Why disinfect tomato seeds and how to do it?
Disinfection of tomato seeds before sowing is a very important procedure, and gardeners who have been operating for more than one year always have the necessary tools and solutions at hand. It is undesirable to sow dry tomato grains - there is a great danger that they will not sprout. Therefore, to accelerate growth, seeds are soaked in different stimulating formulations. Some of them stimulate growth, and some are aimed at disinfecting and decontaminating young seedlings, resulting in a rich and full harvest.
Why disinfection is carried out
Tomato grains must be processed before sowing - gardeners experts say this. Most of them use various methods of disinfection, and only a few prove its unsuitability. Decent experience in gardening allows us to say that disinfection allows you to increase the germination of crops, improve sowing properties, increase the growth and development of healthy plants, increase their immunity and resistance to diseases. This technique does not take much time, but leads to an early harvest. There are many ways to process seeds.
There are dry methods and there are wet ones. Classical processing - keeping seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium). Also, the seeds are soaked in a solution of garlic, aloe, various nutrient compositions rich in trace elements. For seed aging, there are special growth stimulants, sodium humanate, epin, agate-25K, immunocytophyte, and others. Also recently, a long-forgotten method is gaining its former popularity - exposure to hydrogen peroxide.
Preparing for planting is the foundation of the future harvest. Experienced summer residents begin training in March and February.
Thus, they carry out special manipulations that are aimed at accelerating the appearance of fruits. Also, ultimately, the incidence of plants decreases and their productivity increases. Preparation includes heating, disinfection, processing with nutrient mixtures, and other procedures. Seasoned seedlings can withstand frost, so it's worth it, even though many gardeners find it troublesome. How to do soaking correctly, and what formulations exist for this procedure - you can learn about everything from this article. Hardening is a very useful process, and a well-versed gardener is always ready to carry out such a useful and necessary procedure before planting.
Disinfection instructions (types of treatment)
Tomato seed preparation includes several stages. The first one is warming up, the temperature should be about 30 degrees, and they keep that warm for up to two days. If the temperature is 50 degrees, then one day will be enough. The pubescent seeds must be sanded before sowing. This is done in electrically driven drums, where the processing time is regulated, depending on the speed and the processed mass.
For the prevention of viral diseases, disinfection with potassium permanganate is used. Another compound used for the same purpose is hydrochloric acid. Processing for three minutes alternates with rinsing under running water for 10-15 minutes. Boiling is a disinfection procedure that includes heating for twenty minutes in water at a temperature of 50 degrees. After the procedure, the seeds are cooled and dried. Steaming - steaming for several minutes, followed by drying.
After that, they must be rinsed with running clean water and dried. The concentration of the composition is determined by its color. Processing is carried out immediately before disembarkation. Boric acid can be a good alternative to potassium permanganate. After processing, the seeds are not washed, but only dried. A solution of copper sulfate is also suitable for this purpose, however, after processing, the seeds must be rinsed in clean water.
Therefore, they need stimulation that can speed up the process. Fertilizer or stimulant solutions are ideal, but there are also natural ways. Aloe juice is a natural stimulant. Before using it, the juice must be kept in the refrigerator, its protective properties are activated from the cold. Then it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3, and seeds are dropped into it. The most versatile method is soaking in water. You can use melt water, but any other is also suitable. For a high-quality result, it is important to ensure optimal conditions for planting, since none of the seeds will germinate in dry soil.
The duration of the impregnation depends on the germination rate. But the growth rate can be increased by first germinating them. The soaked grains are melted on a damp cloth and left until the first shoots appear. The survival rate of such sprouts is 100%. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide is also used. The solution is made so that it can be soaked in it for 20 minutes, for this a mixture of 10% hydrogen peroxide is created. After infusion, the seeds are washed under running water and dried to the level of flowability.
This soaking reduces the amount of nitrates in the grown vegetables. The result of treatment should cause a decrease in damage to germinating seeds, their energy required for germination increases, and they rise two to three days faster. Hardening in the sun - some types of seeds need to be warmed up in the sun. Why are the seeds hardened? This is necessary to a greater extent in order to increase their resistance to cold. The process is very delicate and is not applicable for some varieties. Tomato seeds are hardened early before planting by placing them in snow.
The very same disinfection is necessary to destroy possible pathogens of various diseases. This process is carried out in many ways. The ultimate goal is to get a healthy harvest, and the process itself consists of several different stages - sorting, disinfection, growth stimulation. All of them will help to increase yields, plant resistance to cold and weather conditions, germination. Other soaking compounds are boric acid with a density of 0.1%, copper sulfate not more than 0.5%, ammonium molybdate - 0.02%, succinic acid - 0.002%, nicotinic acid - 0.01%. The temperature for processing is 24-26 degrees.
Video “How to Prepare Seeds Before Planting”
In this video, a man talks about preparing for sowing seeds of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants.
Tags for tomatoes: what and how to make, fix, and why are they needed
Adding an article to a new collection
A new summer cottage season is coming and it is time to prepare the entire corresponding arsenal for its beginning. In addition to inventory, soil, seeds and other small things necessary for giving, do not forget about tags for vegetables, in particular, for tomatoes. You can buy markers or make yourself.
If there is a lot of work, but there is no time at all, you can use the purchased tags: there is enough of this good in stores today. In other cases, using imagination, it is possible to make tags from improvised means without any special hassle. We will list several options for such a designation, but first we will tell you a little about what all this is for.
What is black leg seedlings: signs, symptoms
Blackleg is a fungal disease that affects seedlings and leads to their death. The cause of the dangerous disease is various pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) living in the soil: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans de Bary A., Pythium debaryanum, Pythium ultimum Trow. and etc.
Microorganisms live in the topsoil and feed on dead plant tissue. Under unfavorable conditions (high humidity), fungi begin to feed on the tissues of living plants (using only them, or combining them with dead residues), therefore, in some cases, they do not mind eating the root collar of seedlings.
The main signs of black leg seedlings: the root collar darkens, a black constriction appears at the base of the plants. After a few days (after about four to five), the root collar with a black constriction rots, softens, the seedlings break. Thus, the seedlings lodge and die.
By the way! It turns out that a dangerous fungal disease has received an almost literal name, because with a black leg, the base of the seedlings turns black.
This photo shows an example of another seedling being affected by a black leg:
Most often, black leg affects seedlings at the stage from germination of seedlings (after germination of seeds) to the appearance of the first 2-3 true leaves.
Important! The main danger of the blackleg is that it is impossible to cure already diseased plants, you can only try to save the rest of the healthy plants. Therefore, it is so important to deal with the prevention of the disease in a timely manner.
It is important to timely identify the disease in tomato seedlings, because if one specimen is affected, the disease can quickly spread to other healthy plants.
Causes of black leg in tomato seedlings
The main reason for the development of black leg in tomato seedlings is, of course, the presence of the pathogen in the soil. Pathogenic microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) can initially be in the soil mixture, or they can get there through the seedling container, through infected seeds.
However, the presence of pathogens does not always lead to disease, it affects seedlings under certain unfavorable conditions!
The main reasons for the appearance of a black leg in tomato seedlings:
- The presence of pathogens in the soil
- Excess moisture in the soil and in the air
- Dense sowing
- Stagnant air, lack of fresh air
- Decreased air and soil temperature
- Sudden changes in temperature (more than 5 degrees).
The main reasons for the development of blackleg: low temperatures and high humidity!
Pros and cons of germinating seeds before planting
Germination of tomatoes for seedlings must be carried out only in such cases:
- there are very few seeds of a certain variety, there is nowhere to get them, you need all to sprout
- the dates for sowing tomatoes are missed, but the planting material should be grown independently, it is important every day
- old seeds that are unlikely to hatch without special measures
- only sprouted tomato seeds are planted on seedlings without soil.
In other cases, the expediency of the operation is questionable. That is, there is no need for quick pecking of the grains.
The benefits of planting germinating seeds include:
- tomatoes will sprout together
- pre-pecking speeds up the emergence of seedlings
- even low-viable seeds germinate
- exotic ways of growing seedlings that do not use traditional substrate are becoming possible.
Germinating seeds before planting in the ground cannot:
- increase the harvest
- protect tomatoes from diseases or pests
- grow stronger seedlings
- increase resistance to adverse factors.
- almost all seeds will sprout, even those that would not have sprout under other conditions - weak, defective, affected by diseases or pests
- any mistake - drying out or waterlogging of seeds, temperature failure, can lead to immediate death or damage to the planting material
- it will take a lot of time, neatness to transfer the germinated grains to the ground, and still some of the roots will break
- if you tighten the planting for at least a day, and the aboveground part hatches, there will be a lot of losses
- grains with a primary root are harder to plant than dry ones
- it is impossible to cull seedlings.
Sprouting tomatoes does not allow choosing the most viable seeds for planting. On the contrary, it smoothes out hidden defects, allowing even those grains to sprout that would never hatch on their own.
Signs of the disease
In order to notice the onset of the development of the disease in time and have time to provide first aid to seedlings, it is necessary to examine it daily for the appearance of the main signs of infection. These include:
- darkening of the root collar
- rotting of the lower part of the stem
- wilting of sprouts on sunny days.
If you touch the shoots of infected plants, you can feel that they are very softened.
Traditional methods used at home
In addition to the synthetic organic fertilizers described above, there are also time-tested folk recipes. They can be prepared at home.
Recipe number 1: ash
Add 1 tbsp to a two-liter vessel. l ash. Pour in water. Insist 24 hours. Strain and watered at the root. Ash can be filled in and fertilized with seedlings when they are transplanted into each hole.
Recipe number 2: banana peel
The dried banana peel is poured with water in a 2: 1 ratio. Withstand for several days. For feeding, they are bred - 1: 3.
Recipe number 3: yeast
In 10 liters of water, 10 g of live yeast are diluted. Watering. For the entire growing season, it is recommended to apply this mixture no more than 3 times.
During the preparation of the yeast nutrient mixture, do not allow strong fermentation. For young plants, use only a freshly prepared solution.
Folk recipes can also be used for spraying leaves. A mixture of milk, iodine (2 ml of iodine, 1 liter of milk) is able to protect seedlings from pests, strengthen them. A solution of 10 drops of iodine, 10 liters of water can be watered at the root. It is necessary to avoid getting it on the aboveground part of the tomatoes.
What to do if a black leg appears on tomato seedlings: treatment and control
Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure the black leg, you can only save the rest of the healthy seedlings. Therefore, the prevention of the disease is of such great importance.
However, it is not always possible to protect plants at home from fungal disease. What to do if you find a black leg on tomato seedlings? It is necessary to fight the disease according to the following scheme:
- Remove the affected plant from the container immediately. Dispose of the seedling immediately (preferably burn or discard).
- Examine the rest of the plants carefully. If you find other black-legged plants, be sure to remove them.
- Spill all seedlings with a biological fungicide solution, for example, Fitosporin, Alirin, Glyocladin, etc.
- If a black leg arose at the stage of the appearance of two true leaves, then in addition to watering, you can effectively spray the plants with a solution of Fitosporin.
- Spread a layer of sand (2-3 millimeters) on the surface of the earth.
- After all the above manipulations, it is advisable to pick (transplant) into new containers with disinfected soil. And if at the time of infection the plants already have 1-2 true leaves, then it is most effective to cut the seedlings straight away! Here it is told about picking tomatoes.
- You also need to immediately review the growing conditions and care. If there are any deviations from the recommended rules, it is necessary to correct them. It is especially important to reduce the moisture content of the soil and air.
- A good folk way of dealing with blackleg is dusting the surface of the earth with wood ash. It is especially helpful to add wood ash to the area from which you removed the affected seedlings.
- If the disease has affected a large number of plants, but you do not have the opportunity to transplant the plants into new soil, then it is effective to apply chemical fungicides. For example, a mixture of copper sulfate (1 tsp per 1 square meter of plantings) and wood ash (1 glass per 1 square meter).
Note! It is necessary to immediately get rid of plant residues of diseased plants and old soil (after a pick). The potting mix must not be reused!
I hope now that you know what a black leg looks like, why it occurs, and what preventive measures exist, you can save your precious seedlings from this dangerous ailment!