Growing and harvesting beets
Beets are both tasty and healthy (part 2)
1. I grow absolutely all beets through seedlings (of course, I once grew them in a generally accepted non-seedling way, but I have long been convinced of its complete ineffectiveness in our conditions). filled with biofuel, which should be warmed up by the time of sowing the seeds.
Seedling method of growing beets will allow you to get an early harvest, save on seeds, provide more comfortable conditions in terms of heat and moisture for plants at the germination stage and the initial period of growth (you will practically have no non-sprout seeds), and also eliminate the tedious thinning procedure. In addition, although it is recommended that the plants pulled out during thinning be re-planted, but, having lost some of the roots, they take root extremely poorly and miss the time favorable for development and growth. Naturally, large losses are obtained, which is completely unprofitable.
2. I sow the first (small) batch of seeds in early April in large bowls of Rama oil. At the same time, I fill the bowls 2/3 with wet sawdust, evenly distribute the seeds, and then sprinkle with a thin layer of vermicompost or very fertile soil (it is from these plants that the earliest harvest will be obtained). I look after in the usual way. Around April 20, I prepare the remaining (main) batch of seeds by simply soaking them in flat containers of sawdust. At the same time I plant seedlings of the first sowing and germinated seeds in the greenhouse soil. Carefully remove all beet plants (first sowing) from the pot and separate them from one another. It is not difficult, and does not threaten to break the roots, tk. most of the soil here is sawdust. I plant beet seedlings along the greenhouse path. I scatter sawdust between the plants. The seeds, mixed with sawdust, I just scatter around the greenhouse.
I try to "sow" quite freely, given that the mass of seeds in the sawdust was very large. Sprinkle the sown seeds with another layer of earth, and then with a layer of wet sawdust. After that, I cover all the landings with a covering material, and then I put arcs and throw an additional layer of film on them.
To raise the temperature, I lay out bottles of water next to the planted plants (it is preferable to take bottles made of dark plastic, for example, from under beer, since they heat up faster). The process of caring for plants in the greenhouse is usual: watering once a week (sawdust and covering material help to save moisture) and maximum heat retention in the seedling growth zone.
3. Starting in mid-May (it all depends on the specific weather conditions, perhaps even at the end of May) I start planting beets from the greenhouse. Seedlings ready for planting should have 4-5 true leaves. By this time, naturally, all ridges for it must be fully prepared. As the main fertilizer on the ridges, I apply humus, taken in the fall from the same greenhouses. In addition, I sprinkle a complex fertilizer such as Azofoska or Universal. The second fertilizer is better because it contains boron, which improves the taste of beets.
If the soil is acidic, then you need to take appropriate measures to deoxidize it, scattering ash (slightly acidic soil) or lime (strongly acidic soil). But I have already noted that it is better to apply lime in the fall. Then I plant the seedlings in the usual way. I maintain a distance of 25-30 cm between rows of plants, and in a row I plant plants at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other. In no case should plants be buried when planting. In this case, the root crops will be very poorly poured, and you will lose a significant part of the crop. There is no need to be afraid that the plants will not hold well and will fall. If you have high-quality seedlings and loose (with a lot of sawdust) soil in the greenhouse, you can very carefully separate the plants without causing them much harm. In this case, they will easily and quickly take root. When planting seedlings, make the hole spacious so that the roots fit freely in it and do not turn up. The planted seedlings should be watered immediately: first with water, and then with a solution of black yeast (1 glass per 10 liters of water), in order to minimize the stress they have endured and promote increased root mass growth.
At the end of the landing, you must carefully cover all the landings with a covering material.
Firstly, it will protect the plants from the sun's rays and help them take root better.
Secondly, it will help to retain moisture in the soil, and you will not have to run around the beds with a watering can every day.
Thirdly, it protects against return frosts.
Fourth, it will raise the temperature around the plants, which will allow them to develop more intensively.
4. Water the planted plants as needed. However, due to the covering material, moisture is usually retained fairly well in the soil. In our conditions, in the initial period after planting seedlings, it is most often necessary to carry out small watering about twice a week.
5. Three weeks after planting the seedlings, you need to feed the plants with ash, remembering that the beets are extremely responsive to this type of fertilizer, and will thank you with more delicious root crops. For this purpose, I temporarily remove the covering material and spread the ash quite thickly between the plants. For one ridge measuring 4x2 m, it takes me up to a bucket of ash. Then I put the covering material back in place.
6. In early July, when the plants become too large and the rows are completely closed, I remove the covering material and proceed to the next feeding. To do this, I dilute boric acid sold in a pharmacy (10 g per 10 liters of water) and thoroughly water all beet plantings. This operation will make your beets sweeter. In addition, one should not forget that as a result of boric starvation, dry rot of root crops is observed, which manifests itself in the form of one or more black rings inside the root crop.
7. At the end of July, I water the plants with a solution of huminates from a watering can (I do not indicate the exact data, since there are a lot of humic preparations now sold, and the peculiarities of their breeding are different). It will also increase yields by about 10-15% and make plants less susceptible to future deterioration in weather conditions.
And once again, I especially want to draw the attention of readers to the factors that can improve the taste of the root crops you grow. This is planting plants on very fertile neutral soil, timely feeding with ash, watering plants with a solution of boric acid.
When and how to clean
Everyone knows that the most important condition for good keeping quality of vegetables is their timely harvesting in a mature state. You can not harvest root crops too early, before the onset of cold weather, but you can’t be late with this operation - clean after frost. Beets are extremely sensitive to frost. The roots harvested after them are worse stored.
All root crops sent for storage must be of perfect quality, without the slightest signs of mechanical damage and obvious diseases. In addition, beets require special care when pruning because they are damage to the growth point can lead to rapid decay of root crops. Therefore, in no case should the tops be cut off. It should only be cut off.
You can store beets in boxes, placing each variety separately in accordance with the duration of its storage.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by E. Valentinov
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
What is the secret of delicious borscht or vinaigrette?
That's right, in good table beets grown in their own beds. It also makes excellent salads, caviar, kvass and much more.
I grow different varieties of beets: Bordeaux 237, Delicacy, Red ball, Top hat... They attracted me with their taste, bright dark red color, which is important for various dishes. My experience confirms that when forming the beds, it is imperative to take into account the peculiarities of this culture: it is drought-resistant, does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, is photophilous, and loves space. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 10 °.
Harvesting and storage of beets
Beets are a very tasty and healthy vegetable that is constantly needed in the kitchen. Beets should always be at hand, it is difficult to imagine Russian cuisine without them. It is needed to cook borscht, salad or vegetable cutlets. It is most convenient to store beets in a basement or cellar when conditions are optimal. But how exactly to preserve this root crop so that it does not lose its taste, this article will tell.
Beetroot belongs to table root crops, the keeping quality of which is much better than that of potatoes or carrots, so storing beets should not cause any particular problems. Knowing how to properly store beets and prevent specimens affected by infectious diseases in the total mass, then in the spring you will rejoice at healthy root crops that have not lost their presentation.
The successful preservation of beets in the winter is due to a properly grown crop. For a rich harvest of beets, choose varieties that have good keeping quality and cold resistance. Stock up on knowledge of which varieties of beets are intended to be stored until spring, and which are better to eat right away. Remember that quality roots can be grown in fertile loamy and sandy loam soils.
The harvesting period for beets depends on the weather conditions of a particular region. Most vegetable growers are convinced that beets must be dug out before the first stable frosts, since they partially rise above the garden bed and require more heat than carrots.
The timing of harvesting beets is relative, it all depends on the onset of frost, in the Far East and Siberia of Russia the best harvest time is before the beginning of October, in the south there is much more time. Watch the weather, follow the forecasts of weather forecasters, choosing a fine day for harvesting beets. If the autumn is rainy, then there is a high possibility that the vegetables will be saturated with moisture and begin to rot, and such beets are no longer suitable for storage. That is why gardeners do not take risks and try not to leave beets in the ground for a long time. The beets are always harvested ahead of the carrots.
One of the factors of the ripeness of the culture is the formation of growths on the leaves and roots. If in doubt about the maturity of a beet and want to test it, just dig in one. To harvest beets, take a blunt pitchfork or a shovel with you, because sometimes you need to dig root crops. Some people have a question, why dig in if the beets are practically on the surface of the earth. The answer is actually simple. The beet root "sits" in the ground and is firmly held by its roots for it. When harvesting by hand, there is a chance of damaging part of the root crop. Therefore, it is better to dig in the beets with a blunt pitchfork. Do this carefully so that no mechanical cuts remain, otherwise viral and fungal diseases will develop. Before drying, the root crops must be cleaned of dirt residues, in no case do not hit the root crop against the root crop, do not use a knife to clean the ground, this will damage the beet skin. Next, you need to remove the side roots, you can reduce the main root, remove the tops with scissors without damaging the head of the vegetable, and start drying before storing. In good autumn weather, drying can be done in the garden in the garden for 2 - 3 hours. Then the sorted beets are laid out in a dry room so that the roots dry out completely.
How to store beets?
It is recommended to store beets in a basement with a humidity of no more than 90%, at temperatures from zero to three degrees Celsius. At temperatures above 4 degrees, beets sprout tops, root crops wither, diseases develop and the process of decay begins.
Air circulation in the basement plays an important role during storage. The storage should have natural ventilation. Knock down the bins 15 cm above the floor for free air circulation, which would evenly cool the roots and prevent them from sweating. Make a place for storing beets with walls up to 1 m and provide a wooden grill at the bottom for ventilation.
Another option for storing beets is on top of potatoes. This is a very convenient method that has two advantages: firstly, the beets will absorb the necessary moisture, and secondly, the potatoes will be protected from unnecessary moisture.
It is possible to store beets like carrots in boxes, sprinkling them with sand or dusting them with ash. To prevent the beets from starting to rot, place the leaves of a plant rich in phytoncides, such as a fern, on the bottom. Beets can be stored well if they are treated with brine and simply sprinkled with salt.
Knowing how to store beets in the cellar will give you hard and tasty root vegetables, right up to spring.
The best varieties of beets
Beet Pablo F1
The most popular beetroot today is a hybrid of the Dutch selection Pablo F1. Its secret is in the optimal combination of a small shape, almost complete absence of white rings, sweet taste with unpretentious cultivation. It belongs to the medium early, it is resistant to adverse weather conditions (cold, moisture deficit) and, which is very important, to the quality of the soil. Therefore, it can be grown in the northern regions of Russia.
The root crop is stored without losing its shape and taste for several months, it is not prone to cracking, shooting and flowering, it is resistant to many dangerous diseases (scab, cercospora, corneed). Have beets Pablo F1 straight medium-sized rosette, round-shaped fruits, weighing 100-150 grams (sometimes up to 200-250 grams), 10-15 cm in diameter, average yield - up to 7 kg per "square". The color of the pulp is burgundy-purple, the skin of the root crops is burgundy, smooth, rather thin. The growing season is 100-110 days.
Another very popular, time-tested beet variety is Cylinder. Gardeners fell in love with it for a rather long shelf life (more than 4 months), sweet juicy pulp without the notorious rings, very tasty, as well as resistance to major diseases of root crops.
Cylinder beet variety belongs to medium late (ripening period - from 120 to 130 days). The shape of the fruits is elongated, cylindrical, diameter - 5-8 cm, length - 10-15 cm. Fruits are medium-sized, with dark skin, weighing 150-250 grams (sometimes more). Cylinder beets are often grown for sales because the roots grow neat, even, and even. Productivity - more than 7 kg per "square".
This is a mid-season beet variety (110-120 days), which appeared on store shelves not so long ago, but is already loved by gardeners. The mulatto beet variety is not very rich in color of the pulp (not burgundy or ruby, but dark red), but this in no way affects the richness of the taste - it is juicy, sweet, very tasty.
After heat treatment, it does not change color, which is important for borscht lovers. Root crops are round, not too large (150-300 grams), smooth. 4-5 kg of mulatto beets are harvested from one "square" of the garden. This variety is suitable for winter storage, resistant to temperature fluctuations, unpretentious to the soil, immune to the flower. Among the disadvantages of mulatto beets is increased demand for lighting; in the shade, the root crop will grow savory and small.
Egyptian flat beet
Bred almost 80 years ago, this beet variety is still popular today, which says a lot. Of course, Egyptian flat beets are not as sweet and tasty as some new varieties (in other words, they taste as usual), they will not last until summer (although 70-80% of root crops will survive the winter), and even to Cercospora, the main enemy of beets, this variety weakly stable.But the Egyptian flat beet also has advantages, thanks to which it still remains among the leaders in the preferences of summer residents: unpretentiousness to soils, the ability to tolerate long periods of drought without damage, and resistance to flowering.
Ripening time - 90-100 days (mid-early), the root crop grows flattened, small, neat, average weight - 200-350 grams, but there are specimens up to 500 grams, 4-8 kg of root crops are harvested from the "square" of the garden, the flesh color is burgundy -violet, without pronounced rings.
Bordeaux beet 237
Another time-tested, reliable, and for many summer residents - Rounded, neat root vegetables with rich burgundy juicy sweet pulp are not too large, so they are convenient to process, bake, Bordov 237 is well suited for salads. The variety is famous for its stable yield, good germination, heat and drought resistance and the ability to store well - until spring, or even until the new season, will lie in the cellar without frowning or shrinking.
Bordeaux 237 beets are medium early (ripening period - 70-110 days), root crops grow weighing from 200 to 500 grams, with a diameter of 10-15 cm, the shape is round or slightly flattened. The variety is considered resistant to diseases, but in some years it is affected by peronosporosis and cercosporosis. From the "square" of the garden, you can collect from 4 to 8 kg of beets.
Perhaps the most popular of the early-growing beet varieties today. Still - during the season Detroit can be sown twice, since the ripening period of the root crop is only 650-100 days. Taste qualities are excellent - it is juicy, dark red, has a pleasant sweet taste. Root crops grow small (from 100 to 200 grams), but aligned, round, smooth, with a very small axial root - in general, very marketable. Among other advantages of Detroit beets - resistance to flowering, to cold.
As for early beets, Detroit is stored well, but for laying for long winter storage, it is still better to choose another variety, mid- or late-ripening. Another unpleasant bonus of this early maturing beet is its weak resistance to diseases, increased demand for watering and light.
Beet red ball
It is an early variety with a ripening period of 65-100 days, which is famous for its very juicy, dark red, almost purple sweet flesh, practically without rings on the cut. It is recommended for use in dietary and baby food, and, of course, in cooking (it cooks quickly and does not have an unpleasant "beetroot" aftertaste).
Beet variety Red ball is resistant to cold weather, flowering, stemming, drought and disease resistance - medium. Root crops grow round, weighing 200-500 grams. Productivity of beets Red ball is high, up to 6 kg of root crops are harvested from the "square" of the garden. Stored without problems until spring.
The mid-late representative of the beet is cylindrical, so in the middle lane it may not have time to ripen. The variety is single-sprout (not 3-5 sprouts grow from one seed, but only one), so thinning is not required. As a result, root crops form quickly, grow even and delight with a stable yield.
Despite its elongated shape, this beet is easily pulled out of the ground, as it will plunge into the soil only a third of its length. The average weight of Mona beets is 200-350 grams, length is 10-20 cm, diameter is about 5 cm, the pulp is tender, juicy, dark red, rings are almost invisible. The yield is high - 6-7 kg of root crops from the "square" of the garden.
This beet got its name for its excellent taste - its pulp is juicy, very sweet, dark red with almost black rings. Beet variety Incomparable belongs to the early ripening (70-96 days). Root crops grow round or slightly flattened, weighing 150-400 grams, are stored, despite the early maturity, well - until spring.
Of the features - incomparable beets do not like heavy soils, are weakly resistant to cercosporosis, resistant to flowering, stemming and cold weather.
An early maturing variety (70-100 days), which, due to its cold resistance, can be sown very early in the open field. Roots beetroot boltardi grow medium-sized (150-350 grams), but very even, smooth, neat rounded shape.
The pulp deserves special attention: it is completely ringless, burgundy-purple, very sugary and juicy. Suitable for bookmarking for long-term storage. Boltardi beets are considered resistant to diseases and flowering, but demanding on watering and feeding. From the "square" of the garden, you can collect 3-8 kg of root crops.
Beetroot bovine blood
This beet variety is for lovers of large root crops: the weight of one specimen can exceed 600 grams. Medium late variety (110-120), distinguished by resistance to cold, flowering and excellent keeping quality.
The beet pulp is dark red, with slightly pronounced rings, but without hard veins; after cooking, the color does not change. In the characteristics of the beet variety, it is indicated that the weight of root crops is 150-240 grams, but in fact, gardeners note that the real weight of Bovine blood is 2 or even three times higher.
Podzimnyaya beet A 474
From the name it is obvious that this is one of the best varieties of beets for winter sowing. In general, beetroot Podzimnyaya A 474 is a mid-season variety (95-105 days), and is suitable not only for podzimnyaya sowing, but also for early spring. Differs in dark red flat-rounded roots, growing up to 200-300 grams.
Beet pulp is sweet, juicy, with a good taste and dark red color. Equally important features of the variety are cold resistance and suitability for long-term storage.
Beet Kestrel F1
One of the main canteen beetroot hybrids for Europe and the USA. Moreover: abroad Kestrel F1 is one of the quality standards and high yield. It is used in baby food and juices, as the rich red color does not "fade" after heat treatment. Also, a hybrid of beets has excellent commercial qualities - uniformity of root crops, good transportability, high sugar content, keeping quality.
Beet Kestrel F1 belongs to mid-season hybrids (90-100 days) with a small root process, a smooth surface, a small leaf rosette. The average fruit weight is from 300 to 400 grams.
Sowing seeds in spring can be done with dry and more practical germinated seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows on a flat field surface. Sprouted seeds are sown in moist soil. In dry soil, almost all sprouts die.
Furrows are cut every 15-30 cm. Sowing on heavy soils is carried out to a depth of 2 cm, on light soils - 4 cm. It is impossible to deepen the crops. The distance in the row is 2-3 cm, which, when thinning, is increased to 7-10 cm, which ensures the production of standard (10 cm in diameter) root crops. On single-seeded crops, thinning is combined with harvesting a bunch crop, and when sowing with seed crops, 2 thinning is performed.
Beets begin to germinate at a soil temperature of +8 .. + 10 ° С and +5 .. + 7 ° С of the environment. However, seedlings at this temperature appear late and very unevenly. The optimum air temperature is +19 .. + 22 ° С. Seedlings appear on the 5-8th day and by the 10-12th day the culture enters the fork phase. In the next 10 days, there is a powerful development of the aboveground part of the culture (leaf apparatus), and then the development of the root crop begins.
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is performed very carefully, gradually deepening the cultivated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. The soil is loosened in the aisles, in the furrows of the ridge, on the sides of the ridges after irrigation and rains. Timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the crop with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after the leaves close.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
The first time a breakthrough is carried out with the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. The beet is negatively related to the greater sparseness of beets. When thinning multi-seeded crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, thinning is carried out in the phase of 2-3 leaves. Plugged plants are used as seedlings, planting plants at the edges or in the sides of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase, the culture has already formed a 3-5 cm root crop. In the second thinning, the tallest, most developed plants are removed. They reach bunch ripeness and are used for food. At the same time, the condition of the plants is monitored and diseased and crooked plants are removed along the way. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root crop is 6-8-10 cm.
During the growing season, at least two dressings of medium and late beet varieties are carried out. Early beets, with good autumn fertilization, are usually not fed. For gardeners, especially for beginners, it is difficult to calculate the required amount of fertilizers. The culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first feeding is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can fertilize with nitroammophos - 30 g sq. m or a mixture of mineral fertilizers at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m, respectively, sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to carry out the first feeding with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in a ratio of 1 part mullein to 10 parts, and bird droppings to 12 parts of water. 5 g of urea can be added to the solution. The solution is introduced at a distance of 6-10 cm from the beet row in a 3-4 cm furrow. Use a 10 running meter bucket of mortar. Watering is carried out from a watering can close to the soil so as not to burn the leaves. After adding the solution, it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Top dressing with liquid organic matter is carried out only in the initial period of beet development. Later, without having time to process the mineral form into an organic one, plants accumulate nitrates in roots. The first sign of the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in the root crop when overfeeding with nitrogen is the appearance of voids in the root crop.
The second feeding is carried out after 15-20 days or after the second thinning. For feeding, superphosphate and potassium magnesium or potassium chloride are used in a dose of 8-10 g / sq. m (1 teaspoon with top). Mineral fat can be replaced with wood ash, spending 200 g per sq. m of area, followed by embedding in a 5-8 cm layer of soil.
Thinning and watering beets
Thinning is carried out when sowing table beets with stems (glomeruli). 3-5 seedlings develop from seedlings. Single-seeded varieties generally do not need to be thinned unless bunch harvesting is envisaged. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after preliminary watering. It is easier to pull the plant out of the moistened soil without damaging the neighboring one. Thinning of beets is carried out twice.
Juicy roots with tender pulp are obtained with regular watering, especially in arid regions. The first watering is carried out with mass shoots. Water the culture 3-4 times a month. During the period of intensive development of root crops, watering is increased. The first sign of a delay in watering is the wilting of beet leaves. Beets are very fond of watering over the leaves. The crop does not tolerate rising soil temperatures. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary until the leaves close. Watering is stopped 3-4 weeks before harvesting.
Harvesting and storage of beets
Beetroot harvesting begins at the end of September - mid-October, before the onset of frost, depending on the region of Ukraine, since the roots protrude above the soil surface and can be damaged by frost, which will worsen their keeping quality. The dug beets are trimmed from the tops to prevent wilting. The tops should be removed from the apical and lateral buds. Healthy, non-lethargic, undamaged and non-frozen root crops with a diameter of about 5–14 cm are taken for storage. Vegetables are stored in cellars, trenches, pits with sand at a temperature of + 2–3 ° С. Indoors, you can keep root crops in boxes and baskets with a capacity of up to 30 kg at a temperature of + 5–6 ° C and a relative humidity of 90–95%. Beets are stored very well, so they can be consumed fresh all year round.
Growing and harvesting beets - garden and vegetable garden
BEET DINING ROOM
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
In ancient times red beets used as a medicinal plant and only in the XIV - XV centuries. began to be cultivated as a vegetable crop. The ancestor of the table beet is considered to be wild, which still grows along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
Table beet - a biennial plant of the family of hazeaceae. In the first year, it forms a leaf rosette and a root crop of a round, flat-rounded and conical shape, and in the second year it blooms and bears fruit. The color of the flesh of the root vegetable is from red to purple. Seeds remain viable for 4 or more years.
The following varieties have been zoned: Pryhazhunya, Bordeaux 237, Cold-resistant 19, Detroit 243, Opolskiy, Boltardi, Patryk, Libero.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Root vegetables contain easily digestible proteins, sugars, pectins, organic acids, fiber, pigments, iodine, mineral salts (especially manganese, potassium and iron), vitamins B1, B2, B6, C, PP, as well as the coloring matter betaine, due to which the beets occupy leading place in dietary nutrition. The tops, rich in vitamin C, are also used for food (It is interesting that 500 years BC it was the tops that were eaten, and not the root vegetables.)
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
The optimum temperature for the growth of beets is 19 ± 7 ° C. Seedlings endure short-term cold snaps up to -2. -3 ° С, with a further decrease in temperature, they die.
Suitable for beets light loam, sandy loam and peat-boggy soils with a neutral and slightly alkaline reaction of the soil solution (pH 6.2-7.5). Heavy, floating and poorly cultivated soils are of little use for this crop. On low-humus soils, poor in organic matter, it is effective to introduce rotted manure and compost, which in the fall, when digging the soil, are filled with 4-5 kg or 3-4 kg per 1 m 2, respectively.
The best predecessors are cucumber, tomato, onion, early potatoes, legumes, as well as early white cabbage and cauliflower, green.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
In the fall (it is also possible in the spring), 13-18 g of double superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium salt (per 1 m 2) are introduced under the beets. Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea) can be added before sowing and in top dressing.
Optimal timing sowing beets for the middle zone of the republic - the first or second decade of May, when the soil warms up to 6 ° С (for the southern zone - 7-10 days earlier, for the northern - the same amount later). The seeding rate for spring sowing is 1.2-1.5 g, before winter - 2-3 g per 1 m 2. The depth for cutting seeds on sod-podzolic and peat-bog soils is 2-3 and 2.5-4 cm, respectively. Beets are very responsive to fertilization with boron.
During seed germination beetroot especially demanding on soil moisture. In the future, thanks to a well-developed root system, beets tolerate a temporary lack of moisture in the soil better than other root crops.
Crop care consists of weeding and loosening. If necessary, crops are thinned out at a distance of 3-4 cm between plants. Growing on a larger area of food leads to the production of large root crops that are high in fiber and have a lot of lignified tissue.
Irrigation is carried out as necessary (250-300 m 3 / ha). They are stopped a month before harvesting.
Beetroot harvested before the onset of frost. Formed root vegetables can easily tolerate -1 temperature. -2 ° C, at lower temperatures they are damaged. Frozen root crops cannot be stored - they quickly rot.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Beets are indispensable for anemia and anemia, diabetes mellitus and scurvy, constipation and kidney stones, some diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Raw beet juice is used for colds, with a lingering cough (half with honey) and with hypertension (in this case, it should stand for several hours!). Sauerkraut is eaten for anemia, liver and gallbladder diseases. For medicinal purposes, use a tincture of root vegetables in alcohol, as well as a decoction and syrup.
Take juice of raw or steamed beets for hypertension, 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day before meals for 4 days. If mixed with honey, then reduce the dose to 0.5 tbsp. spoons 3-4 times a day. For constipation, mix the juice of beets, carrots and celery (1: 1: 1) and drink many times throughout the day. In case of very severe constipation, add a few glasses of beet juice to 0.5 liters of the mixture. For a toothache, apply a slice of raw beet to the affected area. If the skin becomes inflamed, apply crushed beet leaves, and fresh root vegetable gruel to wounds and ulcers.
TO YOUR TABLE
Young leaves and petioles are used for salads and side dishes, soups and borscht, root vegetables are used fresh, boiled, baked, stewed, they are also pickled, fermented and dried.
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Beetroot stewed with apples. Rinse the beets, grate on a coarse grater, put in a saucepan, pour in a small amount of boiling water and cook until half cooked. Add peeled and grated apples and cook until tender, 20-30 minutes. Then pour a little vinegar (preferably apple cider), add salt, sugar, flour, ground with vegetable oil. Mix everything and bring to a boil. Sprinkle with parsley or dill before serving.
For 10 pcs. beets - 1 tbsp. a spoonful of flour, 2-3 tbsp. tablespoons of vegetable oil, 3 apples, salt, sugar, vinegar, herbs to taste.
Pickled beets. Rinse the beets, boil and cool, then peel, cut into small cubes (grind on a grater), put in jars and cover with chilled marinade.
The marinade filling is prepared as follows: boil water with salt, sugar and spices (cloves, black peppercorns, cinnamon, bay leaf, a little nutmeg), add vinegar, let it boil and cool.
For marinade pouring: 1 cup 6% vinegar, 1 cup water, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of granulated sugar, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, spices - to taste.
How to make beetroot juice?
Beets are suitable for preserving juice in the first months of storage,
Pick up root vegetables no more than 9 cm across, evenly saturated in color. Wash thoroughly, process for 30 minutes. steam in a juicer (do not separate the skin). Pass the steamed beets through a shredder, then through a press. You can squeeze the pulp through a juicer. To prevent the juice from spoiling, add 7 g of citric acid to 1 liter. Heat the juice to 80 ° C, pour it into a sterile container and seal.
- early ripening with flat and rounded flat roots - Egyptian Gribovskaya flat A-473, Incomparable A-463, Pushkin flat K-18, Siberian flat 167–367, Siberian gift.
- mid-season varieties with rounded root crops - Bordeaux 237, Dvosemyannaya, Odnorostkovaya, Ros, Khavskaya.
- late-ripening varieties with conical roots - Cylinder, Mona.
- Dutch hybrids: Pablo F1, Vorrio F1. Varieties: Detroit Nero, Detroit Rubidus.
All the variety of beet varieties sorted by different characteristics: maturing, productive, cold-resistant, sweet, etc., can be found in the article "The best varieties of beets".