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What not to compost: a checklist with explanations

 What not to compost: a checklist with explanations


Compost is one of the most valuable organic fertilizers, which is obtained from weeds, plant residues, kitchen waste, decomposing under the influence of microorganisms. To use it for its intended purpose, not everything can be put in a compost box.

What is a compost heap made of?

Compost is a biofertilizer that can increase soil fertility. To get it, experienced gardeners put in a specially designated place or a large box:

  • cut grass;
  • old mulch;
  • beet and carrot tops;
  • plants from the garden;
  • hay and straw;
  • household waste.

All components gradually rot. The resulting compost can be used as fertilizer. It is almost devoid of flaws, but subject to certain rules. Not all ingredients can be placed on the compost heap.

What should not be put into compost and why

The restrictions apply not only to items that do not rot, but also to plant materials. Do not put into compost:

  • leaves, stems, tops of plants affected by fungal or viral diseases (after the decomposition of organic matter, pathogens do not die and can become a source of infection for garden crops, under which fertilizer will be applied);
  • tomato and potato tops, castor oil plant, broom, lily of the valley (they contain toxic substances that suppress the vital activity of beneficial microorganisms responsible for decomposition);
  • weeds on which seeds have ripened or those that take root easily;
  • branches after pruning;
  • plants recently treated with fungicides and herbicides (chemical residues can kill bacteria that decompose organic matter);
  • citrus peel (it decays for a long time and suppresses the vital activity of earthworms);
  • dry leaves of trees, cut branches (they rot for a very long time, delaying the maturation of the compost).

I do not put tomato, potato and cucumber tops in compost, since these plants are susceptible to late blight. If the leaves have characteristic spots, rotten areas, it is better to burn such tops.

You can put the carcasses of fruit trees in compost. The nutrients it contains will speed up the maturation of the compost and allow you to achieve a completely new quality of organic fertilization. It is difficult to use carrion from stone fruits, unless you put compost for several years: the seeds of plums, cherry plums, cherries simply do not have time to decompose. But apples and pears are perfect. As well as rotten berries discarded by plants of any kind. The exception is fruits and berries with clear signs of bacterial or viral infection.

This compost is tainted with orange peel

Some plants (for example, field horsetail, bindweed) I never put in compost. These plants take root very easily and then it is difficult to remove the weeds from the garden. I take horsetail away. If you do not want to get rid of weeds, you can put them in the sun for a couple of days. After that, the roots will finally die, and the plants can be laid in a compost heap.

There are also certain requirements for food waste. Do not put in compost

  • dairy and meat products,
  • fatty foods
  • large bones.

They rot for a long time, emitting an unpleasant odor and attracting animals. You can put eggshells on compost, but it is better to bury them deeper.

Not all food waste can be put into compost, cleaning

Absolute taboos

In no case should you put in compost if you do not want to poison or clog the soil:

  • feces of domestic animals (they may contain infections, the most dangerous pathogen is toxoplasmosis);
  • contents of dust collectors (household dust contains harmful compounds);
  • drywall (contains toxins);
  • glossy paper;
  • synthetic fabrics, glass, plastic (they do not rot);
  • large pieces of wood.

Infected and potentially dangerous plants, easily rooting weeds, weeds with ripe seeds should not be placed on the compost heap. It is not necessary to put meat and dairy food waste into compost, as well as something that decays for a long time.


Volnushka composter - advice and owner feedback on operation

The dream of any owner of a summer cottage is a large harvest, which can be achieved with the help of fertilizers, since every year even the soil with black soil is depleted, and if the site is still on clay or sandy soil.

Compost is considered to be one of the most popular and virtually free type of fertilizers.

It represents rotted during a specific time (better - within one year) waste of a land plot in personal use and subsidiary plots. In order to make compost, a container is required - a composter, which will be discussed in our publication.


Can't grow carrots. What am I doing wrong?

A question from our subscriber Natalia:
In the Smolensk region I am trying to get a harvest of carrots. I plant Nantes and Losinoostrovskaya. I prepare the beds for them with the addition of sand, soft. When you look at the crop on the garden bed, you see a chic thick tops, rather large bases of the carrots themselves. When harvesting, I get short ones with a length of 2-3 cm and 5-6 spouts. Considering that the land in this place rested for 15 years! Next year, I plant it in another place, also rested, prepare a garden bed in the sun, not in a draft, water it for 1-1.5 months every day, then every other day. What's wrong?

Natalia, Smolensk. You have poor, sod-podzolic soils in your region. In your region, it is not so important that a rested land is. In the garden where you will sow carrots in the spring from the fall, you need to add (now it is not too late), 2.5 kg of double superphosphate and 2.5 kg of potassium sulfate (another name is potassium sulfate) Per 1 hundred square meters (10x10 m). In the early spring, it will be necessary to add 2 kg of urea (carbamide), or ammonium nitrate, and dig up the garden bed. It will not be superfluous if you apply such a dose of fertilizers throughout the garden. Then, I advise you to change the variety, sow the Shantane variety. I plant only this variety every year, however, I grow seeds for myself and others myself. And you can see the harvest in the photo.

Hello! Not having as much experience as yours, it is still not difficult for me to understand that your carrots are overfed and not as healthy as the usual compost-grown carrots. I do not believe other people's words, but believe my own, though not great experience, but my eyes do not deceive me, and my intuition too. I wrote to you, because it seemed strange why a person with such experience grows such carrots for himself. It would be fine for sale, otherwise for myself. And not so, it will be delicious. After all, everything grown with the help of mineral fertilizers loses in taste to organic ones. Another thing is that mineral farming is not so troublesome, given your age (with respect to him), then it becomes clear. Seeing your carrot, I immediately remembered the ladies in ballet tutus ...

Your carrot

And this one will be tastier and healthier!

Cool I want it too
You can add this for the planting of the mark.

Or dill

Natalia, Smolensk, sat thinking and decided to share with you in more detail my experience of growing and storing carrots. I want you to get the same carrot harvest as in the photo. I will be glad if next autumn you can report that you have finally received a good harvest of carrots.

As I have already written for many years, only the Shantane variety. Shantane is an easy, tasty and high-yielding variety. Root crops of an elongated conical shape with a blunt end can be stored until a new harvest. We have been planting Shantane in our garden for many years. I grow seeds for myself and for my fellow villagers myself. The fact is that purchased seeds have many disadvantages, such as poor germination, a mixture of 2-3 varieties, etc. For growing seeds I select the best root crops with a blunt end, of the correct cylindrical shape. Good seeds grow from good queen cells. It remains only as it ripens in several steps, carefully remove the seeds. Therefore, the quality of the variety is not lost, but even improved. This careful selection has been going on for 13-15 years.
I have been preparing a bed for carrots in the fall, trying to dig deep. If the soil is clayey, viscous, then I add coarse sand before digging. Depending on the viscosity of the soil, 5-10 kg of sand is required per 1 square meter. I don't put organic fertilizers, especially poorly decomposed manure, compost, directly under the carrots, as this leads to branching of root crops. I bring them under the previous culture, that is, a year earlier. Good predecessors of carrots are crops such as potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage. If organic fertilizers were not applied for the previous crop, for the autumn digging I apply mineral fertilizers per 1 m2: double superphosphate 30-40 g and 20-25 g of potassium sulfate or potassium chloride. Instead of these fertilizers, you can apply only nitroammophoska (50-60 g each) or nitrophoska (70-80 g / m2 each).
Carrot culture is not demanding for heat, its seeds germinate already at a temperature of + 4 ... + 5 degrees. Therefore, I sow it early. However, at this temperature, the seeds germinate for a long time, 18-20 days. At higher temperatures, they germinate faster.
For the purpose of disinfection, the seeds are kept for 20 minutes in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, and washed 2-3 times by changing the water. Then I soak it in warm (24-25o) water for 1-1.5 days and dry it until flowing, spreading it out in a thin layer on paper.
I usually spend sev in the afternoon. I mark the garden bed, that is, I make shallow furrows with a depth of 1.5-2 cm with row spacing of 20-25 cm. Carrot seedlings appear more evenly and amicably if these furrows are leveled with a specially prepared board. This is a board 15-20mm thick, 1-1.2 m long. One edge of the board is beveled to a width of 5-6 cm. With this beveled edge I evenly press the bottom of the furrow until it forms an equal required depth. Carrot seeds are small, there is little supply of nutrients in them, therefore I sow carrots shallowly, to a depth of 2.0-3.0 cm. Pressing the bottom of the furrow, firstly, somewhat compresses the soil, creating favorable conditions for more dense contact of seeds with the soil, during - second, the bottom of the furrow is leveled and the seeds are planted to the same depth. Both of these factors contribute to the appearance of uniform and friendly seedlings. After the end of sowing, I close the seeds with the other edge of the board, slightly raking the soil from the surface of the bed in the diagonal direction of the bed. After such embedding, a flat, almost smooth surface remains. I irrigate the garden evenly with sprinkling and cover it with a film. If very warm days suddenly set in, the film has to be opened for a day: it becomes very hot under the film and the seeds that have grown up can "burn out", that is, lose their germination. I completely open the film as soon as the first shoots appear. With such careful work, seedlings, depending on the temperature, appear on the 10-15th day.
Long-term experience shows that the earlier the carrots are thinned, the larger and more evenly the root crops grow.I thin out the carrots in one go no later than the appearance of 1-2 true leaves, leaving only one plant for 7-8 cm.But, at the end of one bed, you can leave a small area 1-1.5 m long, where thinning is carried out, leaving the plants twice as thick : that is, the first thinning is carried out with a distance of 3-4 cm between the plants, and as the root crops grow, the thinning is carried out, gradually choosing the largest root crops and using them already as marketable products: for fresh consumption for children, for salads, etc. Thinning carried out with being late is painful for plants: they already have time to develop a good root system, the roots are intertwined, and when thinning are damaged. Immediately after thinning, I feed and water well. This top dressing is done with infusion of mullein (1: 6) or bird droppings (1:18). I use one full watering can for 1.5-2 m2 of area. If there are no organic fertilizers, then they can be replaced with mineral fertilizers: 1 matchbox (15-18 g) of nitroammofoska per 10 liters of water. By feeding and watering immediately after thinning, I help the weakened root system to absorb nutrients more easily. On the second day, when the top dressing and irrigation water are well absorbed, I loosen the row spacing with a three-horned hoe. This agricultural technique destroys the soil crust formed after irrigation, improves the air properties of the soil and destroys the still small weeds that have appeared.
I do the second feeding during the increased growth of tops, 15-20 days after the first, with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, dissolving double superphosphate and potassium sulfate in a matchbox in 10 liters of water.
A crucial moment when caring for carrots is timely regular watering. Inept watering instead of benefit can lead to harm: root crops will crack. The basic rule is watering should be regular and even, it is impossible to allow the soil to dry out strongly, and then give abundant watering. The fact is that when there is little moisture in the soil, new plant cells in the root crop are formed small. After a sharp abundant watering, these cells are filled with moisture and the cell walls, unable to withstand the osmotic pressure, burst, which we see as a cracked root crop. I stop watering a month before the date of the proposed harvesting. This contributes to a greater accumulation of sugars, hence better flavor and better storage.
I harvest carrots late, usually in the last decade of September: light frosts at -1.0. -1.5o for carrots are not terrible. I lift the rows with a garden pitchfork, pull out the roots with my hands and lay them out on the garden bed to dry. Some make the mistake of shaking off the soil by hitting the roots against each other. This cannot be done, since the thin skin of the root crop is injured. After drying, I cut off the tops, sort: remove small, damaged ones and put them in storage. I cut the tops flush with the head. Leaving some of the leaves usually results in earlier germination during storage.


Warm and economical firewood houses. Construction - Vegetable garden, garden, balcony

I first saw a house made of firewood! Great idea! The houses look so harmonious and beautiful that at the first inspection of the house, the thought of what is made of ordinary firewood does not even come to mind. Yes, yes, one of those with which stoves and fireplaces are heated. With curiosity and interest, I looked at all the photos and the process: How they make such houses. Dear readers, I would like to share with you this unique idea of ​​its kind. An environmentally friendly home - deserves attention. And now, by tradition, I give the floor to the author ...

Houses made of wood or clay houses came to us relatively recently. Now they have become popular, as a rule, in connection with the appearance of electric wood splitters, which make it possible to quickly provide building material with firewood of the same length of 30-40 cm and relatively the same diameter.

But the history of wood-burning houses begins much earlier.

Here is the Kruza house, built in 1884 in Shawano, Wisconsin, USA

And this house was built in Georgia in the early 70s from cypress logs. It is very important to use dry wood in such construction, this is the key to its longevity.

Here's an interesting round 2-story home from Michigan. Rounded lines in such a house are very easy.

A mushroom house with a wooden roof near Chatagay Lake, USA. If you do it yourself and you have a lot of wood at hand, then you can build a house with firewood very cheap and environmentally friendly.

Building a firewood house in Ontario, Canada. Whole logs are mixed with chopped ones.

Facade of Rob Roy's house near Rochester, USA.

The same house.In this house, the upper part, most likely the northern part, was covered with wood for better protection from moisture.

Local building codes often require a supporting structure, such as a timber frame, and use firewood as core material, although such masonry can carry significant loads.

Wood masonry when building a house. It is very important that the wood does not come into contact with each other, otherwise it can lead to their rotting.

Here the walls are lined with poplar wood. Polyurethane foam was used for waterproofing. Builder Alan Adolfson.

Here is another wood house built by Alan Adolfson. From a distance it resembles masonry.

Alan puts arches over each doorway. Looks beautiful.

Firewood laying. It is very important not to lay the wood flat on top to prevent the log from collecting moisture from rain and snow.

The masonry of the fireplace goes well with the wood-burning walls.

Mark and Chelsea's wood burning house from Alaska. Spruce frame and wood walls.

Mark and Chelsea's wood burning house from Alaska.

Firewood house Wisconsin, USA.

Firewood house Wisconsin, USA.

Firewood house near New York.

A beautiful wood burning house made from debarked cedar Southern California. The wide, sheer roof protects the walls in wet weather.

Wayne Higgins' Combined Home (STONEWOOD) - log cabin on the left, clapboard on the second floor, firewood on the right.

Wood burning house in New London, Minnesota.

For a frameless house made of firewood, instead of beams, corners are laid out of rectangular short beams. They serve as pillars.

"Bear's Paw" is laid out on the wall of an Ojibway Indian home built on the White Land Reservation, Minnesota.

Firewood house with terrace, Western Canada.

Logs, stone, firewood. Logs can be left to dry for a year and also put into production.

Lakeside Stone Creek Camp, Montana.

The inside of a house made of wood looks very elegant.

Wood burning house in Quebec, Canada. Old pipes in the floor and wall are very fashionable now.

Luke and Emmy's firewood house in Spartanburg, South Carolina.

Luke and Emmy's firewood house in Spartanburg, South Carolina.

Cottage in Del Norte, Colorado.

The interior of the house is an Ojibway from the White Land reservation.

Arched doors in a wood-burning house.

Bottle inserts above the window in the wood-burning wall.

Interesting mosaic inserts in a wood-burning house.

Wood house without mortar, Tyrol, Italy.

Firewood and a clock are sandwiched between glass.

(it just seems to me that this is a sticker. Doesn't look like real firewood behind glass)

Mecikalski store, built in 1900 in Jennings, Wisconsin. We used 45 cm cedar firewood.

Wood-fired chicken coop, Michigan, built in 1930.

For mortar, clay, sand, sawdust, lime and dry manure are added in equal proportions.

When laying, chopped and whole firewood is often mixed.

Sometimes they put chopped and square firewood.

The voids between the wood are filled with insulating material.

Sometimes sawdust is put there, or sawdust with sand mixed with slaked lime.

Sometimes they just foamed with polyurethane foam. It's not very environmentally friendly, though.

Now they find the remains of wood-burning houses in Greece and Siberia, which date back a thousand years.

Before you start building a house from firewood, you definitely need to plan and calculate everything.

The firewood must be dried well before laying to prevent it


Dietary supplements for indoor plants

Kitchen waste, such as onion skins, is completely thrown into the bucket. If you know what's what, you can use them with great benefit to feed indoor plants in long-term conditions. And not only onion husks, even potato peelings, to use, if you know what is so valuable in them.

Sugar feeding

Before watering, 1 teaspoon of sugar is evenly poured onto the ground, or 2 teaspoons of sugar are diluted in a glass of water. Such feeding is carried out once a week.

I myself very rarely use sugar for feeding. Somehow, midges appeared and I had to replant, fry the earth and heal the roots of the flower. Perhaps the sugar dressing had nothing to do with it, and everything just unsuccessfully coincided. But I am wary of often watering the flowers with sweet water, and I do this only when my flowers are taken out into the air for the summer.

Egg shell feeding

This substance is rich in calcium, which is an excellent acidity neutralizer. That is why it is recommended to add the shells to mineral fertilizers that increase the acidity of the soil. The shell is preliminarily well washed, dried and crushed with subsequent addition to the soil.

Such a product is subject to slow degradation, so moderate addition is required. Grinding is also worth doing with extra diligence. Eggshells are suitable for fertilizing cacti.

Fertilization of seedlings can be done in the following way: washed and dried shells are filled with hot water (3 liters are required), infused for 5 days, after which it is used when watering seedlings.

Top dressing with banana skins

Fertilization of seedlings can be done in the following way: washed and dried shells are filled with hot water (3 liters are required), infused for 5 days, after which it is used when watering seedlings.

Banana skins are crushed and dried. Used in the process of plant transplantation: embedded in the soil or poured in layers.

Another method is also known. After grinding in a coffee grinder, the dried skins turn into a dark brown powder: it can be added to the pot before watering the plants or used as a live feeding (it is preliminarily diluted in water).

Top dressing with banana skins is suitable for flowering plants (especially for roses). Intense flowering is provided by potassium, which is abundant in bananas.

Top dressing with ash

Top dressing with banana skins is suitable for flowering plants (especially for roses). Intense flowering is provided by potassium, which is abundant in bananas.

30 g of ash is diluted in 1 liter of water. The resulting mixture is infused for 1 week: stirring is performed from time to time. Used when watering plants. The composition of wood ash includes calcium, phosphorus (the most important element that provides energy processes in plant cells) and potassium.

Coffee and tea

30 g of ash is diluted in 1 liter of water. The resulting mixture is infused for 1 week: stirring is performed from time to time. Used when watering plants.

Drinking coffee or tea dries well. Used as fertilizer and mulch for indoor plants. Top dressing of seedlings is carried out with an infusion of drunk tea: 1 glass of tea is poured with hot water (3 liters) and infused for 5 days with stirring, followed by straining.

Coffee and tea perfectly neutralize the alkaline environment: plants that grow in acidic soil experience a special need. When reloading or transplanting a plant, the remains of tea (coffee) are placed on the drainage layer.

Tea (coffee) additives make the earth lighter. If soil flies have started up in the soil, then it is better to wait with such fertilizer, as it will contribute to their enhanced reproduction.

Water after washing cereals (buckwheat, rice, etc.)

Tea (coffee) additives make the earth lighter. If soil flies have started up in the soil, then it is better to wait with such fertilizer, as it will contribute to their enhanced reproduction.

Such water contains phosphorus, magnesium, iron, silicon. Now I understand that my grandmother poured water from under washing or soaking cereals into indoor flowers, not only because there was no sewage system and the slops were taken out in a bucket. The flowers were very grateful for such feeding and responded with lush greenery and abundant flowering.

Fertilization with onion husks

Such water contains phosphorus, magnesium, iron, silicon. Now I understand that my grandmother poured water from under washing or soaking cereals into indoor flowers, not only because there was no sewage system and the slops were taken out in a bucket.

This is, surprisingly, a fairly effective fertilizer. Also, the infusion is able to destroy the pathogenic microflora. It is used, as a rule, as a foliar dressing due to the large number of trace elements.

The infusion is prepared as follows: 10-20 grams of husks are poured with warm water (5 liters) and infused for 4 days. An accelerated method is also possible, when the husk is poured with a liter of boiling water, followed by boiling for 1-2 minutes and infusing for 2 hours.

Spraying with orange peel infusion

The infusion is prepared as follows: 10-20 grams of husks are poured with warm water (5 liters) and infused for 4 days. An accelerated method is also possible, when the husk is poured with a liter of boiling water, followed by boiling for 1-2 minutes and infusing for 2 hours.

Excellent prophylaxis against scale insects and spider mites. Citrus peels are poured with 1 liter of boiling water, which are then infused and filtered.

Aloe juice for growth biostimulation

Excellent prophylaxis against scale insects and spider mites. Citrus peels are poured with 1 liter of boiling water, which are then infused and filtered.

Increases seed germination. In the process of soaking the seeds, a couple of drops of aloe juice are added to the water, followed by aging for 8 to 20 hours. Aloe juice is added when watering indoor plants. A similar juice is obtained from plants that have reached the age of 3: the leaf is kept in the refrigerator for several days before.

How to feed indoor plants at home in spring, when they come to life and grow? Almost everything in your kitchen. To determine if something new will harm your flower, water it just a little and observe its condition.

Perhaps rye bread soaked in water and strained, or apple peelings will please our flowers.

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Watch the video: 5 Hot Composting Mistakes to Avoid