How to build a winter greenhouse with your own hands
Winter greenhouses are mainly designed for growing plants throughout the year. As we know in winter vegetables, berries and greens are very expensive, so many summer residents build structures with their own hands on their site in order to always have fresh salads and compotes on the table. But before starting construction work, it is necessary to think carefully about the design of the future greenhouse, its heating system and make an accurate drawing.
Winter greenhouses today can be built from a variety of materials. Therefore, each owner of a summer cottage can choose the most suitable and cost-effective options for himself.
Polycarbonate winter greenhouse
Forms and sizes of greenhouses:
- Single-pitched types with soil filling;
- Single-slope wall structures with earth fill;
- Gable structures with solid walls and roofing made of glass or polycarbonate;
- Gable structures with greenhouse frames as a roof;
- Arched, made of polycarbonate with a metal or plastic frame.
Arched winter greenhouse made of polycarbonate
The design of the winter greenhouse must withstand severe frosts, snowfalls and other atmospheric phenomena. The most durable, reliable and environmentally friendly material for building a greenhouse frame is wood. But such a structure can stand no more than 15 years, and then it will have to be updated.
Winter greenhouse made of wood and polycarbonate
The most durable and profitable design is considered to be a greenhouse with polycarbonate sheathing, since this material is of high quality, long service life and an affordable price.
Any winter greenhouse should have a foundation, frame and a glazed roof. It is best to build such a structure from north to south. The room must be equipped with a good ventilation system to regulate the thermal and air conditions for the proper functioning of plants.
Winter greenhouse with glazing for summer cottages
Ventilation can be supply or extract. The tightness of the greenhouse is the main condition for its effective functioning. The temperature is artificially maintained.
A greenhouse can be a rack, in which plants are placed on shelves with sides and a non-rack, where plants are planted directly in the ground. The racks in the greenhouse should be approximately at a height of about 60–80 cm from the ground, and the passage between them should be at least 70 cm. The racks are made of wooden planks, plastic or reinforced concrete, depending on the design features of the greenhouse.
Winter arched greenhouse with shelving
Photo gallery: a selection of project options
Types of structures: advantages and disadvantages
Winter greenhouses are of several types, depending on their design features, the type of material used, the type of lighting, heating system, as well as the foundation.
- Capital greenhouses are built on strip foundations. A trench is dug in the center, which is designed to "collect" cold air, which should not get to the roots of the seedlings. Thanks to this design, the greenhouse inside heats up quickly enough and therefore the seedlings can be planted several weeks earlier than usual.
- Capital types of conditional greenhouses are collapsible structures that can be dismantled and moved around the site. For the construction of such a greenhouse, a metal or plastic profile, polycarbonate, and bolted connections are used. Piles act as a foundation.
The rest of the types are prefabricated structures. Only in a capital structure can a full-fledged heating and artificial lighting system be installed.
Greenhouses can differ in such parameters as:
- Functionality. They allow you to grow not only ordinary vegetables of the region, but also exotic ones.
- Location in relation to the ground. There can be three types: recessed, surface and equipped in the upper part of the barn, garage, closet, etc.
- Architectural solution. They can be with a single-slope, gable, three-slope roof, as well as arched, wall and combined.
Greenhouses also differ:
- By type of building materials. They can be built from bricks, wooden beams, metal profiles or PVC pipes. Polycarbonate or glass is used as a coating. Today, combined greenhouses are in great demand, in which the walls are lined with polycarbonate and the roof is made of glass.
- By the type of heating system. Winter greenhouses can operate on biofuel, solar panels, and also have stove, air, gas, water or electric heating.
- By the type of planting seedlings and plants. They are planted in the ground or in specially knocked down boxes, placed on the shelves.
Depending on the design, greenhouses are divided into the following types:
- The thermos greenhouse or as it is called "Patiya greenhouse", despite the complexity of its design, is one of the most popular among summer residents. Its main part is located underground, due to which the "thermos" effect is achieved. It can also be aboveground, but at the same time it must be covered from the inside with any heat-insulating material. In such a greenhouse, it is recommended to install a water heating system, since it will evenly distribute warm air flows throughout the room.
Winter greenhouse thermos
- A greenhouse with a gable roof is the most common design due to its convenience and versatility. The height of the greenhouse reaches 2, 5 meters to the ridge, so a person can walk in it without bending his head. Also, seedlings can be grown in it not only on the ground, but also in special boxes on shelves. The advantage of the gable structure is that snow and rainwater do not accumulate on the roof surface, but quickly descend. Disadvantages: high cost of materials, construction complexity and large heat losses through the north wall. Therefore, it must be additionally insulated with various heat-insulating materials.
Winter greenhouse with a gable roof
- An arched greenhouse is considered a complex design, since problems with the construction of the frame and cladding are often caused. Without a special device, it is almost impossible to bend metal pipes to make a frame (but you can take PVC pipes). It is not possible to use glass for cladding the frame, so only polycarbonate or various types of greenhouse films remain. The disadvantage of an arched greenhouse is the real danger of cracks in the polycarbonate during heavy snowfall, since if the layer is too large, the roof will not withstand the load. Inside such a structure, there is no way to arrange racks and shelves, so plants can only be grown on the ground.
Arched winter greenhouse
- Greenhouse with inclined walls. The design of such a greenhouse in its appearance resembles an ordinary "house", but only with walls built at a certain angle, extending outside the room. The advantage of such a greenhouse is the possibility of building from wood, metal, plastic. Glass, polycarbonate, film can serve as a cladding. The biggest plus is the "self-cleaning" gable roof. Minus - restrictions on the installation of racks and shelves along the perimeter of the walls due to sloping walls.
Winter greenhouse with a sloping roof
- Greenhouse with a mansard roof. A type of structure with vertical walls and a mansard roof that copes well with mechanical stress such as snow. Thanks to the special roof, more space is created above the head, and a large number of multi-tiered shelving and shelves can be placed on the walls.
Winter greenhouse with a mansard roof
- Shed greenhouse. By its construction, the walls are no different from the gable, but here the roof is installed at a certain angle so that the snow falls off it and rainwater flows down without getting inside the room. Glass and polycarbonate can be used for cladding. For a winter greenhouse, plastic wrap will not work. Along the walls, shelves and racks can be installed on top of each other for multi-tiered plant growth. It is practically devoid of disadvantages, except for the complexity of construction and the device of the strip foundation.
Winter greenhouse with a pitched roof
Preparatory work: drawings and dimensions of the structure
We will consider the construction of a winter greenhouse 3.34 meters wide and 4.05 meters long. The total area of the premises for growing crops is 10 sq. meters.
The greenhouse is a square room buried in the ground with shelves and a roof made of durable two-layer polycarbonate.
If there is groundwater on the site and they are close to the surface, then the greenhouse is built without deepening, and the outer sides of the structure are sprinkled with soil.
If necessary, the length of the structure can be increased by adding additional sections to the frame.
Winter greenhouse drawing
The device of racks and their sizes
Where the timber joins, a triangular support is erected. The dimensions are shown below in the drawing.
Ridge posts are needed to support the timber at the connection point. Also, the support must not come into contact with the polycarbonate sheathing.
A solid support system will not interfere with the movement of a person around the greenhouse. It is necessary if the length of the greenhouse is more than 4 meters. If the length exceeds these parameters, then the supports are installed every 4 meters.
Corner supports are made of 100x100 mm timber, intermediate ones of 50x100 mm board.
Winter greenhouse support scheme
Installation of walls and thermal insulation
The pillars on both sides will be sheathed with a board, and insulation will be inserted into the inner space.
To save money, you can take round timber Ø 120–150 mm, trimmed up to 100 mm. The walls are sheathed with croaker.
For wall insulation, slag, sawdust or small expanded clay are used. Quicklime is added to sawdust as protection against small rodents.
Winter in-depth greenhouse
The choice of building materials: advice to the master
When choosing a timber and a board, it is necessary to take into account that this structure will be used throughout the year, therefore, the lumber must be of high quality.
- For the construction of supports and other parts of the frame, it is recommended to purchase pine boards and beams (rounded or glued). It is the most affordable, durable and cost-effective material for the construction of greenhouses in our region.
You can also choose larch or oak, but such lumber is quite expensive and therefore it is irrational to use them in this case.
Polycarbonate has excellent heat and sound insulation characteristics. But the more complex its structure, the greater mechanical loads it can withstand (snow and wind).
When choosing polycarbonate, you need to know its thickness.
- For the wall cladding of the greenhouse, it is best to take sheets with a thickness of 6 to 25 mm, depending on the intended design.
- For roofing, polycarbonate with a thickness of 16 to 32 mm is recommended, since this part of the greenhouse will have the greatest load.
Calculation of the required amount of material and tools
- A bar with a section of 100x100 mm;
- Board with a section of 50x100 mm;
- Round timber Ø 120–150 mm;
- Shelving boards;
- Foamed polyethylene (aluminum foil);
- Polycarbonate sheets;
- Self-tapping screws and thermal washers;
- Hacksaw for wood or saw;
DIY step-by-step instructions for building a deep winter greenhouse
We pull out a foundation pit 60 cm deep. Its length and width should be several centimeters larger than the perimeter of the future greenhouse. At the bottom, we make markings for the installation of support pillars. We dig in the supports to a depth of about 50 cm.
At a height of one meter from the ground, we pull the construction rope and check the evenness using a level. We fill up the supports with soil and carefully tamp them.
We level the floor and sheathe the walls with boards from the outside and from the inside, starting from the bottom. We fill the space between them with the selected insulation. This is how we sheathe the opposite two walls.
After we have sheathed the walls, we need to cut off the excess ends of the boards that go beyond the pillars. At the corners of the structure inside, we nail bars of 50x50 mm onto the boards. Next, we will attach the cladding to the front and back of the wall on them. This is how we sew up all the walls of the greenhouse. But we nail the boards to the vertical beams.
Pit and support for the greenhouse
We seal the insulation inside the walls, adding the required amount of expanded clay, sawdust or slag to the top. Then we sew up the top of the walls with boards.
We also cover the inner surface of the walls with a special foil insulation. We put the insulation so that it protrudes slightly at the top of the walls, and bend it so that it can cover the boards that cover the upper part of the walls.
We make the roof separately from the main structure, and then install it on the greenhouse. According to the schemes indicated in the drawing, we manufacture all other elements of the roof.
The device supports and built
We connect the parts of the rafters in half a tree, and nail the jumper so that the distance below is 3 meters 45 centimeters. Since the lintel is temporary, we must nail it so that we can then dismantle it. The nails should not be driven in completely, but should be left 10 mm from the head so that they can be removed well.
We collect the rafters and nail to the support as shown in the drawing below.
Winter greenhouse roofing
After we nailed the rafters to the support, we remove the jumpers. We install the ridge beam under the rafters and put the front racks measuring 88 cm under it. We nail the extreme rafters (20 cm) to the ridge beam. To do this, we drill holes in the rafters in advance. Then we install the jumper between the rafters, and on the rafters on the side, the ridge beam and on the front pillars, we mount the strips as shown in the drawing.
Reference. Cover strips are wooden planks that are designed to close various cracks.
We fasten two-layer thick polycarbonate to the roof frame using self-tapping screws with thermal washers. To do this, we drill holes in the sheets larger than the diameter of the screws themselves.
Fastening half carbon
After fixing the polycarbonate, we need to install a ridge corner from galvanized sheet metal. We fasten it with a gasket for insulation. On the side ends of the roof, we do not fix polycarbonate until we fix the roof to the main structure.
We install the roof on the walls and fix it with 4 metal brackets. They can be made from twenty centimeter long nails. Then we install the side parts of the roof made of polycarbonate triangles.
Installing the ridge on the greenhouse
We install an insulated thick wooden door (at least 5 cm thick).
After that, you can install wooden racks and shelves for future seedlings inside the greenhouse. They are installed on the sides of the walls at a distance of about 60 cm from the floor. A layer of earth is poured on them or boxes with soil are placed.
Installation of a winter greenhouse
The choice of heating system depends on the size of the room. For winter greenhouses over 15 sq. meters stove heating is suitable. Large areas are usually heated with biofuels, electric heaters or a water circuit.
Stove heating is an affordable and economical option for a greenhouse.In this case, a stove is installed in the room, which is fired with wood, coal, briquettes, pallets or gas. But since the walls of the furnace are very hot, plants should not be planted near it.
Stove heating in a greenhouse
Water heating provides for the presence of a water heating boiler, pipes and a tank. The pipes are buried in the ground to a depth of about 40 cm or placed directly under the shelves.
Greenhouse water heating
Electric heating can be of three types: air, cable and infrared. Cable is a "warm floor" system, air is arranged with the help of fan heaters, and infrared is produced by special heating devices that are mounted under the roof of the greenhouse.
Greenhouse electric heating
Biofuel heating is the most cost-effective heating option. Here, the indoor air is warmed by the heat generated by the decomposition of various organic substances.
The most used biomaterials are:
- Horse manure - able to keep the temperature from 33 to 38 ° С for 2-3 months;
- Cow dung - can keep 20 ° C for about 3.5 months;
- Overripe tree bark - keeps 25 ° С for about 4 months;
- Sawdust - maintain 20 ° C for only 2 weeks;
- Straw - can be kept at 45 ° C for up to 10 days.
Biofuel is buried under the top layer of fertile soil. When choosing the type of fuel, it is necessary to take into account the level of its acidity, since it significantly affects the quality of the soil. Cow dung is considered the best, as its acidity level is 6-7 pH. A more acidic environment is created by bark and sawdust, and an alkaline one by horse manure. After use, biofuels can be reused as humus.
The type of heating is selected individually for each specific case, based on parameters such as the climate of the region, planned costs and type of plants.
Tips for decoration and operation
- Before starting the construction of the greenhouse, all wooden boards and beams must be treated with antifungal and antiseptic agents.
- Before installing the supports, after processing them with protective equipment, the lower parts must be tightly wrapped with roofing material and secured with a stapler.
- It is also necessary to protect the outer walls by fixing roofing material on them. And only then sprinkle them with soil.
- The roof frame, after applying a protective coating and a primer, is covered with white paint intended for outdoor use.
- During the operation of the greenhouse, it is necessary to choose energy-saving lamps to create artificial lighting. They help to use electricity more economically. Their number and location depends on the dimensions of the inner space of the greenhouse.
Video: how to build a winter greenhouse with your own hands
If, when building a winter greenhouse, you strictly observe all technical standards and follow the drawn up diagrams and drawings, then such a structure will delight you and your loved ones with wonderful harvests of vegetables, berries and fresh herbs for more than a dozen years.
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Device and design features
Vegetarian honeycomb polycarbonate
For more than 20 years, AV Ivanov conducted experiments, on the basis of which the ball was designed and a patented greenhouse of a new generation, which later received many awards at agricultural exhibitions. In the CIS countries, the technology, unique at that time, did not receive mass distribution.
This is interesting: the maximum result obtained by Ivanov in the period from February to November was 44 kg of vegetables harvested from 1 m 2. Moreover, the total area of the greenhouse did not exceed 16.5 m 2. Among Russian specialists, it was possible to achieve this yield only in 2010.
But in Northern Europe and Asia, the vegetarian is widely used, and its design is constantly being improved. Often, a vegetarian is called a greenhouse according to Scandinavian technology, but in practice it is nothing more than an invention of a Soviet teacher, which has some modifications.
Vegetarian device Ivanov
General scheme of the device of solar vegetation A. V. Ivanov
Vegetarium is a single slope greenhouse located from north to south. The general structure of a vegetarian can be seen in the diagram above. Among the design features are:
- The northern part is a blank solid wall, lined with heat-insulating material with a reflective surface or painted white. The wall can be made as a separately located structure, or be part of a residential or utility building.
- Roof - erected with a slope of 15–35 o in the south or southeast direction. As a covering for the roof and end parts of the walls, a light-transmitting material is used: glass, matte plexiglass, cellular polycarbonate.
- Soil slope - mainly the greenhouse is being built on a site with a slope of 15–35 o. If the site is absolutely flat, then an artificial embankment is created parallel to the slope of the roof. The draft angle is selected depending on the region. The slope is less in the south, and more in the north.
Due to the correctly selected slope angle, the amount of solar energy entering the inside of the greenhouse through the roofing material increases from 4 to 20 times, depending on the season.
Greenhouse air exchange system
Schematic representation of a solar vegetation with an irrigation system
The closed air exchange system is one of the main features of the new generation greenhouses. It helps to solve the problem of loss of nutrient medium for plants in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), which in ordinary greenhouses evaporates when the vents or side flaps in the structure are opened.
For air exchange in vegetation, the following system is used:
- Pipes under the ground are located at a depth of 30–35 cm from the soil surface with a step of 55–60 cm. The laying direction is from south to north or perpendicular to the structure wall. At the bottom of the greenhouse, the pipes extend to a height of up to 60 cm.
- Vertical pipes - the pipe system at the top of the greenhouse is connected to a manifold with a regulating damper and a fan. The collector pipe is led out to the roof through the north wall. The fan is located inside the greenhouse at the top of the pipe under the ceiling.
The damper and fan are used to regulate the temperature inside the greenhouse. For example, in winter, when the temperature outside the structure is minus 8–10 C o, a constant 25 C o is maintained inside the greenhouse in the daytime.
Air exchange system made of polypropylene pipes in solar vegetation
This is achieved by distributing heat, which accumulates in the upper part of the greenhouse. During the day, by means of a fan, warm air is forcibly transported into the pipe system under the soil. At night, the process is repeated exactly the opposite - the heat accumulated by the soil heats up the cold air.
On hot days, when the air temperature in the greenhouse can lead to overheating of growing plants, the ventilation system removes excess heat outside. To do this, the lower damper in the collector pipe is closed, and the fan "expels" hot air through the open upper damper.
Solar Vegetable Irrigation System
Industrial Type Solar Vegetable Drip Irrigation
For irrigation of crops growing in the greenhouse, moisture is used, collected from the soil and air. The system for collecting moisture is a ventilation duct laid under the soil.
Holes were drilled along the entire length of the pipes with a pitch of 20 cm. At the moment of warm air passing through the cold pipe, condensation forms, settling on the walls of the ventilation duct. The holes allow the condensate to penetrate into the soil. And also under the pipes there is an expanded clay layer, which absorbs some of the moisture and evenly distributes it along the entire length of the ridge.
The water obtained from moisture does not contain salts, it is enriched with ammonia and organic decomposition. In case of insufficient irrigation, a drip irrigation system is provided. In this case, external watering of plants is not required.
Solar veggie with honeycomb polycarbonate roof
Despite the many advantageous features described above, a vegetarian greenhouse is not devoid of some disadvantages. The significant disadvantages of this greenhouse include:
- in regions with high summer temperatures, the air inside the plant warms up too much, which can lead to overheating of the soil and the death of the plant. At the same time, even a powerful ventilation system does not always cope with the removal of hot air. To solve this problem, the roof must be shaded by laying dense fabric or tarpaulin.
- if the greenhouse is poorly designed, then in terms of efficiency it is in no way superior to an ordinary greenhouse. The structure will be deprived of tightness, which will lead to loss of heat and too low temperature at night, and errors in the ventilation system can cause dampness and condensation
- the ratio of space to the number of beds is too small compared to a classic greenhouse. In small vegetation, the slope of the soil does not allow full-fledged beds to be fully positioned for growing a large volume of vegetables. To increase the volume, you have to increase the total area of the vegetarian.
The cost of maintaining and overhauling a vegetarian is several times higher than a standard polycarbonate greenhouse or window frame. But even with these disadvantages, the use of vegetarians is justified. It is only necessary to observe the technology of the device and check the quality of the work performed.
Gallery: vegetarians of various designsIvanov's solar vegetarian made of bricks and plastic wrap Ivanov's solar vegetarian based on a frame made of metal and polycarbonate Vegetarian Ivanov from cellular polycarbonate large size Vegetarian Ivanova covered with polyethylene film Vegetarian Ivanov in the cold season Vegetarian Ivanova small size for typical plots
Greenhouse drawing from pipes
There are many ready-made schemes that will help you assemble a greenhouse yourself. If you choose a simple option, then you can assemble the structure in a few days. The first step is to prepare a design drawing, with the help of which it will be possible to easily calculate the required footage of pipes. The amount of materials depends on the dimensions of the building.
The greenhouse assembly scheme includes the installation of fencing boards.
An example of a drawing of a greenhouse made of plastic pipes can be seen in the figure:
Drawing of a greenhouse made of plastic pipes
- dimensions and shape of the product
- fixing methods
- the amount of materials and parts required for fasteners.
After drawing up the drawing, you can proceed to the selection of materials.
Tips for choosing glass
For greenhouse glazing, glass for windows in sheets is most often used, the tensile strength of which is 7.5 kg / m 2.
It is not recommended to purchase defective glass for glazing greenhouses, which has an uneven base, the inclusion of air bubbles and other defects. Such damage contributes to the formation of burns on plantings, since the glass will focus the sun's light at one point. A translucent material is installed in the greenhouse in case of excess sunlight, which contributes to overheating of the planting tissues.
Translucent glass greenhouse
When choosing glass, it is important to consider not only the weight and fragility of the material. If you plan to use a certain glass, then you need to familiarize yourself with the building codes and rules that are adopted in a particular region. Many regions require the walls and top panels to be tempered or laminated glass.
It should be understood that a significant problem of damaged material is not its dismantling and replacement, but the removal of debris from landings and paths.
The type of glass should be selected based on the purpose of the greenhouse. For example, in a product that is intended for growing tropical plants of the lower tier in winter, you can make triple glazing. This will reduce heating costs. The relatively low throughput of a double-glazed window with two cameras will not harm landings - in fact, they may require even more darkening
If you plan to grow vegetables for sale, it is recommended to use glass that conserves heat and lets in a lot of light.
Heat-reflecting glass in different colors
The heat-reflecting material on the outside has a thin layer of coating that allows most of the sun's energy to pass inward, while reducing the leakage of heat energy. Such a coating is able to give double glazing the characteristics of a triple glazing. Glass reduces heat loss.
Use of double and display glass
The two-layer material is 3.2 mm thick. The use of glass in medium-sized frames is allowed. Double glass can be cut to size. This is the main argument in favor of choosing a material for greenhouse glazing. The use of such glass in the upper vents is not the best solution.
Thick display glass
Display glass thickness - 6.4 mm. The material has increased strength. For this reason, glazing of large frames is allowed. Installation of solid supports is required. One sheet can be lifted by at least 2 people.
Single-chamber double-glazed windows and window frames
A single-chamber double-glazed window consists of two glass panes with an air layer between them.
Single-chamber double-glazed window with two glasses
The end cap sealant contains chemicals that absorb moisture. Therefore, the air in the interlayer will be dry. Such glass units transmit less light than ordinary glass. The structure is heavy. Bending during installation can damage the sealant, which can cause the windows to fog up during operation.
Products can be of any size. The disadvantage of a double-glazed unit is that after a while it can lose its tightness.
When installing a single-chamber double-glazed window, care should be taken that it can expand and contract. To do this, you need to install rubber pads:
Rubber gaskets for insulating glass units
Some people may have a stock of old window frames.
Greenhouse from old window frames
With their help, you can make a greenhouse, but it is worth considering that such structures often leak. It is recommended not to use the glazing frames, but to remove the glasses from them and install them in new frames.
Which glass is best not to use?
Tempered glass is not recommended.
Tempered glass with a unique structure
The material has a unique structure and therefore cannot be cut. If the glass breaks, then its fragments will scatter everywhere. They will need to be collected for a long time from paths and beds. If this happens, it is recommended to remove the topsoil with a shovel and discard it.
The only place where this material can be used is in an area that will be exposed to strong winds. Glazing of the upper frames is allowed. Glass should be installed with extreme care.
The use of double-glazed windows in the main parts of the structure is not allowed.
Double-glazed windows with three glasses
They reduce light transmission by 2 times. The thermal resistance of double-glazed windows is 11 units, so in some regions they can be installed on the northern wall of the greenhouse instead of a knee wall with a wooden frame. This will eliminate heat loss caused by ordinary glass or double-glazed windows with one chamber.
Heat-reflecting glass traps the rays that plants need. This can lead to a slowdown in plant growth.
The use of storm glass is not recommended, as it reduces the illumination.
The second life of old materials: greenhouses from window frames
What is the best greenhouse material? Each host will answer this question differently. First of all, the choice depends on financial capabilities.
A greenhouse made of old window frames is a budget option that does not require serious capital investments. This design is easy to do with your own hands. The construction process does not take much time.
Consider several factors when choosing a material.
- dimensions of the future structure
- climatic zone
- snow load
- estimated material consumption
- your financial capabilities
A shelter for plants can be made from materials of varying degrees of reliability:
- Durable, robust polycarbonate greenhouses. The cost of modern polymer material is decreasing every year.
- A structure made of a wooden or metal frame with glazing will last a long time, the construction costs are somewhat lower. It is possible to use used material for the frame. Old window frames are an excellent way out for construction.
- A greenhouse made of a dense film stretched over a metal base. Service life - less than a season. Suitable for small mobile greenhouses.
Greenhouses from scrap materials
In the summer-autumn period, you can quickly build a greenhouse from non-standard materials. Such a shelter for plants will not be sufficiently durable and airtight, but in a warm season, you can close your eyes to this drawback. The main thing: cheap and cheerful.
Option number 1. Greenhouse made of twigs with a film coating
Some craftsmen can build such an original structure. Frame - strong flexible branches, best of all, hazel. The material for the flooring is a transparent polyethylene film.
How to build:
- dig into the ground the posts treated with fungicidal preparations
- attach flex branches to them
- distance between posts - no more than 1.4m
- connect the ends of the opposite branches
- frame ready
- cover the greenhouse with foil.
Option number 2. Greenhouse made of metal mesh
To make this fairly strong structure, take a welded mesh or chain-link:
- at a sufficient depth, fix the posts in the ground
- make a strapping from a bar or boards, fix a mesh on it
- Pull the transparent film over the frame.
Greenhouses from old window frames
Many owners make a shelter for plants from unnecessary frames, which, after repair, some people simply throw away in a landfill. Of all types of structures made from scrap materials, this one is the most durable and strong. The cost of work is minimal.
The design deserves a closer look. Learn all the nuances of building an inexpensive and reliable greenhouse.
- This design allows enough light to pass through and protects plants well from the effects of precipitation. Regular ventilation will help prevent high humidity.
- The structure will last for more than one year. In such a building, you can install a heating system.
It is enough to fit the frames well to each other and to properly seal the joints of the glass and the frame. An ordinary home craftsman can build an inexpensive greenhouse. It takes patience and accuracy. An assistant will not hurt.
The more precisely the frames are selected and fitted, the better the structure looks.
Where to install the greenhouse?
There are several requirements for the place:
- flat, well-lit, wind-protected area
- absence of tall trees or high-rise buildings near, creating shade
- the longer side of the greenhouse should be from north to south.
Nuances to be aware of:
- choose window frames of the same size
- make sure that the glass is intact and the wood is not rotten
- calculate the required number of frames, take a couple in stock
- before installation, remove all fittings, remove old paint, treat wood with a composition against fungi
- paint the frames after the fungicide has dried.
Pros and cons of a greenhouse from old windows
There are more advantages than disadvantages. Judge for yourself.
- glass transmits ultraviolet light well. Plants stretch quickly and bear fruit well
- a properly assembled greenhouse retains sufficient heat
- glass is easier to tidy up than film
- broken glass is easy to replace.
Disadvantages of the structure:
- heavy glass needs a foundation
- coarse hail can damage the coating
- without ventilation, it may be too hot indoors on sunny days.
These shortcomings are not so serious as to spoil the overall impression of a window frame greenhouse. Many of them are easy to fix.
How to build a greenhouse from old windows
Prepare enough material before starting to build.
Pay attention to the nuances:
- First, find a sufficient number of old windows. You may need more than one day.
- Second, study the material on the topic and watch the video. You must be clear about how to proceed.
- Finally, deal with the timing. The foundation for the construction of unnecessary frames hardens for about three weeks. In such a period, you will surely have time to find suitable frames.
Contact the company that installs plastic windows. Perhaps the staff will tell you the address where in the near future there will be free material for your greenhouse. Try it, most likely it will help you.
If you are building a greenhouse with your own hands
The owner will be helped by diagrams with applied dimensions, which can be taken as a basis. If you are planning to build a structure of a different size, be sure to complete a drawing of the future structure.
Do not build by eye... Measure each frame. You will understand what size the greenhouse will turn out to be.
Keep old windows the same size. This will make them easier to fix.
Pay special attention to the position of the frames... Install them strictly according to the level. A skewed frame will lead to various problems.
On the drawing, indicate the location of the beds and aisles... The width of the beds is about a meter. It is advisable that there is free space for walking.
If the building is large, make a passage the width of a small cart... Carrying fertilizer in buckets is a bad idea.
Greenhouse frame made of window frames
For the strength and reliability of a homemade plant shelter, make a wooden frame. You will need a 50 x 50 cm timber or a good quality dry board that is sized for the width of the window frames (4 cm).
Attach the long window frame elements to the uprights. This will reliably insulate the gap between adjacent frames.
- bottom rail
- top harness.
For fastening use:
What's better? Screws, of course. They are more expensive, but the connection is more durable. Fasten frames not only from the outside. On the inside, place the mount on a medium-thick support board.
After connecting the frames, blow out all the cracks with polyurethane foam. Do not be stingy, a high-quality construction will keep warm well even in cold weather.
Do you need a foundation?
Most of the owners who have equipped a homemade greenhouse from window frames do not regret that they made the basis for their greenhouse. The foundation will not only be a good support for the frame. Pouring the base helps maintain the correct temperature in the greenhouse and reduces heat loss.
The most durable and reliable is tape. The fill depth depends on the region. Check the depth of soil freezing in your area.
The foundation is poured around the perimeter. The width of the base is at least 100 m. For a winter greenhouse, insulate the foundation from the outside. Plates made of lightweight polystyrene foam with high water-repellent properties are suitable.
A common version of a strip foundation is concrete or masonry. Check the quality of the foundation filling by level. Skews are unacceptable.
Making a greenhouse from window frames
Building a homemade plant shelter is not as difficult as it might seem. Follow the procedure and you will succeed.
Step-by-step instructions for building a greenhouse or greenhouse
Step by step:
- Choose a location for your greenhouse.
- Fill the foundation.
- Find old frames that are roughly the same size.
- Remove hardware and old paint.
- Seal the glass in the frame.
- The foundation is frozen - install the frame.
- Prepare rafters for a pitched or gable roof.
- Install the roof.
- Carry out the interior arrangement of the greenhouse.
- Break up the beds. Lay tracks.
- In a winter greenhouse, equip a heating system.
- The plant shelter is now ready for use.
A detailed video instruction will be a good help. After watching this material, any owner can easily figure out all the intricacies of making and installing a homemade shelter for plants.
There are little things that can affect the operation of a homemade greenhouse. Pay attention to them:
- Frames should not be rotten. Throw away frames even with small rotten areas without regret.
- Check if the vents open.
- Do not forget to treat the wood with fungicidal compounds, otherwise the frames will begin to rot
- Do not make paths less than 50 cm wide - it will be inconvenient to walk between grown plants
- Remember to ventilate the greenhouse. Excessive moisture and high temperatures impair the development of plants.
- The best material for a roof is polycarbonate or, in extreme cases, a film. The window frames are too heavy, there is too much sunlight coming through and the plants are overheating.
Choosing a different covering material: tips for choosing, the required diameter
The range of covering material is large today, but you should not carefully choose one or another film. All of them do not last long, even reinforced for no more than 3 years. The exception is, perhaps, the Danish-made "breathable" film, which has the best ventilation rates due to miniature holes in each cell.
A greenhouse (greenhouse, greenhouse) made of PVC pipes can, if desired, be covered with polycarbonate sheets of Israeli production Polygal, British Breet Nartin, domestic Novattro, which have wonderfully proven themselves in our latitudes. You just need to perform certain actions:
- fill the bars on the wood base, placing them between the stiffening ribs
- fix polycarbonate with self-tapping screws with thermal washers
- the diameters of holes drilled in polycarbonate must be made 3 mm larger than the diameter of the fasteners, which will allow the covering material to tolerate weather fluctuations and whims well
- the thickness of the material is chosen depending on the step of the lathing (for a large step, polycarbonate 6-8 mm thick is ideal).
In areas with very difficult weather conditions, a wooden base for a greenhouse made of PVC pipes is strongly discouraged. It is more expedient to install the PVC frame on a concrete foundation, where all the reinforcement used for the installation and fastening of the arcs should be bricked up during pouring. This will ensure greater reliability and long service life.
Video: a greenhouse made of PVC pipes with your own hands for little money
PVC greenhouses are a profitable purchase, especially if you install it yourself. At the same time, there will be a minimum of financial costs, labor costs and time, too, which means that it will pay off with its rational use very quickly. Good luck.