Features of creating a shed roof with your own hands and the sequence of work
For utility rooms, one of the simplest, most convenient and cheapest options for installing a roof will be a shed structure. It can be made with your own hands, and building materials will be required 2-3 times less than for a gable analog. A single-pitched roof is easy to install, besides, with a small slope, it perfectly resists wind loads, therefore it is popular in the southern regions, where there is often a strong and gusty wind.
Features of the construction of a pitched roof
For living quarters, a pitched roof is very rarely used, but if you need to cover a garage, terrace or any utility room, then this is one of the most practical and affordable options.
For a gable roof, an elementary rafter system is created, so even a beginner in the construction business can cope with its installation. The support for the rafter system is a wooden beam that is fixed to the outer walls and is called a mauerlat. Such a structure can have a different angle of inclination, usually it is made due to the difference in heights of opposite load-bearing walls. If the height of the walls of the building is the same, then a pediment is attached to one of them and, due to it, the necessary angle is created.
A pitched roof can be erected both on residential buildings and on any utility rooms
When overlapping the span, the length of which exceeds 13 m, it is necessary to install two intermediate supports under the rafters, the basis of which are the racks. Between the posts, a distance of 1/3 of the span is usually made. Strengthening is performed by contractions and fixing to the nearest load-bearing wall.
If we talk about the angle of inclination, then it depends on the type of roofing material used and the climatic conditions in which the house is located:
- for roll coverings laid in 3 layers, a slope of 5o;
- with a two-layer roof, the angle must be at least 15o;
- under the corrugated board and metal tiles, you can make a slope of 12-14o;
- slate and natural tiles require steeper slopes, starting from 22o.
If there is a lot of precipitation in the region in winter, then the angle of inclination is better to do more - 45o and higher.
Pros and cons of a pitched roof
Most often, when creating a shed roof, they make a rafter system from wooden elements with their own hands.
The main advantages of pitched roofs:
- significant savings in building materials - usually they are required about 2–3 times less than for a gable structure;
- ease of installation - even people who do not have relevant work experience can erect such roofs;
- light weight - the roof can be installed on buildings with a lightweight foundation;
- versatility - pitched roofs can be installed both on residential buildings and on outbuildings;
- high resistance to wind loads - if there is often a strong and gusty wind in the construction region, a pitched roof with a slight angle of inclination would be a good choice.
The lean-to design also has its drawbacks, which must not be forgotten:
- if the angle of inclination of the roof is small, it is highly susceptible to snow loads. When the angle of inclination is less than 45o in winter you will have to clean off the snow, since it will not be able to get off on its own;
If the roof has a slight slope, then snow will have to be removed from it quite often.
- with small slopes, a more thorough and high-quality waterproofing is also required to prevent leaks, and this is an additional cost of time and money;
- with an increase in the angle of inclination of the roof, its windage increases, so the surface becomes more vulnerable to wind;
- the lean-to design does not have the most attractive and respectable appearance.
A pitched roof is perfect for a residential building or utility room located in the southern regions, since there is little snow and strong wind loads.
Preparatory stage, choice of materials
The very first stage of construction is project development. Since the construction of a pitched roof is quite simple, it is not difficult to make a drawing on your own. After creating a project, you can choose the right building materials for the roof and calculate the required amount.
The key to the reliability and durability of a self-made roof is the correct choice of materials for all its elements:
- For rafters, logs or timber are used. Since the rafters are the main single-pitched roof, they bear the entire load, therefore, when choosing them, you need to be especially careful and look at the quality of the wood. Larch, pine, spruce or other conifers are best suited, while the moisture content of the wood should not be more than 22%, otherwise the beams may bend when drying. When choosing a cross-section of a bar, the size of the building and the weight of the roof are taken into account. The minimum thickness of the timber cannot be less than 10 cm, and the diameter of the log - less than 12 cm. When calculating the number of rafter legs, one should be guided by the fact that the step between them should be within 60–120 cm, depending on the type of roofing material used.
The rafter beam must be dry, even and have a minimum number of knots.
- For the Mauerlat, a bar with a cross section of at least 100x100 mm is chosen. Usually, softwood is also taken for Mauerlat beams, which has sufficient strength, durability and affordable cost.
In the absence of a bar of the required section for the Mauerlat device, it is allowed to use two boards, knocked down along the entire length
- For the lathing, you can prepare both beams and boards. Since the load on the lathing is much lower, the requirements for these elements are not as high as for the rafter beams. The boards must be absolutely dry, even, and their thickness depends on the material of the roof covering and can be 25–40 mm.
Usually boards with a thickness of 20-40 mm are used for lathing, they must also be dry and even, but the requirements for their quality are not very high
- For the end strip, it is necessary to use high-quality edged boards with a thickness of 25-30 mm, since it is an additional element and is located in a conspicuous place. If the roof is covered with metal tiles, then you can purchase special end strips designed for this type of roof.
For the end strip, high-quality edged boards are selected, since this element will always be in sight
Before installation, all wooden elements must be treated with antiseptics such as Neomid, Novax, Luxens, Akvateks, Profisept or others.
To protect all wooden elements from the negative effects of external factors, they must be treated with an antiseptic
For the device of the roofing cake, the following materials will be required:
- Fasteners. In order to securely fix all the structural elements of a pitched roof, various fasteners will be needed. Depending on what parts will be mounted, use bolts, nails or screws. Several types of fasteners can be used simultaneously to strengthen the structure to better withstand wind loads.
- Thermal insulation. It can be rock wool, foam or sprayed polyurethane foam. It is easier to work with panel materials, you will need an assistant for the installation of roll materials, and for sprayed materials - special equipment.
You can use different types of insulation, but for a pitched roof, the most affordable and cheapest are slab materials.
- Hydro and vapor barrier materials. To protect the under-roof space and insulation, it is imperative to purchase and properly install steam and waterproofing. Various materials can be used to waterproof the roof:
- films and membranes. For protection from wind and atmospheric moisture, moisture-windproof films are used; superdiffusion membranes can also be used;
- liquid or sprayed waterproofing. Usually it is liquid rubber or two-component acrylic compounds that allow you to completely cover the surface, regardless of the complexity of its shape;
- penetrating waterproofing. It is used on roofs with a porous structure and allows you to fill all cracks and pores. This is usually water glass, polymers, or resins;
- pasting waterproofing - sheet or roll materials: waterproofing, roofing material, glassine, and others.
For metal roofs, hydro-vapor barrier films are usually used with the addition of a UV stabilizer, a reinforced film or with an anti-condensation layer. Vapor barrier films are a versatile material that well protects both the roof and thermal insulation from steam and condensation.
- Roofing material. There is a large selection of topcoats, it all depends on the climatic zone in which the work is performed, as well as on the preferences and financial condition of the owner. Usually, roll materials, slate, ondulin, corrugated board or metal tiles are used for single-pitched roofs.
For a pitched roof, both rolled and sheet roofing materials can be used.
Shed roof calculation
If you decide to build a pitched roof yourself, you need to make the right calculations. To carry out the calculations, you will need to determine the following parameters:
- width and length of spans between load-bearing walls;
- the length and section of the rafter legs;
- section and number of beams;
- angle of inclination of the roof.
When creating a shed roof, it is enough to make one of the opposite load-bearing walls a little higher, and due to this, the required angle of inclination will be obtained. The number of beams, their cross-section and the need to strengthen the rafters will depend on the distance between the load-bearing walls.
Before creating a drawing and making calculations, you need to decide whether you plan to use the attic space as a living room. If yes, then the angle of inclination should be made large. If the house has a veranda, then a common pitched roof can be organized. All these points must also be thought out at the planning stage. After that, you can proceed to performing calculations:
- constant and dynamic loads. Permanent loads include the weight of all elements that are located on the roof and are constantly on it. Variable or dynamic loads occur periodically: snow, wind, people cleaning or repairing the roof, etc .;
- snow loads. This indicator is very important in regions where there is a lot of rainfall in the winter. If the angle of inclination is 45 degrees or more, then on such a surface the snow usually does not linger for a long time and leaves it on its own. At smaller angles, it will remain on the roof and create an additional load on it. In mid-latitudes, experts recommend making single-pitched roofs with a slope angle of 30 degrees or more, which will significantly reduce snow loads. If there is a lot of snow in your region, and the angle of inclination of the roof is small, then you will have to clean it off with a shovel in winter;
The normative value of the snow load depends on the region in which the construction is carried out
- wind loads. If the house is located in a region with frequent and harsh winds, then it is not recommended to build pitched roofs with a large angle of inclination here. If the slope of the ramp is 45o, then in a strong wind it will be subjected to loads 5 times higher than those experienced by a roof with a slope of 10o... When constructing a roof, its lower part should be directed in the direction from which the wind most often blows;
The greater the wind load on the roof, the less you need to make its slope
- mixed loads. Additionally, other temporary loads must be taken into account. Many people neglect this and forget to take into account short-term factors that increase the load on the roof. For example, you can point to a case when in winter there will be several people on the roof to clear snow, or a strong gusty wind will blow at the same time with a lot of snow.
The angle of inclination of the slope and the height of the rise of the facade wall
In a single-slope structure, the angle of inclination is obtained due to the difference in the heights of the walls on which it rests. According to the current regulations, the angle of inclination of a pitched roof must be within 5-60o... If there is a possibility of heavy snow loads, it is recommended to keep it within 45-60o, and at high wind loads - 5–20o.
Knowing the angle of inclination of the roof α, it is possible to determine the height of the facade wall rise. This is done by the formula L f. Art.= B ∙ tg α, where B is the width of the building. The tangent values of the desired angle can be taken from the look-up table.
Table: sine and tangent values of different angles for calculating a pitched roof
|Roof inclination angle, degrees||tg α||sin α|
High roofs allow you to give the building a more harmonious look, but from a financial point of view, a sloping pitched roof will cost significantly less.
Minimum slope of pitched roofs
For each type of roofing material, manufacturers recommend the minimum angles of inclination.
When calculating a pitched roof, it is necessary to take into account the requirements of roofing manufacturers for the minimum angle of its slope.
For a pitched roof, the following coatings can be used:
- Rolled bituminous roofing. This is a common type of roofing material for a pitched structure. Manufacturers limit the minimum angle of inclination of such a roof to 3about, in practice, under the bituminous roof, slopes are made with a slope of at least 5o... Bituminous-polymer materials, which are covered with stone chips on top, are more durable and reliable. This option is commonly used to cover budget homes or outbuildings.
The maximum slope of a single-pitched roof for a bituminous roll roof should not exceed 25 °, but usually it is not made more than 15 °
- Slate. Here the bias should be significant. If ordinary sheets are used, then the minimum angle of inclination should be 25o... The greater the angle of the slope, the more overlap of the sheets must be done.
If conventional slate is used, then the minimum roof slope should be 25 °
- Euro slate or bituminous sheets. A flat roof with a minimum slope of 6 ° is allowed under this covering. Not only the size of the overlap of the sheets depends on the slope of the roof, but also the pitch of the lathing:
- for a slope of 6-10o make a solid crate;
- at an angle of inclination of 10-15o the step of the lathing should be 45 cm;
- for steeper roofs, the permissible distance between the rows of the battens is 60 cm.
For sheets of euro-slate, the angle of inclination of the roof can be from 6 °, but if it is less than 10 °, then it is necessary to make a continuous crate
- Metal tiles. It is allowed to lay it on roofs with a slope of 12o... In this case, it is necessary to carefully seal all the seams, and this is long and expensive, so usually roofs with a slope angle of more than 22 are covered with metal tiles.o, the joints are not sealed.
If the slope of the roof is more than 22 °, then the joints between the sheets of metal tiles may not be sealed
- Decking. This material can be installed on roofs with a slope of 7o... When it is increased above 10 °, a larger overlap is made and an additional sealing tape is laid.
The angle of inclination under the roof made of corrugated board can be from 7 degrees
- Seamed roof. Regardless of whether the rebate is used - factory or made on a construction site, the angle of inclination of the roof must be more than 8 °, and if the joints are additionally sealed, then it can be reduced to 5 °.
The angle of inclination of the seam roof must be greater than 8 °, but if the seams are additionally sealed, it can be reduced to 5 °
- Bituminous shingles. For this material, the minimum angle of inclination is 12o... If it does not exceed 22o, then the lining layer is made continuous, and at large angles it is laid only along the outer contours.
The minimum angle of inclination of a roof covered with bituminous tiles should be 12 degrees
- Natural tile. Here, the slope angle cannot be less than 25o, and in the presence of an additional layer of waterproofing, it can be reduced to 15o... It is a heavy material, so it is rarely used for covering pitched roofs.
For pitched roofs, natural tiles are rarely used, since they are heavy and create a large load on the structure.
Manufacturers can give separate recommendations for the installation of their materials, but when determining the angle of inclination of a shed roof, both technical requirements and the architecture of the building must be taken into account.
Calculation of rafters
Usually the rafters are made of pine boards with a section of 50x150 mm. Pine has high strength, is not afraid of moisture, weighs relatively little and has an affordable cost. We will calculate the rafter system using the example of a structure with the following parameters:
- facade length D = 10 m;
- house width A = 6 m;
- angle of inclination of the roof (between the slope and the ceiling slabs) α = 20o.
The calculation order is as follows:
- We find the difference in the heights of the front and back walls. From the right-angled triangle formed by the rafter leg, the floor beam and the desired section of the facade wall, we get that B = A ∙ tg α = 6 ∙ 0.36 = 2.16 m.
- From the same triangle, we calculate the length of the rafter leg using the formula C = B / sin α = 2.16 / 0.34 = 6.35 m. To this size you need to add the size of the eaves. If we take them equal to 50 cm, then the total length of the rafters will be 6.35 + 0.5 + 0.5 = 7.35 m.
When calculating a pitched roof, the simplest geometric shapes are considered: a slope rectangle and a pediment triangle
- We calculate the number of rafters. If you make a step of the rafters of 60 cm, then they will need 10 / 0.6 = 16.67 ≈ 17 pcs. In this case, it should be borne in mind that one rafter element is laid from each edge, therefore, one more of them will be required, that is, 18 pieces.
- We calculate the area of the roof. To do this, the length of the rafter leg is multiplied by the width of the building: S = C x D = 7.35 x 10 = 73.5 m². When buying material, a 5% margin for cutting and 10% for overlap is usually added to the received area, therefore S = 73.5 * 1.15 = 84.5 m².
- Determine the amount of insulating material. Usually a roll has a width of 1 m and a length of 15 m, that is, its area is 15 m². Therefore, the roof in question will need 84.5 / 15 = 5.6 ≈ 6 rolls.
The amount of material required for the lathing depends on whether it is solid or sparse. For a pitched roof with a slight slope, a continuous sheathing is usually made of moisture-resistant plywood. Its amount is determined by the previously calculated area of the slope.
Calculation of floor beams
Before installing the beams, they, like other wooden elements, must be treated with an antiseptic. They are laid on a Mauerlat or an armored belt with a step of 0.6-1 m. Beams must be mounted if you plan to use an attic space or if a single-slope structure is installed on load-bearing walls that have the same height. When building a garage, only rafters and roofing material are often installed, while a sloping roof is obtained inside.
When calculating the floor beams of a shed roof, it is necessary to determine their length and section. To calculate the length of the beams, measure the dimensions of the roof span and add the amount of their embedding in the wall, which should be at least 150 mm on each side. That is, if a three-meter span is overlapped, then the length of the beam should be 3.3–3.5 m. For wooden beams, the optimal span size is 2.5–4 m, and the maximum is 6 m.
You can use an online calculator or lookup table to determine the cross-section of the beams.
Table: dependence of the cross-section of beams on the step of their laying and the length of the span
|Step, m||Span, m|
Video: the procedure for calculating the elements of the rafter system and roofing material
Installation of the rafter system
The creation of a single-slope rafter system provides for two installation options:
- Installation of rafters on opposite walls with different heights.
- Installation of the rafter system on walls of the same height. In this case, triangular trusses are made, consisting of a floor beam, a rafter leg and a vertical rack.
In the second case, more wood is consumed, but triangles can be made on the ground, which simplifies and speeds up installation. However, special tools may be needed to install the triangles.
Installation of the rafter system is carried out in the following sequence:
- Installing the Mauerlat. This element is mounted along the entire length of the load-bearing walls. For a roof made of metal or profiled sheet, it is enough to take a beam with a thickness of 100 mm, but if the slope angle is large and heavy roofing materials are used, then its vertical size can be 200 mm. Roofing material is placed under the timber, after which it is fixed to the wall with long anchors with a step of 80-100 mm.
To attach the Mauerlat to the load-bearing wall, anchors with a length of at least 20 cm or studs wedged into the masonry are used
- Installation of floor beams. These elements can not be installed, but if you plan to use the attic space under the attic, then you cannot do without them.
If you do not plan to use the attic space, then the floor beams do not need to be installed
- Preparation of places for the installation of rafters. In the Mauerlat, cuts are made taking into account the calculated step between the rafters. In order to achieve greater accuracy, it is better to use a hand saw. Cutouts must be made at an angle that exactly follows the slope of the roof. Wood from the grooves is removed with a chisel.
To fix the rafters in the Mauerlat, cuts or notches are made
- Fastening the rafters. First, the extreme rafters are laid and fixed, after which a string is pulled between them and the remaining rafter legs are already exposed along it. Long nails with wide heads are used to fix the rafter lags. If the span is large, then additional supports can be installed in the middle.
To fasten the rafters to the Mauerlat, a sliding mechanism is often used, which allows structural elements to move within small limits during seasonal deformations of the building
Rafters from a profile pipe
If the width of the building exceeds 10 meters, it is advisable to use metal rather than wooden rafters. In this case, the Mauerlat is also made of metal, and the rafters are attached to it by welding.
There are also intermediate options, when the rafters are made of a profile pipe, and the crate is made of wood, which allows you to get a strong and not very heavy structure. In this case, it is impossible for the tree to come into contact with metal, therefore it is treated with moisture-resistant compounds or gaskets are made of roofing material.
If the span is more than 10 meters wide, then in order to obtain a reliable and durable structure, it is recommended to install metal rafters
As rafters, metal trusses are usually made, consisting of a lower and upper tier, between which braces and racks are installed, forming lattices. Thus, a solid and reliable structure is obtained from a profile pipe of a small cross-section.
The distance between adjacent rafter legs is called a step. To get the exact value, you need to make simple calculations:
- Determine the length of the slope.
- Divide the obtained value by the selected step size, which is usually in the range of 0.6–1.2 m.
- Add 1 to the result, then round the result up.
- Divide the length of the slope by the number obtained in the previous step.
Let's look at a specific example.
- Let's say the length of the ramp is 20.5 m.
- We select a preliminary installation step of 0.8 m and divide the slope length by it: 20.5 / 0.8 = 25.6.
- We add 1 to this value, we get 26.6 and round the result to 27. This means that such a building will need 27 rafter legs.
- We divide the length of the building by 27 and get 0.74. The rafters must be installed in 74 cm increments.
It must be borne in mind that the value obtained is the distance between the central axes of the rafter beams.
In this example, the distance between the rafters was taken at random. In fact, when choosing it, it is necessary to take into account a number of parameters, the main of which is the section of the rafter legs. Recommendations for choosing the pitch of the rafters are given in the following table.
Table: the dependence of the step of installing the rafters on their dimensions
|Rafters length, m||Distance between rafters, cm||The size of the cross-section of the rafter beam, cm|
|Until 3||180||9 x 10|
|Up to 4||100||8 x 16|
|Up to 4||140||8 x 18|
|Up to 4||180||9 x 18|
|Until 6||100||8 x 20|
|Until 6||140||10 x 20|
Video: shed roof - device, step-by-step installation
Shed Roof Roofing Pie
The structure and composition of the pitched roofing pie will depend on what material will be used to cover it. Correct placement of all insulating layers allows to increase the service life not only of the roof, but of the entire building.
When arranging a warm roof, layers of insulation, hydro and vapor barrier must be laid in the under-roof space. Thermal insulation material can be of both slab and roll type, although it is more convenient to lay slabs between the rafters of a shed roof. A waterproofing layer is laid between the insulation and the roofing material, and the vapor barrier is attached to the insulation from the side of the room.
To obtain a high-quality pitched roof, it is necessary to correctly lay all layers of the roofing cake and create the necessary ventilation gaps
After installing the rafters, they begin to lay the waterproofing layer. For this, different materials can be used, for example, roofing material. But it is suitable for a roof that is well ventilated, and in other cases it is better to use an anti-condensation membrane. The waterproofing layer is fixed with counter-lattice bars. You can attach the film to the rafters and with a stapler, while it should fit with an overlap and without interference. A sag of the film of 2–4 cm is allowed.
Ventilation of a building with a pitched roof
Ventilation in a room with a pitched roof can be organized in several ways:
- Natural. This is the cheapest option, for the organization of which it is enough to make a hole in the lower part of the facade wall and close it with a grill. On the opposite side, it is necessary to lead the ventilation pipe through the same hole in the upper part of the wall or in the roof. Cool fresh air will enter the room through the lower opening, and warm and humid air will be removed through the opposite. In winter, this system works much more efficiently than in summer.
Natural ventilation is more effective during cold seasons, when the temperature difference between outside and inside the building increases.
- Mechanical. A fan is inserted into the front wall, which supplies air to the room, and a ventilation pipe is installed on the opposite side in the same way as in the previous case. To create more intensive air exchange, you can also insert a fan that draws air into it. It must be borne in mind that the power of the equipment used in the supply side must be less than in the outlet, otherwise condensation will form in the room. In addition to the fan, the mechanical ventilation system includes a filter and a heater, which increases the cost of the structure and complicates its installation.
- Combined. Such a system is a hybrid between a natural and mechanical ventilation device and is used most often in industrial premises.
Do-it-yourself selection and installation of roofing
To cover a pitched roof, there is a large selection of roofing materials - these are roofing material, metal tiles, corrugated board, ondulin, slate and others.
Most often, sheet materials such as slate, ondulin and corrugated board are used. Laying begins from the leeward side, while the upper sheets should be found on the lower ones. First, the first sheet is laid, then two other sheets in the same row, then two sheets in the second row and one sheet is added to the first row. Horizontally make an overlap in one wave, and vertically - by 15-20 cm.
Depending on the slope of the roof and the characteristics of the material, the corrugated board is laid on a solid or sparse crate:
- at tilt angles up to 15o for sheets with a wave height of up to 20 mm, a continuous flooring is made, and for more rigid (with a wave of 21 to 44 mm) products, a crate is mounted with a step of 300 to 500 mm;
- for steeper slopes, the crate is made sparse, while the step can vary from 300 mm (professional sheet of the C-10 brand) to 1000 mm or more (load-bearing wall panels NS-35, C-44 and others).
To fasten the sheets to the crate, special self-tapping screws with a sealing washer are used. They cannot be twisted very strongly, but they also cannot be underestimated. A thin layer of glass wool can be placed between the sheets in the overlap zone. Such a layer will prevent the roof from being blown through, at the same time it does not interfere with normal ventilation.
The roofing screw must be screwed in so that the rubber sealing washer is slightly wrinkled, but not flattened by the tightening force
Video: device of a shed roof made of corrugated board
In order to lay the first row evenly, nails are hammered into the ends of the extreme rafters and a construction cord is pulled between them. As with other sheet materials, work begins at the bottom edge of the roof. In a row, ondulin leaves overlap by one wave, and between rows - by 15–17 cm and with a lateral displacement by half a leaf. Nails are driven into the crest of the wave in a checkerboard pattern. This material must be mounted at an air temperature of 0 to 30 °. With a roof slope up to 10o under the ondulin, a solid crate is made, on steeper slopes - sparse with a step of 45-60 cm.
When installing sheet materials such as ondulin and slate, nails are driven into the crest of the wave.
Special nails are used to fasten the slate. To avoid splitting the material, it is better to pre-drill holes in the crest of the wave. The nails are not driven very tightly, before the hat touches the slate. To protect against leakage, a rubber gasket must be put on the nails. Slate is a rather heavy material, so the lathing for it is made of boards 32–40 mm thick or from a bar of 50x50 mm. The pitch of the lathing depends on the angle of inclination of the roof and is 450 mm for shallow (angle of inclination up to 22o) and 750 mm for steeper slopes.
Since slate is a rather fragile material, before hammering in a nail, it is better to make a hole with a drill
Installation can be carried out staggered, when the sheets are laid with an offset in each row by half the width, or without offset, with cutting corners at the junction of four elements. You can cut the slate with a hacksaw or grinder; you cannot break the sheets. At the design stage, it is necessary to make a layout scheme for the sheets, which will help to purchase the required amount of material.
If you decide to assemble a pitched roof yourself, you can easily cope with this task. When constructing a building, it must be borne in mind that the slope of the roof is always made to the windward side. It is better to make at least a small attic, as its presence will help to avoid large temperature fluctuations in the room. If you follow the technology and advice of experts, then you will definitely succeed.
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Do-it-yourself shed roof
During the construction of a summer cottage or house, a very important point is the correct organization of the roof, which can provide the structure with reliable protection.Among the several types of roofing, the simplest one is a pitched roof. In view of its simple design, such a roof can be made independently, without involving lifting equipment.
A do-it-yourself shed roof is the most affordable option for those who are planning a construction site without hiring workers. This type of roof can be considered the most economical in terms of financial costs and at the same time it is distinguished by good functionality and durability.
Do-it-yourself shed roof + photo (9 photos)
A pitched roof is a reliable and affordable option that differs from others in a number of advantages:
the project of such a roof must be recognized as one of the simplest
the slope here is about 25 degrees, which provides excellent weather resistance
the option is economical compared to a classic gable roof, since you do not need to spend heat on heating the attic space, and less building materials are needed here
repairing such a roof is both convenient and inexpensive.
In short, building a pitched roof is a smart choice. When constructing a gable roof with your own hands, you need to prepare tools, materials and follow the instructions given by us step by step.
materials for thermal insulation
nails for mounting boards and beams.
Roof construction equipment
To build a gable roof, you will need the most common tools available in every house:
Such a roof needs a crate and counter-lattice, for which a 5 by 5 centimeters bar is needed.
At the first stage, it is necessary to determine the angle of inclination of the pitched roof and make its drawing.
Determination of the angle of inclination of the roof from profiled decking
Unlike a gable roof, the slope of a gable roof is in a narrow range - 20-25 degrees.
If the slope is steeper, then it will take more wind load from the top of the roof. A flatter roof can be crushed by the accumulated snow layer.
Traditionally, for the manufacture of a pitched roof, corrugated board and metal tiles are used. This coating is both lightweight and durable, does not require serious investment of time and labor during installation.
As elsewhere, the basis of a single-pitched roof is the rafter system. Experts believe that it is quite easy to mount rafters for this type of structure, everyone can handle the task. Let's consider what exactly needs to be observed in order to get an excellent result.
First of all, you need to decide on the direction of the slope of the future roof. To do this, it is important to know the side from which the wind most often blows in order to position the slope in the upwind direction. In this case, the result will be the most reliable and safe.
When performing work, it is important not to forget about safety precautions. It is best to use sturdy ladders and cables, work clothes and shoes. It would be correct not to leave the tools on the roof, but to carry them with you in a special construction belt.
First of all, it is important to know that a pitched roof is of two types:
An unventilated roof is used to create a terrace. A pitched roof in this case is made with a slope of 3-6 degrees. Everything can be placed on the terrace, from a flower bed to a pool, but in winter such a structure will require certain costs and efforts.
The ventilated version is made with a slope of 5-12 degrees. Ventilation is ensured by the gap between the insulating layers and special openings on the side of the roof. Air currents moving in the roofing cake increase its service life. This type of roof must also be cleaned in the winter.
It is necessary that the rafters of the pitched roof evenly distribute the load from precipitation, wind and the weight of the entire system on the supports.
It is necessary to calculate their reliability in such a way that they can withstand the greatest weight of snow and precipitation, since these values increase over time.
According to the method of attachment to the support, the rafters are divided into:
Slides are commonly used in log homes. In this case, the rafters rest on the Mauerlat logs, and are connected to the wall using a special device. Rafters of this type are ready for the shrinkage of the log house without damaging the structure.
The oblique view of the rafters rests with the lower ends of the legs on the outer wall, and the upper ends are interconnected and rest on special racks and struts.
Hanging ones rest only on the ends of the building and, as a rule, are used in small structures, the width of which does not exceed 7 meters. This construction is the most complex of the above.
For the manufacture of rafters, coniferous woods are used, sometimes reinforced concrete and metal elements are used. The thickness of the beams directly depends on the amount of load that they have to bear.
Before installation, the rafters are sanded and dried. The wood is impregnated with all kinds of protective compounds (antibacterial and fire-fighting) in order to avoid rotting and fire. To facilitate work on the roof itself, the assembly and processing of rafters is most often done on the ground.
Long shed roof drawings:
In a properly assembled structure, the rafter legs are fixed on the beams, forming a right-angled triangle with them. The ends of the rafters are located on one side at the edge of the building, and on the other, directly on the vertical beam.
The height and angle must be the same for each rafter leg.
The next stage after the completion of the installation of the rafter system is the erection of the shed roof sheathing. For this stage, bars of 50 by 50 millimeters are used, placing them across the rafters. Depending on the type of roofing used, the bars can be spaced or in a continuous layer. Following the cladding, measures are taken to isolate the structure, after which the roof is laid. We can say that the installation of the roof is almost complete.
You need to insulate a pitched roof in the same way as any other. There is no particular difference here, follow the step-by-step instructions. All other types of insulation (from noise and steam) are also performed unchanged.
From this material, you will learn how to insulate a roof (including a pitched roof) with Isover materials.
1. Installation of the truss system. The main and most serious stage in the construction of a shed roof with your own hands is the installation of the rafter system. Start its assembly by installing the Mauerlat. For these types of roofs, only two 100x100 mm beams can be installed, which are located on opposite sides of the span. The beam should be even and long, set it at a level. It is fastened to the load-bearing walls with anchor bolts and rigidly tightened with anchors.
Next comes the installation of the roof rafters. You don't need to make them very massive. Attach the rafters to the Mauerlat with a corner, sometimes nails are used. Place the rafters in the grooves. First, the two outer boards are installed, pull a rope between them for accuracy. Nail the boards to the Mauerlat bar. It is advisable to familiarize yourself with the photos and videos presented in our article before work. A crate is also stuffed onto the rafter structure. For it, use beams 50x50 mm, the pitch of the lathing will depend on the roof covering. For a roll coating, a continuous structure is made.
2. Hydro and thermal insulation. If you want to know how to properly make a pitched roof, then the next stage of work includes the arrangement of hydro and thermal insulation. Lay the plastic wrap horizontally to the rafters on the bars. On top of them, nail the horizontal crate.
Roofs on rafters are insulated with a material of low density, it should not create a large load on the roof. Mineral wool slabs are fixed tightly between the rafter legs.
3. Laying of roofing material. Installation of the cover is carried out from the leeward side. The upper layers overlap the lower ones. The selected roof covering is installed using the appropriate technology. At the end, wind and cornice strips and gutters are fixed, then the walls and gables are cladding.
We hope that you have learned useful knowledge from our article and now have an idea of how to build a pitched roof. If you do the work carefully and adhere to all the recommended technologies, your house will have a solid roof that will last for more than a decade.
As you can see, pitched roofs are easy to install and maintain. They are often chosen for outbuildings, and buildings located near the house. Before creating a rafter system, you need to draw a diagram of the location of all elements. This will help to calculate the amount of materials to determine their type. For example, the cross-section of the beams changes depending on the length of the span between the walls and the slope of the roof. In addition, it is necessary to select the right roofing material. This will make the roof more durable.
An important stage in the construction of a shed roof is the creation of the lathing. It is made from 50x50 mm slats. When insulating the roof, you will have to install a full-fledged roofing cake, including a vapor barrier, insulation and a waterproofing layer. Various videos will help you to understand the device of a shed roof.
The roofing material is chosen in accordance with the characteristics of the wind and snow conditions of the region. For house buildings, metal tiles, ondulin and slate are often chosen. Such coatings last a long time, and also do not deteriorate under the influence of the sun and weather phenomena.