable white flaky spots on ripe berries.
Remedies: it is necessary to intervene with specific pesticides available from a nurseryman.
Aphids on the leaves and all other green parts of the plant
Aphids or lice are small insects that can often be found especially on the youngest shoots and leaves.
Remedies: treat the plant with specific aficides.
Often the price of this plant is quite high and this is due to the fact that, since they are very slow growing plants, it takes many years to have a plant of a certain size.
Ardisia (ardisia): growing and caring for a flower at home
Ardisia with its berries somewhat resembles Kalina, although in reality they belong to completely different families. What kind of plants, both at home growing Ardisia, which is home to such distant tropics of Asia, and more: how to care for it and treat the disease in the event of an attack or parasites - read on.
- sunny place
- or sow indoors
- at a temperature of 16-18 °
- well-drained or dry but very fertile soil
It is a compound plant that is characterized by red stems and fleshy, flat green leaves. The flowers can be single or double, in many colors: yellow, red, lilac, pink, white. The peculiarity of this plant is found precisely in the flowers: these, in fact, open only in the presence of high brightness. For this reason it is also called the sun plant. It reaches a height of 15/20 cm and a width of 15 cm. It adapts well, therefore, both to cultivation in pots and as a ground cover shrub.
The propagation of this plant occurs only by sowing and, purely on site and in a covered place. The ideal period is spring, preferring mid-season, with a temperature of 16/18 degrees. The soil must be well drained or even dry, but it is very important that it is fertile. Exposure must be in full sun, to favor the complete opening of the buds.
Before planting this plant, make sure that the soil is sandy. In summer it requires abundant watering, however, if the soil is not well drained, there is a risk of water stagnation which can cause rot. Between one watering and the other it is advisable to make sure that the soil is completely dry. Repotting or pruning are not necessary, while during flowering fertilizations are necessary to be carried out every two weeks.
Portulaca, in addition to being a beautiful plant to look at and easy to care for, has several properties: it is diuretic, refreshing and purifying. For this reason, we also find traces of it in the kitchen. It can be eaten naturally, with the addition of other green salad leaves, cherry tomatoes, cucumbers, etc. Or cooked in omelettes, vegetable soups, soups, risottos or even fried. Pickled, in brine or in oil are among other things the most used methods to preserve the twigs and use them later. Its flavor is slightly acidic, very similar to lemon, thanks to its high concentration of vitamin C.
Ardisia crenata or Capuline plant care
The genre Ardisia belongs to the family Mirsinaceae and includes about 400 species of trees and shrubs originating in Southeast Asia.
Some species of this genus are: Ardisia crenata, Ardisia crispa, Ardisia martinensis, Ardisia mangillo, Ardisia obovata, Ardisia revoluta.
Ardisia crenata is a very slow growing shrub which can grow up to 1.5 meters in height. Has long, narrow leaves with serrated edges. It produces white flowers in bunches in late summer and then red berried fruits .
It is generally used as a potted houseplant. It is recommended to take it outside in the summer, but in a shady place.
Capulin needs exposure to light but without direct sunlight. The temperature must not drop below 10ºC, the optimum is between 15 and 25ºC.
The terrain it must be clayey and contain a sufficient amount of peat. In case of transplanting, it is preferable to do it in the fall or spring.
In summer , water abundantly and also spray the leaves from time to time. The rest of the year, moderate irrigation a little.
Slates can be cut vigorously in spring to encourage growth.
Fertilize every two weeks with a mineral fertilizer from spring to mid-summer.
They are generally not attached from pests and diseases. Sometimes they are affected by a bacterium that causes "specks" on the leaves, but nothing happens, nor is it contagious or harmful to the plant.
They are multiplied for seeds sown in spring or by cuttings in summer.
One of the most common causes of yellow leaves is a soil poor in iron, a condition also known as ferric chlorosis. Such a deficiency is not difficult to recognize, since while the leaf surface becomes yellowish the ribs remain green. In the most serious cases, the foliage takes on a whitish color, but it is possible to intervene with suitable fertilizers before reaching such an extreme situation.
We must not forget that iron is the basis of plant health, as it regulates metabolism and is essential for the production of chlorophyll: for this reason the green color of the leaves is gradually replaced by a pale yellow if this element is scarce. There are several on the market fertilizers based on chelated iron, to be administered to the ground very quickly as they tend to disintegrate in the light.
The operation should be carried out a couple of times a year, alternatively it is possible to treat the soil with the right amount of iron in autumn, and proceed with the fertilizer only in spring. It is essential to avoid irrigating the plant with tap water, since the latter is generally rich in limestone and would prevent proper absorption of iron in the soil.
Lack of Nitrogen and Magnesium
A plant can also experience yellowing of the leaves due to one deficiency of nitrogen, magnesium or manganese. After all, vegetables need a series of substances to develop at their best: nitrogen, for example, is a source of essential nutrition and is part of the so-called three necessary macro-elements, together with phosphorus and potassium. If nitrogen is not present in the soil in the correct doses, the leaves turn yellow, the roots become thinner and the flowering is scarce.
Just like for iron, also in this case you have to use specific fertilizers based on nitrogen. It is easy to get them in nurseries or in specialized gardening shops: there are special ones for individual plants, including roses, tomatoes and lemons.
Even a lack of magnesium or manganese can cause yellowing of the foliage. In the first case, the leaf turns yellow in the upper part and remains green in the area of the attachment, in the second the edges become darker, necrotic in the most serious situations. After all, we are talking about two very important substances for plants, since magnesium intervenes in the processes of photosynthesis and manganese regulates the action of enzymes and the absorption of water. Once again the best solution consists in a fertilizer rich in the deficient element.
The importance of Water and Light
As you can understand from this overview, one of the most effective ways to prevent yellowing of the leaves is a fertilizer that contains all the necessary nutrients. However, it is important to respect other simple precautions, including the correct amount of water and light. In fact, often the foliage of a plant becomes yellowish due to the action of too strong sunlight: the effect is worse if the vase is placed near the glass of a window, which reflect the light and make it even more intense.
Adequate irrigation is also a useful prevention tool, as an insufficient or overabundant dose of water is one of the most common causes of yellowing. A plant that is infrequently watered has leaves with dry tips, while a plant that is watered runs the risk of rot.
More, humidity it is a bitter enemy of the foliage of plants, as well as frost and air currents. A vase, therefore, must be placed in sheltered positions, away from drafts and radiators. Obviously the ideal temperature varies according to the species, but in general it is essential to avoid environments that are too hot or too cold. These are all extremely simple tips to follow, capable of preserving the health of plants and guaranteeing their development. It is essential to intervene as soon as you notice a yellowing of the leaves, so as to solve the problem quickly without causing permanent damage.