12 wine grape varieties that can be grown in central Russia
The sun has given grapes with a wide range of uses, sweetness and aroma. We will tell Russian gardeners which wine varieties of this culture can be grown in the middle zone of the country.
This variety is considered one of the best for making table wines. It is juicy, has a pleasant sweet taste, with a slight sourness. Berries are oval, medium in size, yellowish or pale green in color with a slight waxy bloom. One bunch weighs about 200-300 grams. The fruits do not crumble if kept longer, without removing, but become sweeter. The crystal tolerates cold up to -29 ° С, frost-resistant. Viable, not afraid of harsh conditions. Sheltered for the winter, this variety tolerates temperatures down to -42 ° C. It ripens early and yields high yields. But it is best to plant it against a wall or next to a shelter, since the plant does not like drafts. Shows resistance to diseases.
The variety is early maturing, grows up to 5 m, the vine is spreading and strong. Begins to ripen in the first half of August. Berries are light green, amber, oval, sweet. It has a pear, pineapple and hazelnut flavor and has a high resistance to cold and crop diseases. It tolerates frosts down to -30 ° С. Due to its excellent taste, it is used to make sweet aromatic white wine.
Muscat Golden Rossoshansky
The variety has shown itself perfectly when grown in the northern regions. In the south, its fruits become harder and less aromatic. He is tall, handsome, very productive. Three inflorescences can form on one branch. Rossoshansky Muscat is well resistant to disease and cold, withstands temperatures down to -30 ° C with a standard shelter. Large sweet clusters that can hang without crumbling for 2-3 weeks are very attractive to insects, in particular wasps. They make a delicious, sweetish nutmeg wine.
Bianca is one of the best varieties of this culture used for making wine. The bushes of this variety are compact, medium-sized. With minimal effort, it is very prolific. Bianca is frost-hardy and grows quickly. It can withstand frosts down to -27 ° C. The berries ripen early, already in the second half of August. The color of the fruit is light, greenish, becomes amber as it ripens. The pulp is juicy, with a high percentage of sugar and water. Therefore, Bianca is suitable for making aromatic semi-sweet and blended dry wines, cognac and spicy vodka.
The bushes are medium-high, the shoots ripen normally. The brushes are thick, juicy, with a crispy skin. The nutmeg flavor of the berries is ideal for making juice and white wine. Tsiravas are popular not only for people, but also for birds and wasps; therefore he needs protection. Frost resistance of Agraa reaches -25 ° С. It is resistant to fungal diseases. Can be cultivated in cold areas.
Platovsky or Early Dawn
It is widely used in the production of dessert and table wines, sweet, with a slight nutmeg flavor. The berries are white, with a pinkish tone, round, with a thin skin. The variety was bred in Russia, tolerates frosts down to -29 ° C without shelter. Platovsky grapes show average resistance to various diseases. Productivity is first-class, the bunches ripen quickly and are filled with juice. The grapes are good in the production of table and muscat wines, especially with the addition of other varieties.
This is an early early ripening hybrid - the fruits ripen in the first half of August. The brushes are medium in size, dense, cylindrical in shape. Fruits are dark purple in color, sweetish, with a thin skin, very juicy. The variety can withstand cold temperatures down to -27 ° C, disease resistant. It is used for the preparation of velvety aromatic wines with a light chocolate aroma.
Tall, beautiful grapes. Brings consistently high yields. Withstands frosts down to -24 ° С, and with shelter - up to -42 ° С. Well pollinated, berries with a delicate flavor of cherry, dark color. Wine from Rondo is made in many countries, and not only dry, but also dessert. It turns out to be of bright color, with an expressive taste.
A feature of the species is the late budding. For the northern regions, this is a great advantage, since the bush is not damaged by recurrent frosts. The crop yields a good yield of medium ripening. The dark round fruits have a deep and sweet taste. Resistance to disease and cold is high, withstands up to -25 ° C. Wine from Cabernet Karol turns out to be spicy, sweet, brightly colored. There is a scent of wild berries, blackberries, spicy notes.
A strong grape variety, bred in Russia, withstands frosts down to -30 ° C. Culture is immune to many diseases. The clusters are very large, oblong, conical in shape. The vine ripens very well. The color of the berries is dark, almost black, matte, high juiciness. The variety is used for the preparation of red table wines, as well as as a base for wine in a blend.
The species is early maturing, created for cold regions. Disease and cold resistance is high. It sings in the first month of autumn. Small conical clusters are covered with dense black berries. The vine ripens well. The juice of the berries is not colored, has almost no aroma. Suitable for high quality winemaking. The taste of the wine is soft, with hints of cream, blueberries, chocolate.
Refers to such grape varieties from which wine is made. Express is an early ripening culture. It can hibernate under the snow without any problems, withstands temperatures down to -30 ° C, resistant to diseases. Fruits are sweet, juicy and aromatic due to their high sugar content, the berries are dark with a purple tint. The brushes are prominent, beautifully shaped. Express makes cognac and wines with a delicate delicate taste.
12 best wine grapes for the northern vineyard
Of course, winemaking is not a matter of a minute, it is akin to art, and it needs to learn, gain experience. But first you need to grow your own wine grapes. Berries of technical varieties, although they are inferior in size to table ones, contain more nutrients. For the production of one bottle of grape wine, approximately 700 grapes are required.
Wine grape varieties due to not too successful synonyms "technical", "techies" are often perceived by novice winegrowers as suitable only for processing into wine and juice. Especially in our area - in central Russia and to the north. Say, you can't put this sort on the table. I must say right away that this opinion is absolutely not true. The taste of wine grape varieties is just much sweeter than that of table varieties, the berries are more juicy, and the intonations in their taste are much more interesting and varied. Many winegrowers even believe that wine grapes are so wonderful that you just need to eat them and not "bother" with the wine.
Grapes: how to care from spring to late autumn
To get a good harvest of grapes in the middle lane, you can use the secrets and tricks of experienced winegrowers who know how to properly grow grapes.
Spring planting of grapes
Grape seedlings with a closed root system can be planted in open ground when the danger of frost has passed. 2-3 days before that, we stop watering them so that the clod of earth does not collapse. We prepare in advance, within the common trench, planting holes with a depth of 30 cm and the same diameter. At the bottom of each pit we put a battle of red brick or lumps of clay, and on top we pour sand mixed with fertile soil with a mound. Carefully place the plant with a lump of earth on a mound. Place a handful of ash and a handful of barley in the root area. Then we fill the hole along the second eye of the seedling, border the near-stem circle with bumpers in the form of a "plate", water and shade the plant to its fullest.
How to transplant an adult grape bush
If the transplant is necessary in the spring, pour 10 liters of hot water into the prepared planting pit. When the water is absorbed, add earth with sand and gravel to the bottom. We prepare the bush: we leave on it two sleeves with one-two-year-old vines on each, remove the rest. It is necessary to dig in the bush at a distance of at least 50 cm from the center, trying to preserve the roots as much as possible. If the soil in the garden is loamy, you can transplant the bush along with the lump, but I have sand, and I can't. Therefore, after digging, I update the root cuts, spread a clay chatterbox in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate and dip the roots into it.
Such a bush will take root easier when transplanting, especially if you also add a handful of barley to the root area. Barley has long been used by farmers of Russia to stimulate the survival of seedlings, including grapes. Scientists explain this by the fact that barley sprouts rank first among cereals in terms of the concentration of antioxidants and contain the natural antibiotic hordecin. In the process of germination, barley releases volatile phytoncides that disinfect the environment. Barley sprouts contain many essential amino acids and phosphorus, which accelerate root development.
If in your area the soil is poor in iron, then do not regret a few rusty nails or cans, fired at the stake (the form of iron, which is formed during firing, is better absorbed by the plant). We lay the bush obliquely together with the sleeves and bases of annual shoots, bringing them out just above the level of the pit. Cut the tops of the vines into three eyes, covering the cuts with garden pitch or wax. Water the bush and cover it on top with a non-woven material. The transplant can be carried out in late autumn, then covering the bush with a traditional air-dry shelter.
Stop crying vines
If in the spring the vine on one of the grape bushes broke or you had to prune, cover the cut with red lead paint on natural linseed oil, adding chalk and boric acid to it, and the "crying" will stop. Varieties in the north have a less intense "cry" than in the southern regions, but this measure in any case will save you harvest, and grapes - strength. A modern solution to this problem is the "Living Bark" balm.
Grape harvest protection
There are few diseases and pests of grapes in the north, but this is still. For those wishing to have environmentally friendly berries, I advise you to use not "chemistry", but biological products. Perfectly heals oidium in grapes by spraying with a 10% mullein infusion, as well as a 1:10 solution of milk or whey (developed by winegrowers in the USA). At the beginning of the trellis, I advise you to plant a rose. She suffers from the same diseases as grapes, and in case of danger, she is the first to signal the need for treatment.
To protect the grape harvest from birds, use old CD-disks, protective nets. Hang them only after the berries start ripening, and remove them immediately after harvesting, otherwise the birds will get used to it.
Watering the grapes
In late spring, when frosts are no longer expected, we finally open the bushes, tie the vines to the lower wire of the trellis and carry out the first watering. Wine (technical) varieties under the age of three and all table varieties are best watered not superficially, but in pipes dug between the bushes - 4 buckets of warm water with the addition of 0.5 liters of dry ash per bush. We do the second watering a week before flowering. The third watering is after flowering. After the start of coloring the berries, it is no longer possible to water the grapes. And only in late autumn, a week before the shelter, it is necessary to do water-charging irrigation: the fourth for all table and young plants of industrial varieties and the only one for adult plants of industrial varieties.
For watering and feeding the grapes, I place plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom between the seedlings. For table varieties, as the bushes grow older, I replace them with asbestos-cement pipe trimmings, and for "techies" (wine varieties) I remove them altogether after three years. Mature wine grapes have to get their own water from the soil, and the deeper the roots, the better the wine from its berries.
How to avoid peeling grapes
So that flowering is delayed and does not fall under frost, in Denmark, when planting grapes, stones are placed on the bottom of the pit, accumulating cold and inhibiting the awakening of the plant. Never water the grapes directly during flowering: this provokes shedding of color and peas on the berries. If June is rainy, cold, and blooming is delayed, arrange a visor over the vine made of a transparent material, such as polycarbonate. Or at least treat with a weak solution of boric acid (0.03% - an incomplete teaspoon per 10 liters of water).
Acceleration of ripening of vines and berries
There are operations and techniques that accelerate the ripening of berries and vines, improve the quality of the harvest.
In June, under the lower brush on a fruitful shoot, remove the bark ring and cambium 3-5 mm wide to the wood. The grapes on this shoot will ripen at least 10 days earlier.
Collapsing the escape into a ring
Wrap a long fruiting shoot with an inclined or horizontal ring, then on this shoot both the berries and the vine itself will ripen earlier.
To accelerate the ripening of vines and berries at the time of slowing growth, when the tops of the shoots - the crowns - are straightened, they are removed, this is called chasing. Often it causes the growth of lateral shoots, and the outflow of nutrients to them. In varieties with poorly ripening vines, I do not break off the tops of the shoots in August, but break them off, leaving them on the bush. This stops the growth of side shoots and directs all the nutrition of the vine to ripen the crop and wood. The effect is significant: the ripening period is reduced by 15–20%. after the top has completely dried, it can be removed.
When the berries are almost ripe, the vine is twisted over the bunch of grapes, from this the bunches are slightly rained, and the ripening of the vine accelerates. The juice from such berries is more concentrated and sweet, and the wine is stronger and more harmonious.
Storage and ripening of berries
To preserve the freshness of the grapes and the ripening of the berries, cut off the brushes along with a piece of vine. If you don't want to waste sugar, you don't need to put the vine in the water. Hang the bunches in a cool room, such as an attic.
Autumn planting of grapes
In autumn, it is possible to plant grapes not earlier than the beginning of October, when the life processes in plants slow down. After planting, tender grape "youth", especially one-year-olds, must be protected from frost. Stick a stick next to the seedling a little longer than itself and close the seedling with a cut-off neck plastic bottle so that it obliquely rests on the peg, and not on the seedling. Pre-make several holes in the bottle and sprinkle it with coniferous litter or earth.
Frost protection of grapes
In the suburbs and north of Moscow, the struggle against spring frosts that damage awakened buds cannot be avoided.
Temporary (until the last frost) covering the grapes with a non-woven material will help out, which is easy to do in the case of trench cultivation. Place containers of water or stones under the shelter as heat stores. Some Amur varieties winter on our gazebo. Although their shoots are also afraid of frost, they are less damaged at the top.
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How did we choose
To prepare the TOP, we studied many reviews of experienced winegrowers and numerous characteristics of varieties - from keeping quality to the taste of berries.
Here's what exactly became the focus of attention:
- Variety - white, black, pink, wine, red
- Ripening dates - early, middle, late
- Weight and size of bunches
- Diameter and shape of berries
- Fruit taste and juiciness
- Peel density
- Sugar content
- Need for care
- Frost resistance
- Resistance to various pests
- Type - non-covering or requires protection with a film
- Breeding method
- Rootstock compatibility
- Rooting of cuttings.
- Requirements for climatic conditions of growth
Also, when selecting good varieties, we paid attention to their type - table or technical. The scope of their application was also taken into account - eating raw, making raisins, producing juices, wines, and champagne.
The grapes are very fond of the sun, so the southern side of the house or garden plot, sheltered from the wind, with loose, drained soil, would be an ideal place to grow it. If there is a slight slope in the area with future grape bushes, then try to plant them closer to the southern or southwestern slope. If the place on the southern part of your site or house is completely occupied, then create comfortable conditions for the grapes. For example, build a small solid fence, about 2 m high, in an east-west direction. Dense fences or screens are also a good option. They can be made from improvised means, as which it is proposed to use a vine or reed.
Grape variety Krasa Nikopol
If you are just starting to grow grapes, then it is best to play it safe and choose frost-resistant varieties. So you will be sure that your plant will survive even the most severe winter, because such varieties are able to withstand temperatures up to -30 degrees or even higher, and they are also very resistant to diseases and pests. However, this grape variety is often stopped by experienced gardeners, it is quite convenient. This is especially true for summer residents in the northern part of the country. They prefer early frost-resistant varieties. However, in this case, it is also worth determining the purpose for which you are going to grow grapes - for food, juice, wine, or simply as decoration. And here you will not be bored, because at the moment there are about 15,000 species.
For table cultivation, beginner gardeners can be advised such unpretentious varieties as Agat Donskoy, Yubileiny Novgorod and Aleshin'kin. Among the universal varieties, Kristall, Platovsky, Krasa Nikopol stand out. But for lovers of early and very early grapes, Liepaja Amber, Early Tsiravsky are suitable. In the grape arsenal, it is also necessary to have the Krasa Severa variety, rich in a large amount of phosphoric acid, which is extremely useful for our body. However, remember not to choose too many varieties of grapes. For a start, 4-5 varieties will be enough.
Features of growing non-covering varieties
The notation in the description of the grape that the hybrid is not covering must be taken into account, but proceed with caution. Even the most resistant species do not show their abilities immediately; adaptation to growing conditions, gradual adaptation of the plant to cold weather is necessary.
- in the first two seasons, before wintering, the vine is carefully removed from the supports and laid under a shelter
- in the third year, they experiment with one tall and powerful shoot, leaving it for testing frost resistance
- with a good result, in the spring in the fall, the entire bush is left without shelter.
Hybrid forms grow quickly, forming powerful bushes. Without rationing of shoots, regular pruning, the yield is significantly reduced. A large number of stems slows down the formation of grones, the berries ripen slowly. Without pinching and removing stepchildren, the grapes degenerate, the hybrid loses its unique properties, passing into the category of "simple" species.
Planting in spring requires special care, when the main frosts pass in regions with a harsh climate, but light frosts are likely. The vine of frost-resistant varieties does not tolerate thaws, spring drops. A reading of minus 10ºC can ruin plantings, although the plants wintered well.
The northern regions, Siberia and the Urals are territories that are optimally suitable in terms of climate for non-sheltering hybrids. Plants withstand the cold, while in the soil there are no microorganisms and pests dangerous for grapes.
Winegrowers use less toxic chemicals for processing, which are difficult to do without in the south. For top dressing, organic matter is often used, obtaining environmentally friendly and safe crops.
What grape varieties are better to plant in the suburbs
The best frost-resistant non-covering grape varieties for the Moscow region to breed, which are not at all difficult:
- Anniversary of Novocherkassk
- Radiant kishmish
- Pearl Saba
- Super extra
- Beauty of the North.
No greenhouses or other special shelters are required to cultivate them. Also, non-covering varieties are immune to all kinds of diseases and pests.
This is a very unpretentious, frost-resistant grape, which is not afraid of even forty-degree frosts, the yield does not fall after such frosts. The bush is very tall, with clusters of moderate size, composed of bluish-black, with a waxy bloom, berries. True, they are slightly sour, which is not noticeable in the processed form.
Anniversary of Novocherkassk
This is one of the best types of southern berries, which was bred by the amateur winegrower Krainov N.V. A tall bush grows impressive cone-shaped clusters, weighing up to 1.6 kilograms, but with proper care, they can be three times more. The berries are yellow-pink in color, weighing up to 800 g, have an elongated plum-like shape with a juicy sweet pulp and a dense skin that is easily eaten. This is a delicious dining experience.
He is not afraid of a drop in temperature of -25 ° C (you don't even need to cover it).
Important! If you are not sure that it will not be colder, it is better to insulate a heat-loving culture. Also a positive property is early ripening, only 112-122 days.
The anniversary of Novocherkassk is resistant to fungi, but for the sake of prevention, it will not hurt to process the bushes. Covering nets will help from feathered lovers of grapes and wasps, with which you can cover either the whole plant or only individual brushes.
This sweet seedless berry is obtained by breeding Rose Kishmish with Cardinal. Ripening period is early-average from 115 to 135 days. Its name is fully justified: in the sun, pinkish-crimson berries seem to emit light. Radiant Kishmish - seedless, belongs to table varieties, with a very sweet berry, collected in loose clusters weighing 700-900 g. It ripens around September, its yield is increased, up to 14 kg per bush. It is best to cultivate this vine with sweet berries on special devices: arches or arbors, so that the bunches are well blown by the wind in order to avoid fungal infections. This variety can perfectly self-pollinate itself, it does not need a third-party pollinator.
Breeders at VNIIViV named after Ya.I. Potapenko crossed Italy varietal grapes with Zoreva variety, the result was a table variety grape and ripening period of 13-15 weeks after the buds bloom, approximately in the last decade of August. Tapered brushes weigh up to 600 g. If the entire growing process is carried out correctly, they can be over a kilogram. Greenish-pink berries of an oval-round shape. They have a harmonious taste with a pronounced nutmeg note.
Tason's leaf is light emerald, heart-shaped, strongly dissected. The flowers are bisexual, you don't have to worry about the integrity of the species.
Important! A tangible drawback - it is strongly affected by fungi, it is necessary to carry out pesticide treatments.
This variety is bred through a complex combination. First, the Challotsi Lajos varieties were crossed with the Amur varieties, and then the frost-resistant Villard Blanc from Hungary was added to the resulting species. The result is a variety with remarkable characteristics: it is sweet and very winter hardy. This versatile variety makes a wonderful wine.
The ripening period of the Kristall wine variety is from 110 to 115 days. It ripens in mid-August.
Important! Hanging on the bush almost until the very frost, the Crystal berries will not lose their presentation.
At this time, he “fills up” the sweetness, which is a good quality if the berries are simply eaten, but this is not entirely acceptable for winemaking.
The variety is frost-resistant, not afraid of lowering the temperature to -29 ° C. In the suburbs, sending it for the winter, it is possible to do without burying, but only to cut it off and thoroughly insulate it.
Immunity to fungal diseases, as well as increased immunity at the gene level from gray rot, are very pleasing to winegrowers. The bushes are medium-sized. The leaves are heart-shaped, and on the same plant they are dissected in different ways. The berries are medium in size, up to 2.5 grams, collected in neat brushes weighing up to 200 grams. The color of the rounded berries is light green with a slight bloom of wax.
Crystal is good in the production of wine, in preparations for the winter and consumption in its raw form.
On an industrial scale, Pearl has shown itself not from the best side. The brushes are small, up to 120 grams, the cracking of the fruits is increased, during transportation they are crumpled.
But with all its minuses, there are pluses:
- Fast maturation in 110 days
- Pleasant balanced taste
- Beautiful even fruits.
Pearls are not afraid of winter frosts. If the thermometer does not drop below 27 degrees, the vine need not be insulated, but for the Moscow region it is still better to insulate it for the winter, even one frosty day will destroy the vine.
A small round berry of golden green color with a white waxy bloom no more than 2 centimeters in shape and resembles pearls in color, hence the name of this grape variety.
Important! This variety should not overripe, the berries get an unpleasant aftertaste.
The variety is very prone to peas, although the flowers are bisexual. If this Pearl is not very suitable for large volumes, then for private vineyards, especially where the climate cannot boast of warm winters, this very early type is well suited.
It is a very popular variety. The residents of Moscow and the Moscow region, who are engaged in viticulture, could not bypass it either. In general, the variety is good for everyone, it is unpretentious in agricultural technology, with good winter hardiness, it is table-technical, that is, universal. It is consumed fresh, making juice, compotes, jam and jelly, as well as wine. A very big disadvantage for Isabella is its long growing season - more than 160 days.
The dark purple Isabella berries are round, up to 2 cm in diameter, have a sour sweet taste with a strawberry aroma that cannot be confused with anything.
Important! Isabella grapes contain a lot of phytoncides. Hence, the juice has antibacterial qualities.
If you follow all the rules for planting and cultivating this variety, then this wonderful grape can be grown in the Moscow region.
This is a relatively young variety that has managed to show its very good qualities. It is early ripening and well-rooted, ripening in 100-120 days. Finger-shaped, sour-sweet berries, the color of which is mauve, are collected in an elegant bunch, weighing from 550 g to 2.0 kg. The winegrowers of the Moscow region emphasize the excellent, up to 18 kg, yield.
It overwinters without shelter to -24 ° C, below it is already necessary to insulate.
And of course there are disadvantages:
- Fungal damage
- Wasp damage
- Doesn't like dampness.
Evgeny Pavlovsky bred many different grape varieties. Super Extra is also his brainchild. The "parents" of Super Extras are Sora Talisman and Cardinal. The ultra-early variety meets all parameters for growing in cold regions of Russia:
- early maturity
- Frost resistance
- Disease immunity
- High-quality transportation.
It is easy to substitute the prefix "super" for all these characteristics. On a strong, tall bush, there are many clusters weighing about 800 g, which consist of greenish-amber berries with a sweet fleshy pulp. The leaves are five-toed, pale green in color. Flowers are bisexual. The yield is large, up to 16 kg.
Propagated by cuttings, seedlings and grafting.
Beauty of the North
Many Moscow winegrowers argue that it is imperative to try to grow the Krasa Severa grapes. This unpretentious variety is not afraid of frosts down to -24 ° C, and under cover it is not afraid of -30 ° C. The berries are green in color, and when fully ripe, they become almost belmey, with a tan. The taste is tart, with sourness.
Important! The use of Grapes of the Northern Beauty by pregnant women has a good effect on the formation of the neural tube of the fetus.
Many varieties, zoned for Central Russia, can winter without shelter, but it is better not to risk it, in these regions it is not uncommon for the thermometer to drop below 30 ° C.
Comparing for himself all the pros and cons of each variety, the characteristics of his personal plot, what is its soil and the illumination of the sun, everyone will decide for himself which grapes are better to plant in the suburbs. It remains to acquire seedlings and grow beautiful grapes on their mistakes and victories.