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Soil care: liquid phase or soil solution

Soil care: liquid phase or soil solution


Read the previous part. ← Soil care: air, mineral and organic components

Sixth property - the ability of the soil to provide plants with water.

The liquid phase of the soil - the soil solution - is the environment where all the processes of absorption of nutrients from the solution and the soil-absorbing complex by plant roots and the exchange response transfer from the roots of hydrogen and OH ions to the soil solution take place.

This is mainly film water, it surrounds all soil particles and roots, envelops them around, creating favorable conditions for exchange processes between the root and the soil-absorbing complex. There is almost no free water in the soil, because it easily goes into deeper layers.

Cohesive water, film water of the soil, cannot be absorbed by the root, as the pump does. Soil is not a glass of water, and plants are not a pump. Water cannot be simply absorbed by the roots, it is also absorbed by the roots in exchange for hydrophilic colloidal particles, like all other nutrients.

Humidity

soil

plays a leading role in fertility. The solubility of various compounds in the soil and their absorption by plants depends to a very large extent on its moisture content. Plant roots cannot take nutrients from dry soil. In waterlogged soil, nutrition is also difficult due to the fact that there is a lack of oxygen for the roots of plants, and acidic compounds that are toxic to the roots accumulate in it, so they do not receive nutrition and quickly die off.

As a result, the plant also dies. The alternating moistening and drying of the soil is especially harmful. Under such conditions, all fertilizers can become inaccessible to plants. Therefore, the soil must constantly have optimal moisture and fully meet the plants' need for water, and this is achieved by timely and abundant watering over the entire area of ​​plant nutrition.

In the hot season, the reserves of winter-spring moisture in the soil can only last for two to three weeks. Therefore, it is necessary to close the moisture by early spring harrowing of the beds in order to disrupt the capillary rise of water to the soil surface and reduce evaporation. Harrowing is often combined with

mulching the soil

and watering.

There are still some difficulties in creating optimal soil moisture - they lie in the unevenness of the soil. Let's imagine the following situation. One plant grows on a mound, and the other in a slight depression. And now it is raining or watering, the plant on the mound will be hungry, since the water will flow into the depression, and the plant in the hole will receive a double portion of water and end up in a swamp.

To remedy the situation, you need to make sure that the microrelief of the site is sufficiently even, and the water is distributed equally to all plants. And if you want to provide the plants with water in abundance, you first need to level the soil on the site, that is, always maintain its optimal evenness in order to ensure high-quality watering.

The soil is a very complex system, it lives and dies, like any living body. Each climatic zone has its own specific soils. In the taiga zone, and our North-West region belongs to it, the leaching type of water regime prevails, when the amount of precipitation significantly exceeds evaporation, excess water seeps into deep layers and forms sod-podzolic soils.

And where the subsoil layers do not allow water to pass through, swamp soils arise. Sod-podzolic soils are formed on flat areas of land, and bog soils - in low areas, where lowland swamps appear. Therefore, our soils need reclamation (improvement) and, first of all, in the removal of excess water.

All horticultures were established in this way, after the construction of the reclamation system. But the reclamation did not end there. Many gardeners think that the swamps are somewhere in the forest, and they are wrong. The swamp is also formed at the summer cottage. The size of the wetland varies, from 20 cm in diameter to several meters. If you look closely, you can find many wetlands in your country house. These are problem areas, and they must first of all improve, you need to actively fight for their fertility.

It is very important that the soil cover at a particular summer cottage is even, the slightest unevenness of the relief must be avoided, otherwise water will stagnate in the depressions and a swamp process will form. On elevations, soil erosion and washout processes may appear. Therefore, it is necessary to fight even with a slight stagnation of water, since it can immediately change the course of the soil-forming process, the soddy-podzolic process will be replaced by the swamp process.

It is never too late to level the plot, you need to carry out this work always, practically with every tillage. After that, it is easier to water and it is easier to create good fertility in terms of providing the plants with water. Thus, the next step towards creating a fertile soil is to provide plants with water. It consists in leveling the soil surface.

It is necessary not to make deep furrows between the beds and flower beds, and regular and abundant watering should be carried out not only near the plant stem, but also around it and between rows along the entire feeding area of ​​the corresponding crop. Watering is necessary infrequently, but abundantly - this is the main rule for increasing soil fertility.

Seventh property of fertility - providing plants with oxygen. There is enough oxygen in the air, you just need to create good conditions for better gas exchange between the soil and atmospheric air. To do this, the soil must be loosened well, with the formation of a crust, fight with harrowing, increase gas exchange between the soil air with poor oxygen and the atmospheric way of optimal irrigation of the beds.

Water displacing soil air will replace it with atmospheric air. Therefore, the next step towards creating a fertile soil is the observance of the correct agrotechnical processing of it, which allows you to provide plants with oxygen.

Thus, the whole process of creating fertile soil consists of six main methods and technologies - making

organic

and lime fertilizers, clay or sanding of the soil, the use of the whole complex

mineral fertilizers

, leveling the soil surface during processing, strict adherence to agricultural techniques for the cultivation of a particular crop. With the obligatory and strict implementation of all methods and technologies, you can easily achieve high soil fertility, which will guarantee a good yield of plants, as well as excellent quality of crop products.

To summarize, in a concentrated form, all measures to maintain soil fertility can be expressed as follows: it is necessary to apply fertilizers every spring for digging to a depth of 18 cm with a bed turnover: manure - 8000-10000 g / m? , dolomite flour - 200-300 g / m2, nitrophosphate - 100-150, boric acid - 0.2, copper sulfate - 0.2, ammonium molybdate - 0.1 g / m2? , and for fruit and berry crops, you need to add 0.1 g / m? zinc sulfate and for vegetable crops 0.1 g / m? cobalt sulfate.

When sowing or planting plants in rows or nests, is it necessary to apply 7-10 g / m2? superphosphate as a pre-sowing fertilizer. After that, you will not need to worry about feeding and think about adding more. In this case, the soil will be able to provide plants with all the nutrients necessary for its growth and development.

Fertilizers should

combine with watering

, good agricultural technology, clay and sanding of the site. This complex of works and fertilizers must be applied annually and in a comprehensive manner, regardless of whether cultivated plants are grown or the plots are kept under fallow. Only in this case the soil will always be fertile.

Read the next part. Soil Care: Feed the soil, not the plants! →

Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the SZ Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener


Read all parts of the article "Soil is the most important thing!"
- Part 1. Soil care: what the soil is made of
- Part 2. Soil care: air, mineral and organic components
- Part 3. Soil care: liquid phase or soil solution
- Part 4. Soil care: you need to feed the soil, not the plants!
- Part 5. Soil care: agricultural mistakes

Origin and botanical description of the plant

Asparagus grows in Europe, Asia, you can find it in Africa, North America. In central Russia, an exotic plant is presented as an indoor crop, which, with the right approach, forms a luxurious green bush.

Asparagus is actively used in floristry, with its help office premises and living rooms are decorated. Such species as Sprenger and Meyer are especially in demand. Asparagus is used as an ampelous plant, climbing and potted.

Evergreen asparagus can be represented as a shrub or liana, and as a perennial herb. There are feathery varieties, as well as sickle and umbrella. A well-developed root system goes deep into the ground. At the initial stage of its formation, a strong shoot appears from the bud, from which further growth of processes occurs.

The indoor plant asparagus forms green herbaceous stems, their length is 1.5 meters. Shoots with sufficient flexibility are actively involved in the process of photosynthesis. Scaly-shaped leaves are formed on them. Narrow foliage - short needle-shaped twigs (cladodia) growing in groups on an elongated sprout.

Asparagus flowers can be arranged individually or formed into corymbose inflorescences. In an enclosed space, the flowering phase is often absent. The formation of small flowers occurs in the axils of the leaf plates. Symmetrical corolla, consisting of 6 small petals, is unisexual and bisexual. The plant begins to bloom at the age of 5-6 years; upon completion, ripening of small red fruits with small seeds is observed.

Considering that shoots and berries contain toxic substances, it is impossible to place a flowerpot with asparagus in the reach of children and pets.


Types of poultry

Ornithogalum from the Hyacinth family in nature is represented by 150 species, which mainly grow in the tropical parts of the Americas. Single species can be found on the continent of Eurasia. In culture, only about 10 varieties of a representative of exotic flora are grown. They grow well both outdoors and at home.

Caudate

A tall perennial plant with a rounded bulb up to 10 cm in diameter. Linear bright green leaves with a characteristic bend along the central vein grow to almost a meter. Before the beginning of budding, a peduncle appears from the root rosette. Height - up to 1.5 m. Each arrow is crowned with spike-shaped inflorescences formed by light green or white flowers in the amount of 30-50 pieces.

Umbrella

Perennial with dark green foliage and medium-sized bulbs. The bushes are compact and do not exceed 30-40 cm. In the umbellate poultry plant, flower stalks begin to develop when the leaf plates die off. The top of each arrow is crowned with spikelet-shaped inflorescences. Thanks to the successive opening of the buds, the flowering phase is extended by a week.

A plant with a rosette of elongated, beautifully curving leaves. The color of the latter is bright green. When blooming, note 20 flowers of 6 petals, colored green, on each peduncle. Arrows are thick, strong, without leaves. The underground part is represented by bulbs, which do not exceed a diameter of 3-4 cm even in adult specimens.

Drooping

The variety is characterized by linear elongated leaves and peduncles towering above the green mass. The latter are strong and powerful. Able, without bending, to withstand the weight of 20-25 buds in full bloom. The sequence of blooming flowers, forming inflorescences, from bottom to top. The color is silvery-green, which gives the exotic an additional charm.

Doubtful

Brighter look. During flowering, compact bushes with a height of about 30 cm are decorated with orange flowers, the birdhouse enters its most decorative phase in spring. The leaf plates with a wax coating are elongated, with a triangular shape. Buds with dark (almost brown) hearts open sequentially.

Arab

The representative of the genus blooms in the first half of summer, when small buds are formed on the discarded arrows (up to half a meter in height). They are collected in a brush. The color is white or cream. A subtle aroma emanates. Green leaf plates are collected in a root rosette. The foliage color is green with a characteristic bloom - gray or waxy.


COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC SOIL PARTS

The state standard (1988) gives the following definition of soil. Soil is an independent natural-historical organic-mineral natural body that arose on the Earth's surface as a result of prolonged exposure to biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors, consisting of solid mineral and organic particles, water and air and having specific genetic and morphological signs, properties that create growth and the development of plants appropriate conditions.

The soil consists of three phases: solid, liquid (soil solution) and gaseous (soil air), which are in constant contact and interaction.

    Agrochemistry

The gaseous phase of the soil is soil air, which plays an important role in the life of plants, their roots and aerobic microorganisms. Soil air is located in non-capillary pores (large gaps in the soil), since most of the capillaries contain water. When all the pores are filled with water, the soil air is forced out of the soil. If the soil is dry, then the air fills all the pores (capillary and non-capillary). In either case, the nutrition of plants is disrupted and they die.

The most favorable ratio of water and air is possible on loose, structurally cultivated and well-cultivated soils.

Soil structure is the physical structure of the solid part and pore space of the soil, due to the size, shape, quantitative ratio, the nature of the relationship and the location of both mechanical elements and aggregates consisting of them. On structured cultivated soils, the applied fertilizers are most effective, since the plants receive normal and uninterrupted nutrition.

The composition of the soil air is very different from the above-soil air. It is rich in carbon dioxide, and is poor in oxygen in sprayed, poorly cultivated soils.

Constant gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere leads to the enrichment of carbon dioxide in the above-ground layer of air. And this improves the air nutrition of plants with carbon dioxide (photosynthesis), which leads to an increase in plant productivity. At an increased concentration of CO2 in the soil air, it dissolves in the soil solution, forming carbonic acid, which acidifies the soil solution:

As a result, the soil solution enhances the dissolution of soil mineral compounds (phosphates, carbonates, etc.), converting nutrients into a form accessible to plants.

With poor soil aeration (excessive moisture, strong compaction), an excess of CO2 and a lack of oxygen are created in the soil, microbiological processes are suppressed, and anaerobic reductive ones are activated. As a result, respiration and root growth deteriorate, and plant growth slows down. Therefore, it is important to create conditions for good aeration of the soil, which will favorably affect its biological activity, nutrition and plant growth.

Liquid phase of the soil. No life, including life in the soil, and no chemical processes are unthinkable without water, without solutions. All transformations of substances take place in soil solutions or at the interface between colloidal particles and solution (liquid phase). IN AND.

Plants are nourished with various substances through the solution. It is not by chance, therefore, that the plant may experience hunger even with a full set of all nutrients, if the soil lacks moisture. Consequently, fertilizers can only play a positive role if there is sufficient moisture in the soil.

The water in the soil is in different states. In the air that fills the gaps between the lumps of soil, it is in the form of vapor. With a decrease in temperature, the vapor turns into a liquid and settles on solid particles as a continuous film. Soil water adjacent to soil particles, due to great attraction, loses all ability to move and is in a state close to solid. This water is called hygroscopic. An aqueous shell in the form of a film, located behind a fixed layer of hygroscopic water, is called a film shell. The combination of hygroscopic water and steam, as well as part of the film water that is most closely pressed against the molecular layer of water, is called the dead moisture reserve. It is inaccessible to the plant and is usually equal to twice the maximum soil hygroscopicity.

The higher the dead moisture reserve, the more silty (colloidal) particles and organic matter (humus) in the soil. For example, sandy soil, poor in humus, contains only 1% of moisture inaccessible to plants, and very heavy loams and clay soils, rich in humus, up to 15% of this moisture. In peat soils, the dead stock reaches 20-50%.

The water regime of the soil, and, consequently, the effectiveness of fertilizers largely depend on its moisture capacity and permeability. Moisture capacity is the ability of soils to retain water under the influence of sorption and capillary forces. Water permeability is the ability of the soil to perceive and pass water through itself. Clayy and rich in organic matter (humus) soils have a high moisture capacity and low water permeability and, therefore, a significant dead moisture reserve, sandy and humus-poor soils, on the contrary, have a low moisture capacity, but high water permeability. This must be taken into account when determining the presence of useful moisture in the soil and when applying fertilizers.

When the amount of water in the soil begins to exceed its dead reserve, it penetrates into the thinnest soil pores - capillaries. The water that fills them is called capillary. This moisture is well absorbed by plants during nutrition. With an excessive amount of moisture in the soil, it also fills larger, non-capillary gaps. This water is called gravitational moisture. It moves in the soil under the influence of gravity and therefore easily seeps into the soil. The greatest amount of gravitational water is observed only after rains, melting snow or artificial irrigation.

Water with dissolved substances (salts, acids, bases, etc.), gases and microorganisms contained in it is called a soil solution. In different soils, the composition of the soil solution and its concentration are different, which determines different regimes of plant nutrition. Soil solution is the most dynamic and active part of the soil. It constantly receives various soluble chemical compounds formed as a result of weathering and destruction of minerals, decomposition of organic substances by microorganisms, and the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers. The content of various cations and anions in the soil solution is primarily determined by the type of soil. For plant nutrition, it is especially important to have a sufficient amount of K +, Ca2 +,] Y ^ 2 +, NH4 +, 1NO3 ", SCgt42-, H2PO4" in the solution, a constant replenishment of these ions.

The concentration of salts in a soil solution depends on the type of soil, its properties and chemical composition, natural conditions, the degree of salinity, migration of salts along the soil profile, anthropogenic impact on the soil, etc. Usually it is hundredths of a percent (about 0.05%). When the concentration of salts in the soil solution is more than 0.2%, they have a harmful effect on the plant. On saline soils, the concentration can reach several percent.

The solid phase of the soil consists of the mineral part (90-99% of the mass of the solid phase) and organic. The mineral part of the soil contains all the ash chemical elements, 1-3% of the total nitrogen, it is almost completely in the organic part of the soil. And elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are found in the mineral and organic parts of the soil.


Soil care: liquid phase or soil solution - garden and vegetable garden

As you know, it is impossible to grow a beautiful, healthy rose on poor, diseased soil. For this, it is necessary that all the properties of the soil meet the requirements of a growing and blooming rose, so that the soil is sufficiently fertile.
Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to provide plants with all the conditions and substances necessary for their growth and development, and these are beneficial microorganisms, carbon dioxide, optimal physicochemical and acid-base properties, all nutrients in the required concentrations and ratios, water and oxygen.
Therefore, it is necessary to work to increase soil fertility in all these seven areas at the same time.

Let's consider them separately - each in the order of mentioning and, accordingly, in importance and in its meaning.
The first duty of fertile soil - to provide plants with beneficial microorganisms. It is known that the soil consists of a mineral and organic phase (soil skeleton), soil air (air phase), soil solution (liquid phase) and a living phase (soil living organisms that live in the soil). Each of these phases in soddy-podzolic soil does not fully meet the requirements of plants and needs to be improved accordingly.

It is necessary to start improving the soil from the living phase, as the most dynamic and most vulnerable. It is necessary to take care of the living phase of the soil first of all, since it does not just exist in the soil, but lives and works, eats and requires a lot of energy and nutrients for itself. Providing them with both food and energy in sufficient quantities is the most important responsibility of the gardener. If the gardener does not care about the preservation of useful microflora in a working state, then harmful organisms come to replace it. Plants in this case are affected by diseases and pests and also die. Fertile soil is always rich in microorganisms useful for plants, and in infertile soil there is always a lack of them, most often there is a lack of rhizosphere, plants living in the root zone, free living, living in row spacings, and nodule bacteria found in root nodules in symbiosis with plants.

They do not use solar energy, but extract it from organic matter. Therefore, the first task of the gardener is to provide a good source of energy for the living phase of the soil, then provide enough water and food. This is easily done by applying organic fertilizers to the soil. The best of them is fresh or semi-rotten manure, which contains a lot of organic matter as a source of energy and minerals as a food source, as well as a new portion of beneficial microorganisms.

Consequently, organic fertilizers are obligatory fertilizers that allow ensuring the normal vital activity of the living phase of the soil and creating its high fertility. In addition, with organic fertilizers, plants receive an additional set of beneficial microorganisms. This is the first step that gardeners must take to create a fertile soil, that is, to apply organic fertilizers to the soil in sufficient quantities to maintain the normal life of the living phase and the whole soil in general.

The second property of the soil is to provide plants with carbon dioxide. The air phase of the soil contains little oxygen and is always rich in carbon dioxide, but for the roots of plants the opposite should be true - a lot of oxygen and less carbon dioxide, because the roots breathe, consuming oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide. Therefore, the gardener is faced with the task of ensuring good gas exchange between the soil air and atmospheric air, in other words, increasing the aeration of the soil so that all carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere as quickly as possible, so that the plant leaves receive carbon dioxide nutrition faster. The gardener's task is to apply appropriate carbon dioxide fertilizers and improve gas exchange between soil and atmosphere, in other words, improve soil respiration. And here the best carbon dioxide fertilizer is fresh or semi-rotten manure. Therefore, the ability of the soil to provide plants with carbon dioxide, that is, to be fertile according to the second criterion, is also decided by the gardener by applying organic fertilizers.

How much organic fertilizer should be applied? 10 kg / m² annually - this is enough for microorganisms to obtain energy for themselves and to replenish carbon dioxide reserves for plants. And the respiration of the soil can be improved by good processing, so that it is loose, since during compaction it breathes poorly, the roots of plants and soil microorganisms at the same time suffer from a lack of oxygen and from an excess of carbon dioxide in the soil air. Therefore, the next step is to observe the correct agricultural practices of plants, apply organic fertilizers, and then the soil will be fertile.

The third property we have noted along the path of creating fertility is to create optimal physicochemical properties of the soil ... Its skeleton is composed of organic and mineral parts.

The organic part of the soil is composed of undecomposed organic matter, humus, humic acids, fulvic acids and their salts. You can replenish stocks of organic matter by systematically applying organic fertilizers.

The mineral part of the soil is composed of physical clay and physical sand. Its physical properties, more precisely, the mechanical composition depends on the ratio of sand and clay in the soil. According to their mechanical composition, they are divided into clay, loamy, sandy loam and sandy. The mechanical composition of clay or sandy soils is not quite suitable for growing plants, these types of soils need to be corrected, corrected by applying sanding or claying methods. Sanding or claying is the next step towards achieving high soil fertility after the application of organic fertilizers and proper agricultural cultivation of plants. Sanding or claying is carried out by introducing 100-150 kg for each square meter of sand or clay. This amount will be quite enough to transfer the clay soil to the category of loamy, and sandy - to sandy loam. Such work does not need to be carried out every year; it is enough to do it once every 20-30 years.

There is another important characteristic for the agrochemical understanding of soil fertility - the capacity of the soil-absorbing complex. This is the total content of colloidal particles in it. The colloidal part of the soil consists of organic and clay particles, it has an amazing property - the ability to absorb and retain nutrients in a state absorbed and available to plants. The reserves of organic colloidal particles are replenished again by the introduction of organic fertilizers, and the reserves of mineral clay particles are replenished in the process of clay soil. The reserves of the organic part of the soil-absorbing complex are consumed very quickly - in just 3-4 years, and the reserves of mineral colloids are sufficient for a fairly long period - about 30 years. During these periods, they will work as a storehouse for nutrients, provide plants with these substances. But then the mineral colloids are gradually washed out by atmospheric precipitation into the underlying layers of the earth.

The fourth property of fertile soil is to create optimal acid-base conditions for plants. Acid-base conditions depend on the content of hydrogen, aluminum, iron and hydroxyl group (OH) ions in the soil. Fertile soils are considered to have a weak acidity or neutral reaction, the optimum acidity should be in the range of pH 5.5-7.0. Our soddy-podzolic soils are highly acidic, they have a lot of hydrogen ions, even in excess, and pH = 4.0-5.1, there are many iron and aluminum ions that are toxic to plants, so they are considered to be of little fertility. It is quite simple to reduce the acidity of the soil - you need to add lime fertilizers to the soil. Timely liming of the soil is the next mandatory step, a step towards achieving high soil fertility. In order to shift the pH of the soil from 4.8 to 5.5, it is necessary to add at least 1 kg / m² of any lime fertilizer to the soil, it is best if it is dolomite flour, which will destroy excess acidity and reduce the toxic content of aluminum and iron , and will provide plants with new nutrients - calcium and magnesium. The lime fertilizer will last for 4-5 years, and therefore the liming procedure will need to be repeated over and over again every 4-5 years.

The fifth property of soil fertility is to provide plants with nutrients. All nutrients are divided into macronutrients - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and trace elements - boron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, manganese, selenium and iodine. There is also a group of elements - ultramicroelements, but they are still little used in agricultural practice. Plants need all of the nutrients at the same time. Plants absorb carbon through the leaves from the ground air as CO2. To increase the soil fertility in terms of carbon, as noted above, carbon dioxide fertilizers are used in the form of manure. Plants take oxygen from the air by breathing through the leaves. Plants take hydrogen from water, decomposing it into hydrogen, which is used in plant nutrition, and oxygen, which they release into the air, enriching the atmospheric air with oxygen. All other macroelements and microelements of the plant are absorbed by the root cells from the soil, from the soil-absorbing complex by means of an equivalent exchange for hydrogen or OH-ion. The presence of a large and voluminous soil-absorbing complex in the soil indicates a high potential of the soil to absorb and retain nutrients for plants. It is a storehouse of soil for nutrients. Plants are mainly fed from this pantry. Therefore, to improve the nutritional regime of soils, it is necessary to apply all mineral fertilizers in the complex, and to keep the nutrients in the soil from leaching out, it is necessary that both organic fertilizers and clay on sandy soils by clay, and lime fertilizers to create favorable conditions for plant nutrition be applied. ...

There are very few nutrients in the sod-podzolic soil. Only soil can be fertile if it contains all the nutrients available without exception and in sufficient quantity without excess or deficiency.Due to a lack or excess of a nutrient, plants will either starve or be poisoned. There is only one way out - you need to maintain all the elements in the soil in an optimal ratio and in optimal concentrations, and then it will be fertile. This is achieved through the complex introduction of all mineral macro- and micronutrient fertilizers.

The soil also has such excellent properties as absorption capacity and buffering capacity. This is the ability of the soil to absorb and smooth out sharp jumps in the concentration of a particular nutrient in the soil solution when fertilizing. The absorption capacity of fertile soils is quite sufficient to retain and retain nutrients from fertilizers without changing the concentration of the soil solution. Therefore, all mineral fertilizers are safe to use, they cannot greatly shift the concentration of the soil solution, or be washed out of the soil due to the high absorption capacity of the soil and its buffering capacity.

Therefore, in order to increase soil fertility, one more step needs to be taken - annually apply nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, boric, copper, molybdenum, zinc and cobalt fertilizers. The need for calcium and magnesium in this case will be satisfied by liming the soil, for example, dolomite flour will provide plants with calcium and magnesium completely for 4-5 years. An excess of iron, manganese, aluminum and hydrogen can also be dealt with by liming the soil, because in a neutral medium, after liming, the solubility of these elements drops sharply, toxicity does not manifest itself and it is not necessary to introduce these elements with fertilizers. The optimal doses of mineral fertilizers will be given below in the text.

The sixth property is the ability of the soil to provide plants with water. The liquid phase of the soil - the soil solution - is the environment where all the processes of absorption of nutrients from the solution and the soil-absorbing complex by plant roots and the exchange response transfer from the roots of hydrogen and OH ions to the soil solution take place. This is mainly film water, it surrounds all soil particles and roots, envelops them around, creating favorable conditions for exchange processes between the root and the soil-absorbing complex. Water is absorbed by the roots in exchange for hydrophilic colloidal particles, like all other nutrients.

At optimum humidity, the nutrients are in a more accessible state for plants and are easily and quickly absorbed by the roots. Plant roots cannot take nutrients from dry soil. In addition, in dry soil, all nutrients pass into a poorly soluble state and cannot be used by plant roots. In waterlogged soil, nutrition is also difficult due to the fact that there is a lack of oxygen for the roots of plants, and acidic compounds that are toxic to the roots accumulate in it, so they do not receive nutrition and quickly die off. As a result, the plant also dies. The alternating moistening and drying of the soil is especially harmful. Under such conditions, all fertilizers can become inaccessible to plants. Therefore, the soil must constantly have optimal moisture and fully meet the plants' need for water, and this is achieved by timely and abundant watering over the entire area of ​​plant nutrition.

In order to reduce the evaporation of water from the soil surface in hot weather, it is necessary to carry out early spring harrowing and soil mulching.

There are still some difficulties in creating optimal soil moisture - they lie in the unevenness of the soil. Let's imagine the following situation. One rose grows on a mound, and the other in a slight depression. And now it is raining or watering, the rose on the hillock will be hungry, as the water will flow into the depression, and the rose in the hole will receive a double portion of water and end up in a swamp. Both plants feel bad - one is hungry, the other suffocates in the swamp due to lack of oxygen and excess water. If you want to provide the plants with water in abundance, you first need to level the soil on the site, that is, always maintain its optimal evenness in order to ensure high-quality watering and, accordingly, high soil fertility, taking into account the need for water.

It is very important that the soil cover at a particular summer cottage is even, the slightest unevenness of the relief must be avoided, otherwise water will stagnate in the depressions and a swamp process will form. On elevations, soil erosion and washout processes may appear. Therefore, it is necessary to fight even with a slight stagnation of water, since it can immediately change the course of the soil-forming process, the soddy-podzolic process will be replaced by the swamp process.

Leveling the site is necessary for every tillage. Thus, the next step towards creating a fertile soil is to provide plants with water. It consists in leveling the soil surface.

The seventh property of fertility is to provide plants with oxygen. To do this, the soil must be loosened well, with the formation of a crust, fight with harrowing, increase gas exchange between the soil air with poor oxygen and the atmospheric way of optimal irrigation of the beds. Water displacing soil air will replace it with atmospheric air. Therefore, the next step towards creating a fertile soil is the observance of the correct agrotechnical processing of it, which allows you to provide plants with oxygen.

FIRST ERROR
Measures to create fertile soil are not carried out
, caring for soil fertility is not considered the main task of agriculture
The whole process of creating fertile soil consists of: applying organic and lime fertilizers, claying or sanding the soil, applying the entire complex of mineral fertilizers, ensuring optimal irrigation, leveling the soil surface during processing, and strict adherence to agricultural techniques for cultivating a particular crop.
All measures to maintain soil fertility can be expressed as follows: fertilizers must be applied every spring for digging to a depth of 18 cm with a turnover of the seam: manure - 8000-10000 g / m2, dolomite flour - 200-300 g / m2, nitrophoska - 100-150 , boric acid - 0.2, copper sulfate - 0.2, ammonium molybdate - 0.1 g / m², and for fruit crops, add 0.1 g / m² of zinc sulfate and for vegetable crops 0.1 g / m² of cobalt sulfate. When planting plants, it is imperative to apply 7-10 g / m² of superphosphate as a pre-sowing fertilizer. In this case, the soil will be able to provide plants with all the nutrients necessary for its growth and development. Fertilizers should be combined with irrigation, good agricultural technology, clay and sanding of the site. This complex of works and fertilizers must be applied annually and in a complex manner. Only in this case the soil will always be fertile.

SECOND ERROR
The basic law of agriculture is not fulfilled - the technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops are not followed.
Gardeners do not know how to manage the nutrient cycle in their area, how to balance all the nutrients that plants need. This is the second, most gross mistake of gardeners.

Science knows that in a relatively closed system soil-plant-fertilizer-atmosphere-soil, there is a balance cycle of nutrients needed by plants. The soil in this cycle plays the role of a banker - it loses nutrients and, under certain conditions, accumulates them. If gardeners do not control this cycle, then the annual losses will be quite large, the balance of elements in the cycle will be negative, the soil will soon lose its fertility and will be barren. Therefore, it is very important that this cycle of elements is positive, the reserves of nutrients in the soil should not be depleted, but constantly replenished through the introduction of the necessary complex of organic and mineral fertilizers.

For summer residents, vegetable growers, it is quite simple to find out what is the balance of nutrients in a summer cottage. It is only necessary to collect the biological crop and weigh it. Then divide the weight of the harvested crop by the area where it was grown, and you get the indicators of the average yield of biological weight per square meter of area. This can be vegetables, green manure, lawn grass or other weeds. If the total biological mass (roots, aerial part of plants, food part of the crop) is less than 4-5 kg, then the cycle of nutrients in the area and their balance are negative. In this case, the soil loses its nutrients, loses its fertility. This means that in this area too few elements are returned to the soil and not enough fertilizers are applied to replenish the balance.

It is only possible to ensure a positive balance of batteries in the summer cottage and guarantee good results every year if the income items of the balance are accurately fulfilled.

THIRD ERROR
Misconceptions about the absorption of nutrients and water by plants.
You can often hear phrases that it is necessary to "feed the plants", it is necessary to "water the plants." Conventionally, in everyday life you can express yourself this way, but you literally cannot understand and do so. However, many people think that the plants really need to be fed and watered. In fact, this is not the case! It is impossible to feed and water the plants with fertilizers and water. They do not have a specific organ to absorb food and water. They absorb carbon dioxide through the leaves, and mineral nutrients and water through the roots. Therefore, fertilizer and water must be applied to the soil. And then the corresponding reactions and transformations will take place between the soil and the fertilizer. And only after that the process of absorption of nutrients and water by the roots will begin. Plants feed on the basis of metabolic absorption, not absorption.

Gardeners must ensure good soil fertility; it is the soil that must be fed and watered. It is necessary to focus on caring for it, on the application of fertilizers, on compliance with agrotechnical requirements, that is, to use water and fertilizers for their intended purpose. Misconceptions - "feed the plants, water the plants" must be eliminated from the dacha practice.


FOURTH ERROR
Not knowing how to use fertilizers.
It must be clearly remembered that plants do not feed on fertilizers. Fertilizers are produced in order to fertilize the soil and increase its fertility. There is no special fertilizer that plants feed on. Plants feed only on nutrients. Fertilizers and nutrients are not the same thing. Fertilizers contain nutrients that must be applied to the soil, dissolve in the soil solution and be absorbed by the soil-absorbing complex. Fertilize the soil, not the plants. Only the soil needs fertilization. Plants do not need any food or fertilizers, the soil needs them, since only moist and fertilized fertile soil well provides plants with water and nutrients (and not fertilizers!).

The soil interacts with fertilizers, fertilizers are processed by the soil, the soil, as it were, "digests" them, like animals do their food, and prepares nutrients for plant nutrition. You cannot "feed" the plants with fertilizers, they do not absorb them, the plants take nutrients from the soil - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other elements - in ionic form, for example, in the form of NH4 +, NO3-, H2PO4-, K + , Ca ++, Mg ++ by equivalent exchange for the corresponding cations or anions secreted by plant roots (H +, OH- and others). Plants need nutrients in ionic form, which are stored in the soil when absorbed by the soil-absorbing complex.

FIFTH ERROR
Too much enthusiasm for plant nutrition
Is the fifth mistake. Some rose growers "feed" the plants with anything, including organic fertilizers, although the plants do not feed on organic matter at all, and growth stimulants, although they are not fertilizers either, and the most fashionable drugs, which also, perhaps, are not fertilizers.

Science has developed three methods of fertilization - basic (pre-sowing), pre-sowing and top dressing (post-sowing). The first two methods are mandatory for use, they fully satisfy the need for plants in nutrients. Top dressing is only an additional technique and is used only in extreme cases. For example, when, due to technical reasons, due to heavy rainfall, nutrients and fertilizers are washed out of the soil, or when the soil by its geological origin is poor in macro- and microelements, and signs of starvation are observed on the plants. In all other cases, feeding is not carried out. Top dressing, if needed, most often it is nitrogen-potassium dressing. But they are also carried out with inter-row cultivation through the soil. In other cases, it is not at all necessary to feed the plants. You always need to fertilize the soil, prepare fertile soil, then no additional fertilizing is needed.

The basic rule is to apply fertilizer before and during planting, that is, use fertilizer as the main pre-sowing fertilizer. The term of introduction is spring, the method of embedding is plowing, and also when planting plants in rows and holes to meet the need for young plants in phosphorus. It is not necessary to "feed" the plants randomly; on fertile soils, you can forget about feeding.

SIXTH ERROR
Do not do agrochemical soil analyzes
- the sixth mistake. It is necessary to have an agrochemical analysis of the soil, it makes it possible to know everything about soil fertility, correctly and reasonably manage soil fertility and reasonably take measures to improve soil fertility. Agrochemical analyzes make it possible to carry out all agrotechnical work on the soil in accordance with scientific rules and laws of soil science and agrochemistry.

Almost all gardeners do not have agrochemical data on the fertility of their soil. They do not know the parameters and levels of fertility; all work with the soil is carried out blindly.
The rule is that you need to do a complete agrochemical analysis of the soil at least once every three to five years and get the opinion and recommendations of a specialist agrochemist on working with soil, fertilizers and plant protection products.

SEVENTH ERROR
Such a technique as soil mulching is little used.
Is the seventh mistake. Mulching the soil allows you to keep the soil moist and fertile, mulch inhibits the growth of weeds, fights well against pests and plant diseases. When mulching, less energy is spent on weeding, watering and other work.

It is good to use peat, mowed grass from the lawn, sawdust, fallen leaves, and so on as mulch. In the garden on the trunk circle, black plastic wrap, stones laid out with beautiful ornaments can be used as mulch.

EIGHT ERROR
Liming of acidic soils is poor
- the eighth error. Almost all soils in the Northwest region are acidic. And the fight against soil acidity is either not carried out at all or is carried out in violation of technology.

Plants on acidic soils often starve, an excess of hydrogen blocks the pathways of metabolic reactions between the root and the soil, plants are deprived of the ability to absorb nutrients, although there are sufficient nutrients in the soil.

Lime fertilizers must be applied correctly. First, observe the dose. In five years, each square meter of soil must receive at least one kilogram of dolomite flour. Lime can be applied once or in portions annually.Secondly, the main condition for the correct application of lime fertilizers is thorough mixing of lime with the soil. This condition is practically not met. Gardeners “dust” a little lime somewhere and think that this is liming. But it’s not like that. With proper liming, finely ground dolomite flour must be evenly scattered over the surface of the soil, then immediately thoroughly mix it with the entire mass of the soil by digging, while achieving the most complete mixing of the soil with fertilizer. Simply scattering lime over the surface of the soil is ineffective. Lime is a water-insoluble fertilizer, it does not react to neutralize acidity in layers, lumps. And in this case it is wasted.

To neutralize acidity, it is necessary that the finely ground lime fertilizer is thoroughly mixed with the soil so that all lime particles come into contact with all small soil particles. This is the secret of liming, the secret of the interaction of alkaline fertilizer with acidic soil. Here, as in chemistry, the reactions proceed after thorough "shaking", mixing all interacting components.


NINTH ERROR
"Saving" fertilizers
Is the ninth mistake. Some summer residents do not buy and do not apply a complete set of fertilizers, but like to apply one kind of fertilizer. The use of some nitrogen or some phosphorus or some other fertilizers unilaterally disrupts the nutritional regime of the soil, creates an imbalance of nutrients and does not give positive results.

The rule is not to save on fertilizers. Plants need a whole range of fertilizers, approximately the same as indicated when considering the first error. Fertilizers are not dangerous, their shortage is more dangerous, plant starvation is dangerous. Plants accumulate more toxic compounds during fasting. For example, an increased content of nitrates in plants does not appear at all due to the fact that nitrogen nitrate fertilizers have been introduced, as many think, but due to the fact that plants cannot assimilate them, digest them, since they are starving from a lack of copper, cobalt, molybdenum and other trace elements. Microelements and enzymes containing them are responsible for the conversion of nitrates into amino acids and protein. With a lack of trace elements, there is an accumulation of nitrates in the cell sap of plants and the conversion of nitrogen into amino acids, while proteins are delayed. Therefore, the content of nitrates in plants also increases.

TENTH ERROR
Agrotechnology of plant cultivation is often violated - this is the tenth mistake
... Instead of precise technology, some kind of soil cultivation technology that is convenient or easier for the gardener is often used. Variants are invented, how to simplify the technology, to do without digging the soil or other measures. Plant nutrition areas are not maintained, thickened plantings are most often used. The necessary fertilizer application systems, weed control systems, plant diseases and pests are not being implemented. They often forget to dig the soil in autumn. Irregular watering of the soil. Digging the soil is often carried out poorly, there are many lumps, irregularities, and so on. These are all "wounds" on the ground that do not heal for a long time.

Irregular and insufficient watering of the soil is often found among violations of agricultural technology. Variable moisture and drying of the soil is very dangerous, while soil fertility is sharply reduced. During alternating drying and moistening, the nutrients are fixed by the soil irreversibly, they enter the crystal lattice of minerals and become inaccessible to plants. The rule is to water the soil wisely, it is better to do this not often, but abundantly. It is necessary to water the entire feeding area.

In addition, it is necessary to create paradises for soil and garden animals, they will help gardeners to comply with the agricultural techniques of plant cultivation. A ladybug eats up to 150 aphids a day, toads and frogs destroy insects and snail eggs, bees and bumblebees pollinate plants - and this is just a small thing that garden animals do on your site. To create favorable conditions for soil and garden animals, it is necessary to organize a useful mess in some corners of the dacha - an overgrown corner, a compost heap, a place with hemp and twigs to attract birds, hedgehogs, lacewings, hoverflies, and so on. Create beautiful heaps of brushwood, stones, boards, a corner with nettles and food plants for butterflies, caterpillars and birds, shelters for frogs, toads, hedgehogs. They are gardeners' friends and hardworking helpers.


Mineral additives or organics?

For grapes, you can do only with mineral fertilizers, which can be simple (two- or one-component) and complex (multicomponent).

The most common mineral supplements based on one or two components are potassium salt, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, ammophos, nitrophoska. Of the complex among winegrowers, the compositions "Solution", "Kemira", "Aquarin", "Novofert" are in demand.

However, it is unlikely that it will be possible to do with only mineral supplements. Chemical compositions, although they provide nutrition to plants, do not change the structure of the soil. And grapes need fertile soil with a high content of humus and useful bioflora.

Bird droppings can also be used, but very carefully so as not to harm the vine. In the litter, all chemical components are in a more concentrated form compared to other types of organic matter. High doses of nitrogen are especially dangerous.

To prepare a liquid fertilizer, it is necessary to dilute the droppings with water in a ratio of 1 part of organic matter / 4 parts of water, that is, 400 ml of water is needed for every 100 g of fertilizer.

The resulting mixture is infused for 3 - 7 days and then used, diluting tenfold with water. For a 10 liter bucket of water, you will need 1 liter of chicken manure infusion.

Potassium chloride, dangerous by the chloride compounds contained in it, will replace the feeding of grapes with ash. Ordinary wood ash will work, although sunflower husk, fruit tree ash, and grape ash are considered the best.


Growing difficulties

The list of hazards for this herb is rather short. Due to the improper watering regime, the plant may turn yellow and fall off the leaves, which is associated with root rot caused by waterlogged soil or excess direct sunlight.

Well, it turns out that budra is an undemanding plant to growing conditions, which gives the garden a neat look and prevents the spread of weeds (such as dandelion or coltsfoot). Isn't this the best option for any gardener?


Watch the video: The Soil Solution Short