How to plant apple, pear and plum
Planting rules for fruit and berry crops
So winter has come to an end, spring has begun. And amateur gardeners have already rushed for seedlings - to nurseries, to exhibition pavilions, to specialized stores and simply to private owners - the same gardeners as themselves. After all, their planting material is often even better than that of large manufacturers, because the quantity and quality of things are difficult to match.
But to buy and bring home a seedling, and then "stick" it into the ground and water - this, alas, is not all that is required. Although, by and large, these are exactly the events, without which nothing will surely grow. However, without knowledge of the peculiarities of the culture, the specifics of planting agrotechnology, without the introduction of fertilizers, the correct tillage of the soil, your harvest will be modest, if at all.
Now I will try to tell novice gardeners about all the intricacies of planting the most significant and common fruit and berry plants. I hope that my advice will help them to plant the desired plants correctly, create their own garden, and they will soon receive good harvests of fruits and berries. Let's start our conversation with the main culture of any garden.
Planting an apple tree
Choosing a place and planting scheme for apple trees
Apple tree seedling in spring
Apple trees, like most fruit and berry crops, prefer well-lit places. Of course, they can grow in the shade, but the harvest there will be more modest.
They are afraid of apple trees and water, and therefore it is better not to use places with a close approach of groundwater for planting fruit trees, and it is better not to plant them in the lowlands: excess moisture accumulates there, and frosts are stronger in winter.
As for the choice of soils, many are suitable here, the main thing is that they should be without excess acid or alkali in their composition. The ideal option is sod-podzolic, gray forest or chernozem soils.
As for the planting scheme, it all depends on the stock, on its vigor. For example, the planting scheme for an apple tree on a vigorous stock is 4x6 m, on a semi-dwarf stock - 4x4 m or 3x5 m, on a dwarf stock - 2.5x3 m.
Preparation of planting material, soil and apple planting technique
For an apple tree, the preparation of planting material consists in scrubbing (removing) the leaves, if they are on the seedling, and dipping the roots in a chatterbox - a solution of nutrient soil.
So, the seedling is ready, we have chosen the place. We start digging the landing holes. It is best to prepare them in advance, 2-3 weeks before planting, this is necessary for the soil to shrink. They dig them with a depth of 50-60 cm and a diameter of 1-1.2 m. Simply put, its size should be sufficient for the roots of the seedling to fit freely. It is advisable to add nutrient soil and organic fertilizers to the planting holes.
When planting a seedling, the soil is carefully added to the hole and compacted (it is better to do it with your hands) so that the root collar of the plant is slightly higher (by 4-5 cm) than the soil level. After the end of planting, the seedling is watered at the rate of 3-4 buckets of water under the apple tree.
In the first years of life, it is better to tie the seedling to a peg, this will save it from possible breakage from a strong gust of wind.
Choosing a place and scheme for planting pears
For planting pears, you should choose the most illuminated, dry and level place in your garden area. It is advisable to take several varieties of pear for better pollination. The soil, for better plant growth, must be loose and permeable to both water and air, but at the same time it must retain a sufficient amount of moisture. The best soil, of course, is the one that is rich in nutrients. When choosing a place, both for an apple tree and for a pear, lowlands with a close standing of groundwater should be avoided.
Since a pear does not like shade, it is better to plant seedlings of all its varieties no closer than 3-4 meters from tall buildings that give it. The pear planting scheme depends on the vigor of the plant. Therefore, trees with voluminous crowns are best planted at a distance of 3-4 meters from one another, in a row - 4-5 meters, and seedlings on low-growing rootstocks - at a distance of 2-3 meters, in a row - 3-4 meters.
Often trees are formed in the form of flat crowns - these are the so-called palmettes. Such plants are placed according to the scheme 2x3 or 1.5x3 meters (if the stock is weak).
Preparation of planting material, soil and planting pears
Planting a fruit tree seedling
1, 2 - draw a circle
3 - fold the fertile layer to one side, subsoil to the other
4 - put the count
5 - fill the filling mixture with a slide
6 - put a seedling on a hill
7 - tie it to the stake
8 - pour a roll of earth and water the seedling into the formed hole
It is better to plant a pear in two years, you can do this both in spring and in autumn. Autumn planting does not require the preparation of seedlings - I bought and planted, but if you, having bought seedlings in the fall, decided to plant them in the spring, then in order not to lose the seedlings, you need to know the technology of their storage.
The seedlings should be buried in the area or placed in the basement, where the temperature should not be lower than 0.5 ° C and not higher than 1 ° C, since too high a positive temperature can provoke an early awakening of the kidneys. If you do not have a basement, the seedlings can be dug right in the open area by digging grooves 30-40 cm deep. In them, you then place the seedlings at an angle of 40 °, placing the crowns to the south.
The roots and part of the trunk (about a third part) must be covered with earth, compacted and watered, and grooves with poison dug around the ditch will help protect from mice.
Pear seedlings, as well as apple seedlings, are planted in a planting hole, which is made at the rate of about a meter wide and about 60 cm deep. The uppermost, more fertile layer of earth is neatly folded on one side of the fossa. It is then added to the hole, sprinkling the seedling with a mixture with the addition of humus, peat, superphosphate and potassium salt.
If peaty soils prevail on your site, then it is better to replace humus with clay. In any case, the resulting mixture is thoroughly mixed and a small mound is created in the hole from it, on which the seedling is placed, straightening the roots and gradually sprinkling with the rest of the mixture. Having filled up the hole in this way, while trying to keep the root collar at the level of the soil, the soil is then compacted and the seedling is watered - at least 3-4 buckets of water are needed, and the next day the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of peat or humus.
Choosing a place and planting scheme for plums
Plums are best planted in elevated places, well lit, and therefore better warmed up. These plants prefer light and loamy soil.
It is better to place plum plants at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other, and 3.5-4 meters should be left between the rows. In general, the planting pattern can be greatly adjusted in accordance with the size of the crown. It should also be remembered that the plum grows very poorly next to the apple tree, so the distance between them should be at least 3-4 meters.
Preparation of planting material
Plum seedlings do not require any special preparation, but very few people know about the standards for planting material. For planting, take only biennial seedlings with the obligatory presence of a central and at least three lateral branches. You should also take a closer look at the roots, there should be no sagging, growths on them, you should especially carefully examine the root collar.
The standards are also taken into account in height - 40-50 cm, in thickness - 2, -2.5 cm and length of branches - 40-60 cm.
Soil preparation and plum planting technology
Like the vast majority of seedlings of fruit plants, plums are planted in holes. They usually dig them up in advance - 2-3 weeks before planting. Its size is usually determined by the diameter of the root system, but the average size is 40 cm deep and 75-80 cm in diameter. When you dig a hole, the top layer of the soil, and it is the most fertile, put it aside, it will still come in handy.
After the hole is ready, add fertilizer there. The best "plum" composition of them is 10-15 kg of manure or compost, 150 g of phosphorus fertilizers, 35-40 g of potash and 500-600 g of wood ash. These fertilizers are best applied by mixing them with the soil and filling the planting hole with this composition.
When choosing a soil, you should pay attention to its acidity; pH-7.0 is considered optimal for plums. If your soil is more acidic, it is better to add lime when planting.
The best time to plant plums is spring, of course, even before bud break. Before planting, the roots of the seedling are best dipped in a clay mash, then it should be placed in a previously prepared hole so that the root collar is 3-4 cm above the soil level. After that, gently spread the roots and begin to cover them with earth, so that the soil fills all the gaps. To do this, the seedling can be twitched slightly, holding it with one hand by the root collar.
It is important not to cover the root collar with earth. After all the earth is used up and the hole is completely filled up, compact the earth and pour 1-2 buckets of water over the plant. Then, when the water is absorbed, mulch the trunk circle, for this you can sprinkle it with peat, manure or compost.
It is advisable to tie the seedling to a peg in the first few years of its life, so you will save it from breakage.
Read the next part. How to plant currants, gooseberries, honeysuckle and raspberries ?
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, Berry Crops Department
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
Read also about the pear:
• Agricultural technology for growing pears
• Varieties of pears of early middle and late ripening
• Peculiarities of pear agrotechnology
• Growing dwarf apple trees in the garden
For good yields, the site should be sunny and, if possible, calm. Of the soil, loam will be the best option for an apple orchard. Clay soil should be mixed with sand 2: 1, and sandy with peat or humus 2: 1.
Landing pit dimensions
The depth of the planting hole should be from 60 to 70 cm. The diameter should be made such that the roots fit freely. The depth is influenced by the method of grafting the seedling.
Saplings grafted with an eye at the root collar cannot be buried. It is necessary that the grafting site rise slightly above the ground, otherwise the seedling may not take root. Otherwise, the graft may take root and the seedling will lose all the benefits of grafting.
If the grafting site is high (15-20 cm), then the seedling can be buried 10-15 cm in the ground. Then the tree will have a more powerful root system, respectively, it will more easily cope with winter frosts or dry summers. But the apple tree will begin to bear fruit a little later.
The minimum distance between rows of apple trees must be done:
- for dwarf apple trees 4 m
- medium size 5 m
- tall trees 5-6 m.
Then the crowns of mature trees will not interfere with one another, and everyone will have enough sun.
When to plant pears in autumn
In order for the planted pear to have time to take root and gain a foothold in the ground, as well as prepare for the coming winter, it is necessary to choose the correct planting dates. In general, the culture is planted no later than 2 ... 3 weeks before the onset of the first frost. More exact dates depend on the climatic zone in which the summer cottage is located, and on the recommendations of the lunar calendar of the gardener and the gardener.
In outskirts of Moscow
In the conditions of the Moscow region, depending on the weather forecast, pear planting can begin at the end of September. Planting work is completed in mid-late October. In the time remaining before the arrival of the first frost, the fruit trees have time to properly root in the ground.
In the Urals, in Siberia
In these cold regions, the autumn planting of a pear is most justified, since if it takes root and endures its first winter on the site without losses, then an adult tree will have increased winter hardiness. In the Urals and Siberia, pears are planted from early September to early October due to the short autumn and fast-onset frosts.
In the Leningrad region
The Leningrad Region is characterized by unpredictable climatic conditions, so it is important to closely monitor the weather forecast in the region. Pears are planted at the end of September - mid-October, and it is necessary to provide protection from cold through winds.
If, when planting fruit trees, take into account the recommendations of the lunar calendar of the gardener and gardener, then you need to pay attention to the most favorable days for work, and also take into account the prohibited days on which it is not recommended to plant anything. Favorable days for planting pears in 2018 fall on:
- 1, 5 ... 6, 18 ... 19, 27 ... 30 September
- October 2 ... 3, 25 ... 26.
- Full Moon - September 25, October 24
- New Moon - September 9, October 9.
Experienced gardeners, when planting any crops, are guided by both weather reports and the instructions of the lunar calendar and choose the most suitable date.
Diseases of the tree and the fight against them
Given the average resistance of the variety to diseases and pest attacks, the gardener needs to know his enemy "by sight".
Problems of growing apple trees and methods of dealing with them:
- Fruit rot. The fungus infects foliage and fruits, causing rotting. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture (3%) will help cure the plant.
- Scab. It manifests itself in early spring, if not immediately cured, the fruits will be affected. Primary symptoms: light green spots on the outside of the leaf. Treatment - spraying with Gamair (10 tablets per 10 liters of water).
- Powdery mildew. A whitish coating appears on the green parts of the plant, which quickly spreads throughout the tree. The drug "Alirin-B" helps to fight the disease, you need to water the soil in the near-trunk circle with a solution at the rate of 2 tablets per 10 liters of water.
- Aphid. The danger of the pest lies in its extreme fertility, within a few days the foliage and color will be destroyed by an entire colony of insects. The microscopic insect settles on the underside of the leaf and in the axils of the branches. The drug "Actellik" is effective against the parasite; it is sprayed with a solution (2 ml / 2 l of water).
- Moth Is a moth-like butterfly, gray-brown in color, up to 2 cm in length. The method of treatment is spraying with Aktara (3 g / 10 l of water).
- Fruit sawfly - Hymenoptera, up to 7 mm in length, black-brown in color. Lays eggs in the fruit of the apple tree.
- Moth - shaggy butterfly up to 3 cm in length, silvery brown. An adult insect lays eggs on an apple tree, and the hatched caterpillars devour the green of the tree. The drug "Agravertin" will help to get rid of both insects, the spray solution is prepared in a proportion of 6 ml / 1 l of water.
Seeing the problems described above, gardening scientists recommended reducing the plowing depth to 10 cm, and the roots of the trees immediately took up the available space. Then they decided that it was not worth using the plow, they switched to processing with milling cutters.
Milling cultivator for inter-row cultivation of gardens. Photo from the site agro-sistema.ru
This helped the soil to partially recover itself. At the same time, green manures were sown in the aisles so that they could be plowed later. This method of planting and maintaining a garden was called parosideral. But we already know that green manure does not have to be plowed. This work can be successfully performed by earthworms and other soil animals.
And the seeds of various green manure can be found in our catalog, which contains the proposals of many large garden online stores. Select green manure seeds.
How to plant a plum
Hello dear friends!
The plum has a shallow, branched root system.This tree loves moisture, therefore plant a plum needed in a lowered part of the garden area, with the best conditions for moisture.
Plum is very sensitive to high air temperatures and often suffers from dry winds. Therefore, in the areas of the middle zone and the middle Volga region, it takes root well and develops on river valleys with alluvial soils and a shallow (1 - 1.2 meters) location of the flowing groundwater table.
For planting, you can use both annual and biennial seedlings with a branched root system. Annual plum saplings, unlike cherries, most often do not have side shoots, therefore, after planting, they must be booked, i.e. cut at a height of 80 centimeters from the soil surface. The 7 upper buds sprout into shoots, and the most highly developed of them will be the basis for the formation of the first tier of the tree crown and the central conductor.
Plum, like cherry, can be propagated by one- and two-year-old root suckers (if the tree from which the offspring is taken is own-rooted) or by grafting the propagated variety onto the stock.
It is considered. That you can plant plums in spring and autumn. Planting in the autumn must be completed before October 15, which will ensure the best preparation of the tree for overwintering. However, in the Volga region and more northern regions, it is better to plant plums in early spring, before budding, since plums are inferior in winter hardiness not only to apple trees, but also to cherries.
There are many opinions on how plant a plum right. In principle, the technique of planting plums is the same as for apple trees (see How to plant an apple tree correctly), but there is one important difference: it is better to plant the seedling with a root collar deepening by 8-10 centimeters than to plant it shallowly. With shallow planting, the roots of the tree will be in the upper, quickly drying layer of the soil, which will lead to a deterioration in survival conditions.
The maintenance of the soil, its processing, fertilization and irrigation are carried out in the same way as in the cultivation of other fruit crops. But in the first year of life of plum trees in the garden, the conditions for moistening the soil are very important. For active restoration of the root system of seedlings, they need to be watered 3-4 times with an irrigation rate of 50 liters of water per 1 square meter of the trunk circle.
In subsequent years, humidity must be maintained at a certain level. For this, in an average year of precipitation, it is necessary to carry out 3 - 4 irrigations with a nominal amount of 60 - 70 liters per 1 square meter of the trunk circle. The first watering should be carried out immediately after flowering, the subsequent ones - with an interval of 3 weeks.
Fruiting plum trees must be stopped from watering 2 - 3 weeks before harvest, so as not to worsen the marketable quality of the fruit by cracking. The termination of watering in the second half of summer also contributes to the good preparation of young and fruit-bearing trees for overwintering.
I wish you to plant and grow great plums in your garden! See you!
Spring planting of trees and shrubs: how and when to plant
Many gardeners are sure that spring planting of trees and shrubs is more effective than autumn planting, allowing plants to take root and get stronger during the warm season, and actively resist frost. This approach is correct, but you need to start preparing for garden renovation already in the fall. Let's consider the features of this procedure.