Azalea (Azalea), species, cultivation, reproduction - 2
Azalea: types of plants, features of growing at home
Watering. Water is poured into the edge of the pot so that the lump is completely moistened, excess water is removed from the pan. The distance from the soil surface to the top edge of the pot should be at least 2 cm. To retain soil moisture, you can cover the soil surface with moist moss, which is regularly sprayed.
If there is a suspicion that the watering is insufficient (the leaves dry out and curl, the leaves fade), from time to time the pot of azalea is immersed in a container with soft boiled water and kept there for so long until air bubbles come out of the soil coma. Then the pot is taken out of the "bath", excess moisture is allowed to drain and put in place. To increase the plant's immunity, as well as to prevent diseases and pests, practitioners advise to arrange "onion immersions" 1-2 times a month (instead of just boiled water, prepare a decoction of onion with peel, into which, after cooling to room temperature, immerse a pot with azalea).
Various methods can be used to maintain the required air humidity. The most spectacular, stylish and expensive is to get an industrial air humidifier or a decorative indoor fountain. These beautiful accessories will improve the ecology of the house, will be useful not only for plants, but also for all the inhabitants of the house. The humidity of the room air when the central heating is operating is in the range of 20–40%, which creates physiological difficulties for both people and plants. Biologists consider the optimal air humidity to be 60–70% (some plant species need even higher air humidity).
The easiest and cheapest way to increase the relative humidity of the air is to place plants, including azaleas, on a wide pallet or tray filled with a layer of fine expanded clay. This wonderful natural material serves flower growers not only as a drainage in a pot culture, a loosening agent of soil substrates, but also as a moisture vapor evaporating into the air from its huge porous surface. A layer of expanded clay half of its height is poured with water and this level is constantly maintained. Evaporating moisture will surround the azalea bush, creating a comfortable habitat for it in the house. Bowls with wet expanded clay or just water are placed between the flowers to maintain the humidity of the room air.
You can use a fairly large pots that match the color of the azalea flowers, pour expanded clay on the bottom of the vessel and moisten the expanded clay in the pots itself. But the same rule is required: the roots of the azalea should not come into contact with the water in the pan. (Otherwise, water fills the pores of the soil, the plant suffocates and eventually dies.) A large planter visually creates the effect of a larger bush than it really is. As a holiday gift, the azalea is decorated with ribbons made of transparent organza matching the color; colored artificial fiber that covers the soil. Large plants look very good in wicker baskets instead of pots.
Spraying, which is usually recommended for humidifying the air, has its negative consequences. The fact is that small drops of water should not fall on the petals of azalea flowers (and any other plants), so as not to damage their delicate tissue. Spraying with this condition is almost impossible. For non-flowering plants, spraying is a very suitable option for caring for flowers that require high humidity. But, given the fickle presence of the owners in the house, it is more convenient to combine a pallet with wet expanded clay and regular spraying of the crown of plants with boiled, soft water at room temperature.
Features of azalea care
Airing rooms is a prerequisite for the normal life of plants, including azaleas. It is important to do this so that the flow of cold air does not directly hit the plants. In addition, no flower plant, like ourselves, benefits from a draft. When airing, the plants under the window are covered with thick paper, film, cardboard. If the arrangement of the flowers is such that they stand under the window throughout the winter, it is worth making some kind of stationary screen - a shelter for the convenience and safety of airing. In winter, the azalea is kept cool (about 15 ° C).
Even during flowering, attention is paid to young shoots that appear next to buds and flowers. They need to be carefully plucked out in order to maintain the beautiful shape of the bush and not weaken the flowering. Immediately remove the strong top shoots growing from the base of the bush. In the first half of summer, strongly growing young shoots are pinched to cause their additional branching and create a beautiful bush shape with many buds, which are laid at the ends of the annual growth.
Fading heads, like other flowering plants, are immediately removed. This prolongs flowering.
It should be borne in mind that heather plants are among those plants that do not tolerate an excess of mineral salts in the soil, so the concentration of the fertilizer solution must be carefully checked. During budding and flowering, the azalea is fed every two weeks with a weak solution of complete fertilizer with trace elements for azaleas and rhododendrons according to the instructions. If there is no special fertilizer, other brands are used (Uniflor-bud, Kemiru flower), diluting the concentrated mixtures 2-3 times stronger than indicated. When the leaves turn yellow, the azalea is fed with a liquid fertilizer with a high iron content in the form of chelates.
If leaf curling is observed, most often this indicates a lack of moisture in the soil and air, low illumination, large differences in day and night temperatures of air and soil.
At the end of flowering, azaleas are kept in cool, bright rooms, maintaining a constant humidity of the substrate and air. At this time, the azaleas are trimmed, removing weak, thin shoots growing into the crown. The tips of the remaining shoots are slightly shortened, giving the bush the desired shape. This should be done no later than May - early June, so that the shoots growing after the haircut have time to mature well and lay full-fledged buds on their tops for the next flowering.
Azalea pruning is necessary, you do not need to be afraid of it, otherwise the next flowering may be very stretched, weak, or not at all. Mature shoots of the current year are used for cuttings in order to propagate the variety you like. Several specimens of blooming azaleas, placed in the house, create a good mood and an unusually festive atmosphere.
If your azalea, after flowering, has not yet completely entwined an earthen lump with roots (which can be checked by knocking it out of the pot and looking at the condition of the roots), then it does not require transplanting. Two to three times a year, the surface of an earthen coma of azalea is mulched with peat or moss, which helps to retain moisture and slightly acidify the soil. With a loose substrate, it is not necessary to loosen the surface layer. Mulching completely replaces this technique, and new strong roots are formed in the fresh layer of peat. When choosing a container, one must take into account the need for a stock of free volume in height for adding peat or rotted pine needles.
If the earthen lump is completely braided by roots and some of them come out of the drainage holes, then it's time to transplant the plant. It is best to do this about a month after flowering. A new transplant container is chosen low, wide and only 1–2 cm wider than the previous one. A drainage layer of broken brick or expanded clay with a height of 4–5 cm is poured onto the bottom of the container.
The substrate for azalea is either bought ready-made, or prepared independently from sphagnum (red) peat, leaf humus and semi-rotted pine needles in equal parts with the addition of coarse sand. For each liter of soil mixture add 1 g of crushed chalk (calcium carbonate). The mixture is moistened, mixed thoroughly and kept for several days for uniform formation of the required acidity. When transplanting, the earthen lump is not disturbed - this technique is called transshipment. A handful of fresh substrate is poured onto the drainage layer, 2 capsules with the powder of the complex chlorine-free AVA fertilizer are added to a container with a diameter of 15 cm to 18 cm, the capsules are covered with peat and the azalea is planted. The gap between the earthen lump and the walls of the container is filled with a substrate, sealing it around the lump. After transshipment, the plants are watered with settled or boiled water at room temperature and sprayed with the same water. It is useful to mulch the surface of the coma with moist sphagnum moss.
At the beginning of summer, when the danger of frost has passed, the azalea can be taken out in the partial shade of a garden or balcony, where, in good weather, it sometimes lives until September. The pots are dug into the ground or boxes, which helps to maintain the necessary soil moisture. Air humidity is provided by regular spraying of plants in the morning and evening.
How to propagate an azalea?
Azalea is propagated mainly by cuttings of mature young shoots, which are cut during spring or summer pruning, in May - early June. The length of the apical cuttings should be about 5–8 cm. Azalea is a difficult-to-root crop. Cuttings practically do not take root in water. Oblique cuts of cuttings are treated with a preparation to stimulate root formation (root, heteroauxin, etc.). For rooting, cuttings are planted in a moistened substrate from a mixture of fibrous peat and sand, deepening the lower sections by 1–2 cm, 3-5 cm from each other. You can place cuttings for rooting directly into pottery pots with drainage, 3-5 pieces each, covered with a film bag to maintain constant humidity of the substrate and air. You can put them in a mini-greenhouse made of plastic with a transparent lid and bottom heating of the soil, so that the inside is 18-20 ° C. In this capacity can serve as aquariums that are no longer used for their intended purpose.
In a peat-sandy or peat-perlite substrate, rooting occurs after about two months. With the appearance of new leaves, the cuttings are gradually accustomed to room air, opening the shelter for a short time, and then removing it for 2-3 hours a day. At the same time, the cuttings are provided with constant humidity of the substrate and air by watering and spraying 2-3 times a day. With the growth of young leaves, the shelter is completely removed. Plants are fed with a very weak solution of complete fertilizer, pinching the tops of the shoots.
In early autumn, in September - October, well-developed rooted cuttings are planted from a mini-greenhouse into a moist substrate from a mixture of fibrous peat, coniferous (or leaf) soil and half of the sand (1: 1: 0.5). A high layer of expanded clay drainage is placed on the bottom of the pots, fresh substrate is poured by adding crystals or capsules of long-acting (1-3 years) complex AVA fertilizer. For faster production of branchy bushes, azaleas are planted in three young rooted cuttings in one pot with a diameter of 12-14 cm. A mixture of enriched peat and perlite (1: 2) is also used as a substrate for azaleas. The tops of the shoots are pinched again, stimulating the branching of young plants. In the first 1–2 weeks, the transplanted young azaleas are again covered with foil caps to maintain air humidity, or they are kept in a greenhouse or aquarium for more comfortable “settling” in new dishes.
More experienced growers propagate azaleas by grafting. The rootstock is obtained from rooted cuttings, which are not pinched after transplanting into pots. Thus, the stock is allowed to grow the stem to the size of the pencil thickness at the time of grafting. Copulation is done in July - August, sometimes in January - February. The graft of the desired grade must match the thickness of the rootstock. It is cut from two-year-old branches, 5-7 cm long. Slant sections of the rootstock and scion are tightly applied to each other, tied with foil and placed in a micro-greenhouse or aquarium on a moist and warm substrate. The temperature of the humid air is maintained within the range of 19–20 ° С. Fusion under these conditions occurs in 1.5–2 months. With the beginning of the growth of new shoots, the airing of the greenhouse and watering are intensified. The harness is loosened, then removed completely. Gradually, the shelter is removed, accustoming young plants to less humid air. When the shoots grow back, a scion with three to four developed leaves makes them pinched, forming a beautiful and dense crown. At the same time, shoots and leaves of the stock are removed. In the future, grafted azaleas require larger containers than their own rooted ones. Non-flowering azaleas under production conditions overwinter in cold greenhouses at a temperature of 6–8 ° С. Indoor specimens also need cold wintering, but usually it takes place within 12-15 ° С.
The duration of growing an azalea from a cutting to a flowering bush of various sizes and quality depends on the technology and can range from 11-14 to 24 months. In winter, additional lighting with fluorescent or special lamps is used up to 14-hour daylight hours. The response of plants to light intensity and temperature after pinching to growth and branching should be taken into account. It was found that flower buds are most intensively formed at a 12-hour day and a temperature not lower than 22 ° С (in winter - not higher than 15 ° С). From the moment of pinching to the formation of flower buds, it takes from two to four months, depending on the variety, the age of the plant and the season.
Breeding azaleas at home is a very exciting experience. Blooming even one specimen in a room gives it a festive look for a long time. If your work on the reproduction of azaleas is crowned with success, then your home will resemble the Garden of Eden in the middle of winter, and the oriental flower of happiness will certainly make you and your loved ones happier.
AZALEA (Azalea) is very decorative and loved by many flower growers. And the point is not only that the flower is very beautiful, but also that flowering occurs in winter, when the bulk of indoor plants are resting and not blooming, but I really want bright colors. Therefore, the azalea plant is readily bought and is often presented in winter instead of a festive bouquet.
Evergreen flowering shrubs of azaleas, which are usually bred in the form of low-stemmed crown trees. A genus of plants in the Heather family. Latin name: Azalea L ..
Homeland: China, Japan, India. Whole thickets are formed from shrubs growing in cool mountain forests of the northern hemisphere. In India, they grow into a miniature tree about a meter and a half. In Japan, these beautiful flowers are especially popular in the bonsai culture.
Rhododendron and Azalea are undeniably some of the most beautiful flowering shrubs in our gardens and parks. Currently, the term "azalea" botanists use only to designate one subgenus in the genus "Rhododendron". Despite this, in gardening since the time of K. Linnaeus, both names have been preserved: deciduous species are called azaleas, and evergreens are called rhododendrons.
The name of the genus rhododendron is of Greek origin and consists of two words: "rhodon" - means "rose" and "dendron", which means "tree". Together it sounds like rosewood or rhododendron. Translated from Greek, the word "azalea" literally means "dry". Indeed, before the flowers that look like roses bloom, the plant is a dryish shrub with small, rough leaves, like paper ones. In Asian countries, the azalea flower is called the English rose, and in Germany - the alpine. In Japan it is called "tsutsuji".
If you keep homemade azaleas correctly, then her flowering is so abundant that the leaves completely disappear under the mass of flowers.
Japanese azalea, the photo of which is striking in its beauty, belongs to the capricious plants in terms of care. However, for diligent efforts, the plant will certainly delight you with beautiful flowers that the shrub will show during its flowering period.
The best lighting for a plant is diffused light or partial shade. If we are talking about indoor Rhododendron, then in the summer it is better to take it out into the open air, but so that it does not come into contact with the scorching sun. The option to dig in the shade of the originally backyard plant is also excellent, because if it rains in summer, the bush will only be “happy”. Planting and caring for Japanese azalea outdoors is an excellent option, but only with proper protection from winter frosts.
The shrub is a lover of high humidity levels. Growing azaleas in an apartment, especially during the heating season, requires regular spraying, since during this period the room is really very dry.
The correct watering regime for Japanese azalea is an important factor. In no case do not allow the soil to dry out for a long time. On the other hand, stagnant water in the sump or excessive waterlogging is also not at all for her. For irrigation, it is best to use rainwater, melt or clear spring water. If it is not possible to get such a resource, use settled water.
In some sources, water for irrigation is recommended to be acidified with citric acid. Thanks to this trick, the acidity of the soil will not decrease. Water for irrigation should be at room temperature, cold water is strictly prohibited. In the autumn season, abundant watering becomes less relevant.
For this shrub, acidic is the ideal soil option. The best will be heather, peat or coniferous, with a small amount of river sand. Hydroponics are also a good foundation for growth. In order not to suffer with mixing all the ingredients, you can purchase a ready-made mixture at any flower shop - acidophilic. The peculiarity of this type of soil is that during drying it hardens and stops absorbing water. At such intervals, it is advisable to occasionally place the flower pot in a large container of water. Spreading plants can be placed in the bathroom.
Do not loosen the soil in which the azalea grows. In such cases, it is very easy to damage its delicate and fragile roots. Workers of the greenhouses where azaleas are grown put blocks of ice on the ground under the bushes in winter. This is a great way to cool down the soil a little while simultaneously saturating the plant with melt water. However, if the azalea grows indoors, this method should not be resorted to, because such a sharp jump in temperature can have an extremely negative effect on the flowering period.
Rhododendron is a demanding plant species that simply needs coolness in winter. The comfortable temperature for them can vary from 12-14 degrees. However, if the other conditions for caring for them correspond to the standards, then the flowers can grow magnificently at a temperature of 20-22 degrees. If you take the shrub out into the garden for the summer, then be sure to bring it back into the room before the heating season begins.
The transplanting process for young plants must be carried out every year, and for “old-timers” - once every couple of years. Be vigilant and careful during transplanting so as not to damage the rhizome. The safest method in this case is mixing with fresh substrate. Due to the shallow root system of the shrub, the ideal pot for it is a short one.
Top dressing is carried out in summer and spring once a week with special fertilizers for azaleas. As for winter, during the formation of buds, it is recommended to use superphosphate fertilizer.
Taking care of the azalea during its bloom is also a very delicate topic. Azalea Japanese marushka and other types of shrubs need timely pruning and pinching of the stems so that their flowering period is abundant. The first pruning is done in May. Pinch very young shoots, leaving no more than 5 leaves on them. Young shoots, which are located near the buds, are obligatory for removal.
The azalea Japanese drape and other species of this plant have one distinctive feature: the more luxuriant the bush itself grows, the weaker it blooms. If you want to watch the shrub bloom for as long as possible, keep it in a cool place. As a result, from 2 to 4 buds bloom from each bud. When you see that one of the buds has faded, remove it as early as possible. This will extend the flowering period of the shrub. Do not forget about the seed boxes: they must also be removed so that the plant does not drop the stems under the load. Not only the number of flowering buds depends on quality care, but also the duration of this period.
It is important to prune the azalea on time and not be late with this procedure. If you forget to do it, then new flower buds will not form and the flowering period will not be so beautiful. The main goal of the formation is to bring out an azalea with a beautiful crown, the buds on which will be laid evenly.
Each grower has two options for forming a crown: artisanal or woody. To create a lush shrub, the cutting should be pinched no closer than 12 cm from the soil. The tops of the lateral buds are also pinched.
Forming the crown of a tree involves growing the trunk from the strongest and most straight-growing branch of an initially small bush. Use a support to keep the barrel as level as possible. It must be tied to the support and rotated around the axis as often as possible. When you see that the barrel has reached the size you expected, pinch the top off. In the future, the tree will branch.
Early varieties must be pinched no later than March. The essence of annual pruning is to shorten all the shoots from the previous year. Weak in appearance or excess need to be cut off entirely.
The use of garden Azalea in decorating the territory
Azalea shrubs are great for forming Chinese-style gardens. They will be an excellent solution for decorating lawns, complementing picturesque groups. Heathers, camellias, deciduous barberries, euonymus, Japanese maples, hydrangeas are perfect companions.
Reproduction and transplantation
Azolla reproduces vegetatively (by division) and spores.
In the summer, it is enough to separate a part of the stem, break off a branch and leave it in the water, after a while the separated fragment will take root and start growing. It is better to place a young plant near a support or plantings growing in water. Having caught on to it with roots, the azolla will begin to grow.
With the onset of autumn, the leaves die off and sink to the bottom of the reservoir along with the spores that hibernate in the water. With the onset of spring, spores give rise to a new plant. This breeding method is not suitable for growing Azolla in an aquarium, since the spores of the plant are washed out with periodic water changes.
Azolla is a wonderful ornamental plant that can decorate any body of water or aquarium. The unusual miniature appearance of the "Christmas tree twig" looks spectacular on the water surface. Rapid reproduction and easy maintenance make Azolla popular not only among aquarists, but also in agriculture.
Preparing the seedling and planting site
For garden azalea, a slightly shaded place in the garden is ideal, because in nature the plant prefers to grow in mountain woodlands. When choosing seedlings, the following points should be considered:
- the earthen lump should be moist and large enough. If there is not enough substrate, then the root system can easily suffer when transplanted into the ground.
- the branches should have a healthy appearance, and the plant itself should sit firmly in the ground
- it is better to purchase seedlings in a specialized store, then information about the variety and features of planting and care is attached to the purchase
Before planting, the plant should be watered abundantly so that it can be easily removed from the container.
Garden azalea prefers loose acidic soil, consisting of coniferous or turfy soil with an admixture of peat and sand.
To keep the acidity of the soil at the desired level, you should periodically add a little citric acid to the irrigation water. Also, the soil must have good cultivation capacity and at the same time retain moisture.
Types of home azalea with photos and names
Only 2 types are grown at home:
Japanese Azalea (Rhododendron obfusum)
Dwarf shrub, 30-50 cm high. Has small bright green leathery leaves. Funnel-shaped flowers reach 3 cm in diameter. Their color can be red, white or bicolor.
Indian Azalea (Rhododendron x indicum, Azalea indica)
Low shrub (up to 50 cm) with small dark green oval leaves. Shoots are covered with fine bristles. Funnel-shaped flowers, up to 3.5 cm in diameter, collected in inflorescences. The color of the petals is very diverse, depending on the variety.
Azalea will not yield to a rose
Azalea, alpine rose - Azalea, or Rhododendron - Rhododendron. The family is heather. Homeland - East Asia, Carpathians, Caucasus.
There are over 1000 species. In indoor and ornamental gardening, the most common are Rhododendron obtusum - Rhododendron dull, or Japanese azalea, or Rhododendron simsii - Rhododendron Sims, or Azalea Sims, or Indian azalea, as well as their numerous hybrids.
Indian bicolor azalea (Azalea indica bicolor)
Azalea is a small shrub that blooms in a room in the midst of winter. Azaleas have beautiful, large, often double flowers of the most varied colors: from white to bright red. Leaves are small (5 - 7 cm long), leathery, green.
Accommodation... Prefers bright rooms with bright diffused light. In summer and autumn, before frost, it is advisable to leave the azalea in the fresh air. In winter, the azalea is placed in a bright, cool room with a constant temperature of 12 - 15 ° C. The plant with emerging flower buds is brought into a warmer room, with a temperature of 18 ° C. After the end of flowering for new bud formation next year, the plant is re-installed in a room with temperature 8 - 12 ° C.
Care... During the flowering period, in summer and early autumn, abundant watering is necessary, in winter - moderate. Top dressing is carried out weekly with fertilizers that do not contain lime. Azalea is moisture-loving, so it should be sprayed frequently or placed on a gravel pan filled with water. The plant should be repotted in the spring every 2 to 3 years.
Pests and diseases... The main pest is the azalea aphid, on the secretions of which a sooty mushroom settles. If the soil ball is too dry, a red mite may appear.
Reproduction possibly apical cuttings, they are rooted in perlite or coarse sand, when the substrate is heated. It is difficult to take root.
- Faded flowers and brown leaves are removed. This protects the plant from infections. In place of the old flower, a new shoot forms over time, which will bloom next year.
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Thank you. very useful and necessary information. so want to breed beautiful flowering plants at home. without certain knowledge, this is practically impossible.
If you create NORMAL CONDITIONS. that is, set the temperature and humidity, + phytolamp illumination. Then I assure you it takes root ELEMENTALLY .. That is, create normal conditions for the polar bear at the equator. he will live and multiply there too ... ... The difficulty in breeding azaleas is that it is necessary to maintain a given temperature during rooting. preferably 26-28 *. And this is without electronics, problematic. Make a mini-label, make and adjust the thermostat., Illuminate with a phytolamp and truncate. AZALIA V A SH A ……
I have one azalea bush growing, and several babies rooted from it last year. Yesterday I cut it because it has grown too much and there are not enough flowers. I left the cut branches for rooting. To do this, I take the soil for azaleas, the cuttings need to be cleaned of leaves in the lower part, we do not touch the upper young ones, and cut off the middle ones by 2/3. If there are buds, they also need to be removed so that the plant does not waste energy on them. We dip the cuttings into the root formation powder (root), and into the ground by 3-4 cm.Then you need to spray it with an epin solution, and so that the earth does not bloom during the rooting of the cuttings, I sprinkle it with sand 2 cm, after having pierced it in the oven. From above we make a "greenhouse", i.e. cover with a bag or plastic bottle.
Seedlings must be ventilated every day, remove excess moisture from the bag or bottle. We put them in a warm and bright place, just not in the open sun. You can use lamps if there is no such place, I put it on the windowsill, I have it wide and goes just above the radiator, and it’s like a window sill from wall to wall, it’s warm and there is no direct sun.
The roots of the seedlings appear in 1.5-2 months (depending on the conditions), while the tops continue to grow slowly, even without still having roots.
If cuttings are cut in the spring, then by winter they root well and grow up. You can plant them trail. in spring, but it is better to immediately plant in small pots of 3-4 pieces.
I completely agree with YOU. I root for the first time, but sit one second month. Other cuttings of a different color are like two weeks today. A total of 12 cuttings. All in FULL health and "mind" are really in the "auto greenhouse" with the maintenance of the given T 26.9-28 *….
Thank you, I really liked your advice, I wrote it down as a cheat sheet in my notebook!
I thought of planting an azalea outside, but I don’t know if it can survive the winter.
I ask all users, can someone send by "New mail" the rooted azalea sprout? ... Thank you ...
I bought the azalea in January, it still blooms, tell me when can I transplant it into another pot and update the soil? The article is interesting, I love flowers, so everything is interesting to me, I learn a lot of new things for myself.