7 tips for caring for pepper seedlings
The heat-loving and capricious bell pepper is grown through seedlings, and it takes a lot of effort to grow the seedlings strong and healthy.
Here are some tips to help you grow great seedlings at home.
How to grow healthy pepper seedlings
The most important points
To avoid problems in growing pepper seedlings, you need to complete several important points:
- success largely depends on the correctly calculated timing of sowing and pre-sowing seed preparation - soaking before sowing;
- then it is necessary to select the substrate that is optimal in composition, provide the seedlings with timely care, organize, if necessary, supplementary lighting and feed twice during the seedling period;
- pepper seedlings need increased air humidity for normal development, but seedlings cannot be sprayed;
- the substrate should be moistened only in a tray or under the root.
Growing tomato seedlings from seeds - complete information
Sowing dates for peppers for seedlings
We remind you that you should not engage in sowing and planting on the days of the full moon or new moon. The best time period for sowing pepper is the waxing moon phase, that is, after the new moon. Ripening of this culture can last from 90 to 180 days from the moment the seeds germinate, therefore, it is customary to pre-grow pepper seedlings, and after the onset of stable heat, plant it in the garden. Accordingly, sowing of early maturing varieties of pepper for seedlings is carried out 65 days before transplanting seedlings to the garden bed, mid-season varieties - in 65-70 days, and late varieties - in 75 days.
Preparing pepper seeds for sowing
There is no need to prepare pelleted seeds purchased in a specialized store for planting: specialists have already done it for you. Be careful not to wet this expensive seed too early or you may damage the capsule.
Collected with your own hands or purchased ordinary pepper seeds should be placed for twenty minutes in a solution of 1 g of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of water. There is another composition for disinfecting seeds: a solution of 3 ml of hydrogen peroxide in 100 ml of water heated to 40 ºC. Seed processing time is 10 minutes. Then, after rinsing them under running water, they are kept in Epin's solution for half a day, after which the seeds are washed in clean water and sown wet.
In the photo: A solution of potassium permanganate
However, more often than not, experienced gardeners prefer to grow seedlings from naklyuvshis seeds: after disinfection, the seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth or placed between two moistened cotton pads and placed in a plastic container to protect the wrapper from drying out. Do not close the seeds tightly, because they need oxygen in addition to moisture. Contain seeds at a temperature of 20-23 ºC until a small white sprout appears. Be very careful with it: it is easy to break off, but once it has lost its sprout, the seed will never germinate.
Soil mixture for pepper seedlings
The substrate for pepper seedlings needs loose and nutritious, with a pH of 6.0-6.5 units. You can purchase ready-made soil with such characteristics, or you can prepare the substrate yourself according to the following recipe:
- mix equal parts of purchased seedling soil, black soil and sand;
- mix two parts of meadow and sod land and add one part of humus to them;
- add one part of compost and river sand to two parts of sod land;
- mix two parts of peat and the same amount of humus with one part of river sand.
Sowing cucumbers for seedlings - preparation preparation and process
The prepared mixture must be disinfected by freezing, steaming in a water bath or calcining in the oven. You can simply water the substrate abundantly with a 2% potassium permanganate solution. After drying, a solution of Planriz or Trichodermin is added to the soil mixture: these drugs promote the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms and inhibit the pathogenic microflora. Before sowing, the treated soil should stand under the film for 10-12 days, then 30-40 g of Nitroammofoska are added to the bucket of the substrate, a glass of wood ash and the soil is thoroughly mixed.
In the photo: Calcining the soil in the oven
Preparing the seedling container
The container for pepper seedlings needs a depth of at least 6 cm, and you need to fill it with soil to a height of 4 cm. Before use, the container must be washed with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Pepper seedlings do not tolerate picking well and get sick for a long time after it, so it is better to sow in separate cups or pots right away.
Some gardeners, not wanting to bother with the preparation and sterilization of the substrate, and in the future with the picking of seedlings, grow them in peat tablets. It is very simple and convenient, so this method is gradually becoming more and more popular. For pepper seedlings, tablets with a diameter of 3 cm or cups (preferably peat pots) with a diameter of 10 cm and the same height are suitable.
In the photo: Sowing seeds for seedlings in peat tablets
Sowing pepper seeds for seedlings
They deepen the seeds of sweet pepper into a moist substrate by 1-1.5 cm, laying them out in increments of 1.5-2 cm.This is if you still sow them in a common container. It is more convenient to lay out the seeds with tweezers or a wet toothpick. Crops are covered with glass or plastic wrap and kept warm - at a temperature of 25-28 ºC.
The first shoots may appear within a week, after which the cover must be removed, and the crops should be placed under bright but diffused light. The temperature regime is set as follows: the first week - 14-16 ºC during the day and 8-10 ºC at night, and then during the day - 20-22 ºC, at night - 15-17 ºC. This is done so that the seedlings do not stretch. If they can't get enough light, arrange artificial lighting.
Planting and caring for peppers - all about growing a vegetable
In the development phase of seedlings of 2 leaves, they dive from a common container or small cups into pots of 500-700 ml in size. If you sowed seeds in peat tablets, transplant each seedling into a pot of the indicated volume, right along with the tablet. And it is better if the pot is made of peat.
Photo: Artificial lighting for seedlings
Watering the substrate is carried out through the pallet every 2-3 days until 3-4 leaves are formed in the seedlings, and then the moistening procedure will have to be done daily: the soil should be slightly damp all the time. Water must be defended or passed through a filter, and before use, it must be heated to 22-25 ºC. To protect the seedlings from fungal infections, once every 2 weeks, the soil is watered with a solution of Planriz or Trichodermin.
Do not forget to ventilate the room where the pepper seedlings grow, without creating drafts in it.
Top dressing during the seedling period is applied to the substrate twice: 2 weeks after the pick, and the next time - after another 2 weeks. It is more convenient to use aqueous solutions of Krepysh, Agricola, Solution and the like. Keep in mind that the fertilizer concentration for seedlings should be 2 times weaker than for adult plants.
In the photo: Fertilizer for seedlings
When the first buds appear on the seedlings, and the average daily temperature outside is 15-17 ºC, the seedlings can be planted in open ground. However, it must first go through a two-week hardening: gradually reduce the watering, allowing the substrate to dry out a little, and begin to take out the seedlings daily to a corner of the garden protected from rain, wind and drafts, gradually increasing the duration of the hardening session.
By the time of transplanting to the garden, the seedlings should be outdoors for 24 hours.
The gardeners of the middle lane will be interested in the following video material:
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Solanaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants Solanaceous Growing seedlings
When to sow pepper seeds for seedlings: optimal timing and growing rules
Vegetable garden - When to sow pepper seeds for seedlings: optimal timing and growing rules
When to sow pepper seeds for seedlings: optimal terms and rules for growing - Vegetable garden
To get a good harvest of peppers, it is important not only to properly plant the seeds for seedlings, but also to provide sufficient heat, light and moisture. If all these requirements are met, sweet and tasty peppers can be grown.
Reasons for pulling seedlings, what to do and how to help
The sprouts are stretched and thinned for such reasons.
Not enough sunlight
Pepper seeds are most often sown for seedlings in February-March. At this time, daylight hours do not last long. As a result, the seedlings do not have enough sunlight and they stretch even in the cotyledonous leaf phase.
Important! Pepper seedlings need light 18 hours a day for normal development.
You can make up for the lack of light by creating a reflective foil screen. In the evening and at night, additional lighting is provided with fluorescent or LED lamps. You can also use phytolamps with reflectors.
Details about supplementary lighting of seedlings are described in the article: Seedling lamps: how to choose the right phytolamp to illuminate seedlings.
With a lack of light and waterlogged soil, the seedlings stretch out even faster.
Gardeners try to water the seedlings more often because of the dry indoor air caused by heating devices. However, this is not worth doing.
When accelerating the growth of seedlings, it is recommended to reduce watering, and humidify the air from a sprayer or other available methods.
Increased air temperature
In the room where the seedlings are grown, the optimal air temperature is 22-25 degrees. This is enough to stimulate seed germination. After germination of seeds and emergence of sprouts, the daytime temperature in the room should be + 18-20 ° С, and the nighttime temperature - + 16 ° С. This will reduce the risk of pulling out the seedlings.
If the room is too hot, it is better to take containers with seedlings out into the corridor at night or ventilate the room well.
Advice! It is possible to suspend the excessive growth of seedlings with the help of a temperature difference - at night it should be 2-4 degrees lower than during the day.
This is one of the main reasons for sprouting. Such plants lack light and nutrients in the soil.
Sowing seeds is carried out according to the scheme - 5-7 cm between seedlings. If the plantings still turned out to be thickened, it is necessary to thin them out.
Lack of nutrients
Pepper seedlings can be pulled out if there is a lack of nutrients in the soil.
Apply complex fertilizers, bio cocktails, mullein solution or bird droppings. The sprouts will receive all the necessary substances and become strong. Learn more about how to feed pepper seedlings in the article on our website ... ...
When forming 2 true leaves on seedlings, a pick should be carried out. If this procedure is not carried out in time, the roots of the seedlings will become cramped, they will not develop fully and will begin to stretch.
Transplanting seedlings into separate pots should be carried out immediately when 2 true leaves are formed. Thus, the plants will begin to develop the root system in a spacious pot and will stop their growth in the aerial part.
Important! It is necessary to correct the situation immediately, as soon as young shoots begin to develop incorrectly. Elongated and weak seedlings do not take root well in the ground and give a weak yield.
Watch the video! What to do if pepper seedlings are stretched
Preparing pepper seeds
You can buy processed pepper seeds in the store, but quite often you come across planting material that has not been processed. Such seeds must be disinfected. This can be done in several ways:
· In a solution of potassium permanganate (keep for 20 minutes).
· In a fungicide solution. Suitable "Maxim", "Vitaros", "Fitosporin" (hold for 10 minutes).
The seeds are immersed in a solution in a gauze bag and then washed with water.
Since pepper takes a long time to germinate, it makes sense to germinate the seeds. Here you need to take into account that its sprouted sprouts are very fragile. Place them in the ground with great care. Germinate them in a warm room using the classical method, placing them between two pieces of gauze. The fabric should be damp at all times. You can not germinate them. Such seeds will also sprout, but later.
Vegetable seedlings care
Growing vegetables through seedlings has a number of undeniable advantages. Firstly, all kinds of insects and pathogens of various diseases live in the garden soil, therefore, if you plant seeds directly into the ground, many of them may simply die. Practice shows that growing plants using seedlings allows you to get a harvest 2-3 weeks earlier. Well, in the northern regions, it is generally impossible to grow some crops by sowing in open ground.
Specially equipped greenhouses and hotbeds, which can be warm and cold, are considered ideal premises for growing vegetable seedlings. Here, each culture grows in its own compartment, where the optimal conditions for it are maintained - temperature, humidity, illumination. The windowsills of our city apartments are naturally far from such ideal conditions. However, if you follow some not so difficult rules, you can grow healthy seedlings in a city apartment. To do this, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil mixture, prepare the seeds in a special way and select the necessary containers.
Before sowing seeds for seedlings, you should make sure that they are of high quality. Even if the planting material was purchased in a store and the expiration date has not yet passed, verification is still necessary. To control germination, the seeds should be placed on a damp cloth or filter paper, placed on a plate or tray, covered with wet gauze and placed in a warm, dark place (the top and bottom layers of cloth or paper should be constantly moistened). After a few days, you can estimate the number of seeds with sprouted sprouts and draw a conclusion about their quality. The germination rate should be at least 60-70%.
Preparing the soil for seedlings
Seedling soil can be purchased in a specialized store (ready-made soil, packaged in packages of various sizes) or you can compose it yourself. The most common soil mixture is humus-sod.
The soil intended for growing seedlings may have a different composition, but similar properties. The mixture must be very nutritious in order to ensure the full development of the seedlings and their rapid growth, permeable to air, hygroscopic, and also properly structured. Crushed, dusty garden soil is unsuitable for seedlings: it almost does not absorb water and often turns sour after abundant watering. To improve the quality of the soil, it is mixed with turf, rotted compost, humus, peat, sand.
In the absence of additional components, you can use the so-called leaf soil, which you can prepare yourself. It is mixed with sand and sawdust and fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers.
For peppers and other members of the nightshade family, a lightweight loose soil mixture consisting of peat and leaf humus is suitable.
There is also the original Meatlider technology, according to which only artificially prepared soil mixtures are used for seedlings, with special attention paid to the physical properties of the substrate.The fertility of such soils is increased by introducing appropriate fertilizing, readily soluble in water. On such soils, tender young seedlings develop very well, their root system branches out in the soil without encountering resistance.
To compile the soil using the Mitlider technology, the following mandatory components are used: coniferous sawdust, crushed pine or spruce bark, peat moss, grain husks, and high moor peat. Unlike traditional technologies for growing seedlings, it is not recommended to add sawdust of deciduous trees, leaf humus, compost, manure and rotted peat.
To give the soil the necessary looseness and air permeability, inorganic components are added to it - river sand, perlite (crushed volcanic glass), styrofoam (foam), as well as crushed pumice. It is not recommended to include quarry sand in the soil, since it can contain a lot of clay particles that worsen the mechanical composition of the substrate.
The optimum potting mix for growing seedlings is approximately 45% organic and 55% inorganic. This proportion is not a standard and may vary depending on the cultivated species and the characteristics of their cultivation.
As fertilizer for seedlings, it is best to use liquid concentrated dressings, which should be diluted in the required amount of warm water before use (all proportions are detailed on the package). The introduction of granular nutrient mixtures is undesirable, as undissolved pieces can cause burns on the delicate root system of young plants.
Seedlings can be grown in boxes, special peat pots or on peat briquettes. If you plan to use boxes for this purpose, it is advisable to choose ready-made structures with a lattice inside, then when picking and transplanting growing plants, the delicate root system will not be injured: to remove seedlings from the soil, it is enough to remove the lattice - and the soil will be divided into neat cubes. Plants are usually transplanted into peat pots after a pick, in order to then, together with containers, plant them on a permanent place of growth.
If you plan to cultivate the seedlings at home, you can do it yourself or purchase boxes that can be conveniently placed on the windowsills. Pour the prepared or purchased soil mixture into the container, then moisten it and add fertilizers. Only then can you start sowing seeds.
The optimal type of containers for seedlings are plastic or wooden boxes with dense walls - such containers are spacious enough and do not interfere with the full development of the seedling root system.
Cultivation of seedlings in unsuitable vessels (for example, disposable plastic cups, yogurt containers, etc.) is undesirable - a sharp limitation of the volume of the soil leads to twisting of the roots in the form of a ball, which subsequently does not unravel. Such plants develop very poorly, their yield decreases.
Among the necessary qualities of the seedling box, it should be noted that properly made drainage holes are designed to drain excess liquid and full-fledged gas exchange; sufficiently thick walls that protect the root system of plants from possible temperature fluctuations; opacity of the material from which the container is made (the roots of seedlings should not be exposed to light) ribs and walls (facilitates the movement of boxes, prevents accidental injury to the roots).
After preparing the substrate and laying it out in the boxes, you can start sowing. Before immersion in the ground, the seeds of most garden crops should be soaked (wrapped in damp gauze or cotton cloth and left for 24-36 hours in a warm, dark place). This procedure facilitates pecking and accelerates the development of plants. Seeds of tomato, eggplant and other members of the nightshade family can even sprout between two layers of cloth or blotting paper, and then gently move with tweezers into the prepared holes. This technique allows not only to stimulate the growth and development of garden crops, but also at the same time to check the quality of the purchased seeds.
Sowing in seedling boxes is carried out in even rows, having previously marked the grid with a ruler or a small board. From the edge of the box to the first groove, at least 2 cm of free space should remain, from hole to hole - about 5 cm. The depth of the holes is calculated depending on the size of the seeds. Small and medium grains are buried into the soil by a few millimeters, dusty seeds are pre-mixed with a small amount of dry soil or sand and then evenly distributed along the grooves (after the emergence of shoots, they are thinned out). After sowing, the surface of the soil is lightly sprinkled with peat soil mixture.
To prevent the seeds from floating when watering, you can cover the soil with a non-woven fabric that is ideal for moisture and atmospheric air. It should be remembered that no fertilizing should be carried out until the first green shoots appear above the surface of the soil (the plants have enough of those substances that are contained in the substrate). To accelerate the growth and development of seedlings, you can wrap the boxes with polyethylene, arranging improvised mini-greenhouses.
The frequency of watering young seedlings is calculated depending on the illumination of the room, the temperature of the air and its dryness. In hot weather, moisture supply to the soil should be daily.
Lack of natural light negatively affects the growth and development of young plants. It is desirable that during the first 2-3 days after the emergence of seedlings, the boxes with seedlings were illuminated around the clock, and then the duration of daylight hours would be at least 14 hours. Of course, in spring, when seedlings are grown, the establishment of such a regime is possible only after installing additional lighting sources.
With full-fledged insolation, you do not have to worry about the lack of living space: correctly lit plants tolerate crowding well. The lack of a full-fledged light source often leads to stretching of seedlings (most often this feature is inherent in tomatoes and other nightshades). To prevent uncontrolled elongation of the stems, it is recommended to gently pinch off the lower leaves from time to time. Then the stem will turn out to be dense, with an increased diameter.
The next necessary procedure in caring for seedlings is picking. The purpose of this operation is to expand the living space for young plants, to form a full-fledged branched root system.
Most of the crops grown in the garden dive after the formation of 1 or 2 full-fledged leaves - it is at this stage of development that the seedlings easily tolerate the intervention and take root well in a new place of growth.
A pick can be made into peat pots or other individual containers, as well as into boxes with lattice partitions, so as not to injure plants in the future when transplanting into open ground. For the procedure, a special peg should be prepared - a wooden or plastic rod about 13 cm long and 1.2 cm in diameter.A pointed peg is carefully brought under the root system of seedlings and carefully remove the plants one at a time, holding them by the cotyledon leaves (for fragile, brittle stems, take in no case is it possible).
The plant extracted from the soil is transferred into a prepared container with a hole in the middle, placed in a depression, immersed in the cotyledon leaves, and the soil is gently scooped up to the roots with a peg.
During the picking, it is necessary to very carefully examine the seedlings, to reject the underdeveloped, curved, having various developmental anomalies. After completing the procedure, the newly planted plants are watered with warm water, feeding can be done in 2-3 days.
Do not pick greens, as well as most varieties of onions.
A very important and effective procedure is the so-called hardening of seedlings. Before moving plants into open ground, it is necessary to prepare them for the influence of unfavorable environmental conditions, natural fluctuations in daily temperature, bright rays of the sun, and torrential rains.
The first stage of hardening begins when the air temperature outside the room reaches 10-12 ° C. Boxes with seedlings are taken out to the balcony or loggia and left for a day, and in the evening they are moved back to the rooms. Heat-loving crops require extra care when handling them, so they can be hardened later. After 5-7 days, it is permissible to leave boxes with seedlings on the loggia overnight, so that the plants gradually get used to daily temperature fluctuations. Immediately before planting in open ground, it is advisable to keep the plants outdoors for 2-3 days, placing the boxes on a convenient table or on a free area of the garden.
Preparation for sowing vegetable crops
There are two options for the approach to the cultivation of seedlings: the creation of all conditions for growth and development necessary for plants, as well as artificial growth retardation for the purpose of later planting in open ground.
Since in good conditions the plants develop very quickly and fully, you can take your time with sowing seeds in boxes: artificial lighting, correctly selected and applied fertilizers, as well as heating will help to grow seedlings in the shortest possible time and prepare them for further growth in the garden plot.
Celery (root and petiole varieties), eggplant and peppers can be sown in the first half of March, tall tomatoes for greenhouses and hotbeds, onions and leeks - towards the end of March, early ripe white cabbage - after March 20, other garden crops - not earlier than the beginning April. Sowing seeds too early is not recommended: if all the recommendations for caring for seedlings are followed, the plants develop quickly and by the time they are planted on the site, they are overripe. Overexposed seedlings do not take root well, they often get sick and have a low yield.
The second method of growing seedlings, on the other hand, is by sowing the seeds early. After the first shoots appear above the soil surface, the duration of daylight hours is reduced, the frequency and abundance of watering is reduced. Combined with lower air temperatures, these conditions slow down plant growth and prevent stretching.
To correctly calculate the time of sowing seeds, you can use the data below (the figures indicated are valid for central Russia).
Petiole and root celery are sown from March 1 to March 15, after soaking the seeds. The first shoots appear on the 8-9th day.
Seedlings can be planted on the site at the age of about 60 days, after unfolding the 5th leaf.
Leeks and onions are sown from 5 to 15 March, it is recommended to pre-soak the seeds. The first shoots usually appear on the 6-7th day. Plants planted in the ground should be no older than 50 days.
Eggplant and pepper are sown only after pecking sprouts from soaked seeds, the first shoots can be seen as early as on the 2-5th day. Seedlings are completely ready for planting in open ground on the 55th day.
Tall tomatoes intended for greenhouse cultivation are sown after pecking on sprouts from soaked seeds. The first shoots appear above the soil surface on the 2-3rd day, after 7-8 weeks the seedlings are completely ready to move to the greenhouse.
Seeds of early-maturing white cabbage are sown after preliminary soaking, after 3-4 days the first shoots appear. Seedlings are considered complete in 50-55 days.
Kohlrabi and broccoli are sown after soaking, after 3-4 days you can see the first shoots above the soil surface. These crops should be transplanted to the site no later than 45 days later.
Cauliflower is sown after soaking, after 2-3 days the first shoots appear, and after 6-7 weeks the seedlings can be moved to open ground.
Beets are sown after soaking, the first shoots can be seen after 2-3 days, and the seedlings mature after 5 weeks.
Lettuce and lettuce seeds also need to be soaked beforehand. After 2-3 days after sowing, the first shoots appear, and after 30-35 days, the seedlings can already be planted in open ground.
Low-growing tomatoes are sown only after pecking the shoots, the first shoots appear on the 2-3rd day. The time of planting seedlings in open ground depends on the variety of cultivated plants.
Many novice gardeners make mistakes when growing seedlings. Most often, problems arise due to improper composition of the nutrient soil. To provide plants with useful substances, fatty humus is added to the mixture. This situation is categorically unacceptable: too fat soil negatively affects the growth of young plants, creating favorable conditions for the development of pathogenic fungi and microorganisms.
If the seedlings are too thick, it is advisable to carry out careful thinning, leaving well-developed specimens at a sufficient distance from each other. Otherwise, the law of quantity and quality will work: there will be a lot of seedlings, but the yield of adult plants will be low. In the absence of regular loosening in combination with waterlogging of the substrate, the lower parts of the stems are affected by an infectious disease called "black leg". To prevent undesirable consequences, before sowing seeds, the soil is abundantly watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and the ground around young plants is sprinkled with clean river sand. After the death of several nearby plants, the remaining seedlings are immediately evacuated to another box and treated with special disinfectants.
Seedlings of cucumbers are characterized by fragility and weakness of a low-power root system, therefore, when moving it into open ground, young plants should be handled very carefully. For planting in the ground, at least 3 weeks must pass from the moment the first shoots appear. Seeds of cucumbers are sown in prepared soil, pre-soaked. If the planting material was of high quality, seedlings can be expected on the 4th day. Cucumbers are very sensitive to lack of light and moisture, so you need to take care of installing additional lamps in advance. As a top dressing, a weakly concentrated solution of a complex mineral fertilizer is usually used (it is recommended to purchase special mixtures for seedlings intended for soil and foliar application). After the unfolding of the third leaf, the seedlings are dived and moved to a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Young sprouts of pepper can be dived earlier - after the appearance of the second true leaf, while each plant is placed in a separate pot (it is most convenient to use peat containers to avoid further damage to the roots when the peppers are moved into open ground). Watering and feeding should be moderate. The surface of the soil should be constantly kept moist, otherwise the growth and maturation of seedlings will significantly slow down. 1-2 weeks after the pick, the plants are fed with a mineral solution.In order to prevent decay of the root system, you can periodically water the seedlings with a very weak solution of permanganate.
Eggplant seedlings are grown by similar methods, but the first feeding is carried out only 15-17 days after the pick is performed.
The addition of a small amount of powdered boric acid to the fertilizer solution reduces the risk of buds and blossoming flowers falling off in plants planted in the ground, and increases productivity. Since the root system of eggplants is located in the upper layers of the earth, loosened up between waterings should be done with extreme care.
What should a gardener be ready for if he is going to grow an excellent harvest of eggplants and peppers? First of all, these are regular feeding and watering. You will have to loosen between the rows at least 5 times per season. Bushes need to be formed if you have mid-ripening or late-ripening varieties. In this case, only 2-3 strong shoots will need to be left on each bush. Stepsons and other shoots should be removed by pinching so that they do not take a complex of nutrients from the fruit and do not increase the load on the bush.
What you need to know about the root system of eggplant and pepper? She is very fragile. Weeding will easily damage her. That is why the beds must be mulched, that is, covered with mulch. For example, moisten newspapers folded in 10 layers, place them under eggplants and peppers, and cover with dried grass or straw.
Do you know that it is up to you to increase yields and good pollination of plants? If during the flowering of eggplant and pepper you spray them with a mixture of 2 g of boric acid and 100 sugar dissolved in a liter of hot water, a huge number of pollinating insects will appear in your garden. Another option is to hang jars of honey solution, for which it is enough to dissolve a teaspoon of this popular bee product in a glass of water. To prevent pollinating insects from poisoning, during the flowering of the garden, the use of spraying with pesticides is prohibited.
If you want to get an early harvest from the first flowers, try using the industrially produced fruit-forming stimulants "Ovary" or "Bud". Then you will receive the first eggplants and peppers a month after flowering, with an eye on a specific variety.
The fruits cannot be broken off like tomatoes, but you can carefully cut off with a pruner with a stalk, otherwise you can break the bush. Watch the ripeness. Overripe eggplants and peppers will have bitterness, so wait until 3-4 weeks after flowering to harvest.
To get the maximum yield, shape the bush. The plant will need to leave only 10 ovaries, no more, and 3-5 strong shoots. All that is superfluous is pinched. If you planted a low-growing variety, it is enough to leave two or three shoots. In the case of growing tall varieties, take care of the garter to the trellis so that the bush does not break off under the weight of the ovaries and forming fruits, after which it will only have to be thrown away.
The best basis for the future harvest from strong and hardy varieties is good care of seedlings of peppers and eggplants. After the emergence of seedlings on the 4th day, the first watering is carried out. It is unnecessary to do this earlier, since during the first day the earth retains moisture. It is also not worth overdrying the soil: the plants are moisture-loving. If the soil dries out and cracks too quickly, the containers with the seedlings are moved to a cooler place and the air is additionally humidified by spraying.
Water for irrigation is used thawed, boiled or settled. After the appearance of the first leaves, the earth is moistened with a spray bottle every 5 days. With about the same regularity, the soil is loosened to provide air access to the roots and not harm them. This action is also the prevention of stagnation of water in the ground, which the varieties do not like.
Care for pepper and eggplant seedlings includes fertilizing seedlings.
Weak leaves and stems of seedlings indicate a lack of nutrients in the soil. To remedy the situation and help the crops grow green mass, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are added. In the future, growth stimulants are introduced into the soil, which improve the metabolism of nutrients.
Overly elongated plants signal a lack of light. In this case, the daylight hours are shortened, but the intensification of the illumination of the seedlings is organized.