Miscanthus is a perennial herb from the Bluegrass family. Miscanthus is sometimes also called a fan and is considered the closest relative of sugar cane. There are about forty species of this perennial cereal plant and many different varieties. Gardeners often use miscanthus to decorate ponds and lawns, and florists also add perennials to dry flower arrangements. The article will tell you how to properly plant, grow and care for muscanthus outdoors.
Description of the miscanthus plant
Miscanthus can reach a height of 2 m, it all depends on the species and variety. The root system, receiving and in search of water, can grow up to 6 m. The stems are erect, thin, but very strong and strong. Leaves are scaly, oblong and narrow. At the end of the stem there is a fan-shaped spikelet that can grow up to 30 cm. Miscanthus is a very hardy, strong and powerful perennial. Unpretentious in care and environmentally friendly. The plant is used not only to create original landscaping, but also as an ecological fuel in power plants.
Planting miscanthus outdoors
When to plant miscanthus
The best time to plant miscanthus is late March to mid-May. At this time, the snow has already melted, and the soil has warmed up quite enough to plant the plants. Miscanthus is a thermophilic and light-loving herb, therefore it must be planted in a well-lit part of the garden so that the sun warms the herbaceous perennial with its warmth during the day. The plant also loves moisture very much, so it is best to plant it near water bodies. In order for miscanthus to grow well, you should not plant it in sandy and clay soil.
How to plant miscanthus
For planting, it is best to use already grown perennial seedlings, it is best to give preference to already one-year-old plants, they are stronger and will best take root in a new place. Miscanthus is thermophilic and grows only at a temperature of 25 degrees, because of this, the growing season lasts long enough. Young saplings rarely endure cold weather, as they do not have time to gain strength before their onset, because of this, many of them can die in winter due to cold weather. Therefore, the best option is adult, fairly strong and strong miscanthus seedlings. They will take root faster and easily endure even severe frosts.
In order to plant a plant, you need to dig a hole that will be slightly larger than the root system in size. A layer of fertile soil should be placed at the bottom of the pit, and then a seedling should be planted. The roots need to be well covered with soil and tamped a little. After planting, it is imperative to carry out abundant watering and mulch the soil with a thin layer of peat, sawdust, straw or dry leaves. This will not only help retain moisture in the soil, but also limit the growth and development of harmful and annoying weeds.
Miscanthus does not need any complex and special care, it is quite unpretentious. But in order to grow a healthy and strong plant, you still have to follow a few simple rules for caring for miscanthus outdoors.
Miscanthus is a very moisture-loving plant. It is necessary to water the perennial regularly and abundantly so that the topsoil does not have time to dry out.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Also, the plant needs special feeding, but moderate, since an overabundance of some substances can lead to a disruption in the development of the plant and to its death. You should start feeding miscanthus only in the second year; in the first year, the plant does not need any fertilizers. You need to feed the plant in the second year twice in one season. Fertilizers with a high nitrogen content should be applied in May. In the second half of summer, the plant should be fed with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. You can easily buy such balanced mineral fertilizers in any special store for summer residents and gardeners.
The first two years will have to constantly deal with annoying weeds. After the plant gets stronger and grows, there will be no place for weeds and it will not be necessary to carry out regular weeding, it is enough to occasionally remove the weeds that have appeared.
In order for the perennial not to grow over the entire territory of the garden, it is necessary to make special limiters. To do this, before planting the plant, pieces of iron or slate should be dug into the soil, this will help control the growth of miscanthus and will not allow it to interfere with the development of other plants that will grow with it in the neighborhood with its root system.
Since at the end of summer, miscanthus begins to lose its lower leaves and its appearance from below loses its decorativeness and beauty, it is best to plant some low-growing flowers next to the plant, which will cover these parts of the plant.
This is how you care for miscanthus outdoors. Everything is quite simple and without any complications.
Preparing miscanthus for winter
There are types and varieties of miscanthus that are sufficiently resistant to frost, there are also more delicate ones, it is these varieties that should be insulated for the winter with the help of special materials. Such delicate varieties are very sensitive and even suffer from sudden changes in temperature. Therefore, delicate miscanthus should be carefully insulated, for this you need to make a structure out of sticks that will look like a hut, and cover it with plastic wrap on top so that the air can get a little under the covering material from below. One film is sometimes not enough, therefore, before covering the plant with a film, it is necessary to thoroughly mulch the soil around the plant with sawdust, peat, hay or dry leaves.
Reproduction of miscanthus
After several years, dead stems and leaves accumulate inside the bush, and in order to remove them and give the plant a beautiful and fresh look, it is necessary to transplant the plant to a new place. Together with the transplant, you can combine such a way of reproduction of miscanthus as dividing a bush. This type of reproduction of this plant is considered one of the most reliable. It is best to propagate muscanthus in this way at the end of spring, this time is considered the most suitable. It is necessary to carry out this procedure with extreme caution, since the plant moves away from the transplant for a very long time and painfully gets used to its new habitat.
There is another way to reproduce miscanthus - seed. This method is used much less often, since the plant germinates for a long time and takes on its beautiful appearance and decorativeness only in the fourth year. With seed reproduction, you have to be patient and spend a lot of time.
Diseases and pests
Miscanthus is a strong enough and so healthy plant that at the present time not a single case has been recorded when it was affected by various diseases or attacks of harmful insects.
Types and varieties of miscanthus
Miscanthus giant - a rather complex hybrid, the origin of which is practically unknown. Perennial stems are thin, but very strong and can reach a height of 3 m. Leaves are dark green with a white vein in the middle, can reach up to 25 cm in width, grow quite sprawling. The perennial blooms in late summer, small pale pink flowers bloom on fan-shaped columns, which eventually turn silvery. Such a perennial needs marking of the lower part, since the leaves from below at the end of summer begin to wither and fall off.
Miscanthus chinese - This type of miscanthus has a short rhizome and a fairly sprawling and lush bush. The stems can reach a height of about 3 m. The leaves are long, about 1.5 cm wide, rough, dark green in color with a gray vein in the middle. Spikelets are spreading, not long. This type of miscanthus is not cold-resistant, therefore, it must be thoroughly mulched at the root and covered with a special covering material. This species has more than 100 different varieties that differ in color and size, as well as in the shape of leaves and spikelets. The most popular of them are: Blondeau, Variegatus, Miscanthus Zebrinus, Ferner Austin, Morning Light, Strictus.
Miscanthus sugar-flowered or sugar-flowered - this species is very hygrophilous. The stems of this perennial are bare, without leaves. Leaves are green, narrow, about 60 cm long. Fan-shaped spikelets can grow up to 20 cm. Flowers are small, light pink or silvery, located all over the spikelet. This species is distinguished by a long flowering period, which begins in early summer and lasts until late autumn. Miscanthus sugary is quite cold-resistant, for warming it is enough just to thoroughly mulch the soil around the plant with sawdust, peat, hay or straw, there is no need to cover the plant with a film. The most popular variety of this species is Robustus. This variety is larger than the main species and more frost resistant.
If you follow all the rules for planting, caring for and growing miscanthus in the open field, then the herbaceous perennial will grow quite lush, strong and healthy. Thanks to the many different species and varieties, it will be possible to make an unusual and original garden landscape design, as well as collect the most beautiful flower arrangements.
Miscanthus Sp - video review from Greensad
Favorite plants - Red Miscanthus
We continue the series of articles "Favorite plants of the GardenSchool" - Red Miscanthus (miscanthus sinensis f. Purpurascens)
Different from many varieties miscanthus chinese bright autumn color, early flowering and winter hardiness. He is given zone 4.
Powerful, short rhizome, grows slowly. It belongs, like all miscanthuses, to warm-growing cereals - its growth begins at temperatures above 22 degrees. Therefore, at the beginning of summer, there is no need to “count” on miscanthuses, their time is the end of summer and autumn. This must be taken into account when creating compositions.
All miscanthuses are demanding on nutrition and soil moisture. In order for Miscanthus to grow a large mass, they need to be well fed, they are responsive to organic feeding and watering.
In the Gardenschool garden, red miscanthus did not bloom for two years in a row - in 2017 it was too cold and damp, and in 2018, on the contrary, it was too dry.
Autumn color is most pronounced after a warm summer and autumn with a large temperature difference.
Autumn color of miscanthus in 2017 Gradual discoloration
The first two or three years after planting, like all miscanthus, reddish miscanthus will require warming of the root zone for the winter. This can be mulching with dry organic matter, humus, and even just boards and logs. This technique will help smooth out sudden temperature changes, especially in snowless frosts.
Miscanthuses grow slowly
When to plant fruit trees in spring
It is impossible to decide how to plant a seedling of a Pear, Apple or other fruit tree in the spring, so that they rooted well and actively germinate, without a carefully thought out planting time. And it depends on the climate and its characteristics in a particular area. In temperate latitudes, this is mid-April, early May. But under harsh conditions, it is better to postpone the landing until the period when there is no night frost. The daily temperature should not fall below 0 ° C.
When to plant cherries in spring, you can determine in the morning. The absence of frost indicates the optimal temperature regime for young trees. But some varieties of apple trees, for example, prefer positive temperatures, which should also be taken into account when choosing a planting date.
The general rule is the period when the plant has not yet begun to bud. Usually this period is limited to a few weeks.
The choice of late-flowering perennials is quite varied. Do not deprive yourself of the pleasure of enjoying the riot of colors of autumn flower beds. Plants that can tolerate short daylight hours and cold matinees are ready to take on the flowering baton.
Italian aster. Perennial asters are one of the most common fall crops. But most often in the gardens there are varieties belonging to two types - New England and New Belgian. Meanwhile, there are also more problem-free undersized asters - Italian. Their bushes do not fall over and look spectacular next to other plants.
Italian asters resemble miniature daisies, their small flowers densely cover the bush with a solid pillow. Low bushes branch very well, due to which they perfectly retain their hemispherical shape. The height of the plant, depending on the variety, is 30-60 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, medium-sized, dark green with a slight edge, in some varieties they have a bluish or silvery shade. Due to the dense foliage, the bushes look decorative even before the beginning of flowering, which starts in July and lasts until mid-autumn.
Up to 15 flowers bloom in one inflorescence. They have a bright yellow center, a slightly convex shape, around which long lanceolate petals are densely located. Most often, the color of the flowers is lilac, but there are also rare shades - lavender, lilac-pink.
Buzulnik palchatolobastny, unlike most representatives of its genus, which manage to bloom in summer, reaches the peak of decorativeness with the onset of autumn. It blooms profusely in August and lasts for a month.
This plant forms a bush up to 1.8 m in height and 0.9 cm in diameter. The lower leaves are large, rounded, deeply lobed. Large yellowish flowers are collected in vertical, loose, racemose inflorescences.
A strong frost-resistant plant loves moist soil and does not tolerate heat well, dropping leaves at noon. But the coolness of the evening brings the buzulnik back to life. to
Finger-lobed can grow in one place up to 20 years, however, for better development and flowering, it is recommended to divide the bush every 5 years.
Bristlecone purple is a powerful rhizome perennial up to 2 m high with strong, straight stems branching in the upper part. Along the entire length of the stems, there are large oblong leaves of a deep green color with purple veins.
Flowering begins in mid-August and lasts until October. Small baskets of funnel-shaped flowers are collected in a complex corymbose inflorescence at the top of the stem. The color of the flowers is from white to brown-purple. Even after the end of flowering, the stethoscope looks very elegant: the stem by this time acquires a pink tint and stands out effectively against the background of bright green leaves.
The problem of helenium is the stems that are bare in the lower part, therefore, when planting this plant, you should take care in advance of how to cover its "burden"
For a plant, it is advisable to choose nutritious, well-moistened soils, in such places it can do without transplanting for many years. No garters are required on the bottom, since the rhizome of the plant is well developed and easily holds the overgrown bush. But for the winter, it is advisable to cut it to a height of 10-15 cm and mulch the soil around the plant with humus.
Autumn Gelenium blooms until the first frost. Good not only in a flower bed, but also in a cut. Height, depending on the variety, 60-150 cm.
The stem of the helenium is strong, branches strongly in the upper part, becomes woody by late autumn, but too tall plants require a garter. Lanceolate or ovoid medium-sized leaves of light green color cover the entire height of the stem.
Helone is an unpretentious, late flowering plant. Grows well in any soil, both in the shade and in the sun. Transfers the first frost. It can grow in one place for more than 10 years, easily tolerates a transplant.
Slender stems 60-80 cm high end with a "pigtail" inflorescence of gradually blossoming pink or white flowers. Flowering lasts from August to late autumn. The leaves are dark green, leathery, with small cuts along the edges.
The Japanese anemone has a long flowering period from late August to mid-October. The height of slender stems, depending on the variety, is from 50 cm to 1.5 m. The leaves of the plant are three-lobed, triple-dissected, toothed. The color of the foliage is green with an ash bloom, in some varieties with a bluish or silvery tinge.
Flowers are collected at the ends of the peduncles 3-4 pieces. Usually their color is white or pale pink, but there are varietal plants with lilac, red or deep pink petals.
The middle of the flower is yellow. The perennial has horizontal rhizomes that spread widely close to the surface of the earth.
The glory of a rather capricious plant was fixed for the anemone. She does not tolerate the lack of moisture, heavy soil, drafts, direct rays of the midday sun are also destructive for her. Therefore, the best choice for planting is a slightly shaded area with loose, light, well-drained soil.
Miscanthuses - planting and care
no more difficult than many other decorative crops.
And in some ways it's even easier. But in this case, there are some subtleties that are definitely worth mentioning.
1. Choosing varietal miscanthus, be sure to pay attention to the flowering time. Late varieties in central Russia simply do not have time to flourish. Of course, miscanthus are decorative even in this form, but without inflorescences they lose half of their greatness. At the same time, keep in mind that the timing of flowering is usually indicated on the basis of foreign data. Our plants are about a month late. In practice, this means that the variety, which blooms in Europe in July, blooms in the middle lane not earlier than August, and so on. Therefore, the indication of September and October is not at all our case for flowering not to wait.
In my garden, the very first cultivar Nippon invariably blooms - around the middle of August.
Next, almost stepping on his heels, is KJein Fontain, almost simultaneously with which the sugar-flowered miscanthus also begins to bloom. Next comes Blutenwunder, a wonderful variety with light green foliage, and the monumental Malepartus with purple panicles. The rest bloom in September. But variegated varieties have never bloomed with me, although I know gardeners who regularly boast of their flowering.
2. All young miscanthuses, with the exception of the sugar-flowered one, need a preventive winter shelter... They react extremely painfully to sudden changes in temperature, and even more so to snowless frosts - this can lead to death
plants. Therefore, in the fall, it is best to mulch them with organic matter, spill with a solution of potassium monophosphate according to the instructions, and tie them closer to November, bend them to the ground and cover them with a non-woven covering material. As they grow older, some varieties will be able to do without such precautions .. First of all, this is Blondo. Malepartus and Silberteder.
In general, it is difficult to answer the question of which varietal mi scantus can survive the Russian winter. In the literature, the so-called winter hardiness zone with boundary temperatures is usually indicated for them.Most of the varieties are attributed to the 5th (minus 23.3-28.8 °) and 6th (17.8-23.3 °) zones, that is they, it would seem, need to be groomed in every possible way, cherished
yat, and of course, shelter for the winter. But in fact, no one has tested these varieties at lower winter temperatures - such frosts simply do not happen in Europe. Therefore, in practice, contradictions often arise between the literary data and the results obtained on our own experience. For example, the varieties KJein Fontain and Yakujima. which many foreign sources refer to the 6th zone, have shown themselves to be among the most stable for me.
In any case, even adult Miscanthus wintering would be nice to help in any available way to insulate the root system, to tie the leaves and stems into a sheaf. And if in winter you do not visit the garden at all and may not care about its beauty at this time of the year, then completely bend down the plants and cover them. They will be more whole!
Z. B the middle lane is the best time to plant miscanthus - spring and early summer (until about the third decade of June). They cannot be bought and planted at the end of summer and autumn, when all the internal reserves of plants are directed to flowering. When planted at the end of the season, miscanthuses practically do not take root (the exception may be m. Sakharo-flowered). Unfortunately, at various garden exhibitions and fairs, they appear at this very inopportune time, since it coincides with the peak of their decorative effect. If you do
succumbed to temptation and bought a flowering miscanthus in a pot in the fall, in no case disturb him: just dig in the container in any suitable place and cover it for the winter.
But even having bought a plant in the spring, do not rush to immediately plant it in a permanent place. Plant a young miscanthus in a large pot, water regularly (this is the main condition) and periodically feed it to let it grow. For the winter, again, bury it directly in the pot, providing shelter, and next spring, boldly plant it in the ground By this time, miscanthus will get stronger, adapt to the conditions of your site and acquire decorativeness.
4. Pruning adult overgrown miscanthus - hard work. No trimmer can cope with this task. They have to be cut by hand using a pruner, which often ends up with calluses rubbed on the fingers. Moreover, it is not recommended to cut the plants before winter, the stems and leaves contribute to snow retention, which, in turn, helps Miscanthus to resist frost better. Therefore, it is better to postpone this operation until spring, remembering that it will take a lot of time.
5. Varietal Chinese miscanthus grow slowly and can stay in one place for a long time, but sooner or later (depending on the variety and conditions of a particular site), the central part of the curtain dies off. At the same time, the decorativeness of the plant decreases sharply, and the miscanthus requires transplantation and division. This is an extremely time-consuming process - tested by experience. It is almost impossible to divide a plant without digging it out - Miscanthu owls have a very powerful root system. It will also be difficult for a woman to cope with an overgrown clump (this alone
6. Divide the miscanthus at the same time as they are planted - in spring and early summer. And it is better to wait until they begin to grow: you will clearly see which parts of the curtain are alive and which are not. I usually do division in the third decade of May, although this can be done until the end of June (but not later). After division, the plants recover slowly: it may take more than one year for the miscanthus to reach its former decorative effect. Top dressing will help.
7. Usually I I fertilize my plants 3 times per season... In the spring, during regrowth, I use carbamide (urea), in the summer - organo-mineral complexes with humate, in the fall - potassium monophosphate. This system can be used for Miscanthus of all ages, increasing the number of summer dressings to 2-3 if desired.