How to find water for a well: we analyze three effective ways to search
Water is an exceptional gift, without which life on earth is simply impossible. Water is an invariable element of the daily cycle: watering plants, household needs, cooking ... Buying a site where there is not even the slightest hint of the source of this inorganic compound, the problem of how to find water for a well or a well becomes one of the key ones. We invite you to analyze the most popular and effective methods.
A little about aquifers
In the ground, as a rule, there are 2-3 aquifers, separated by water-resistant layers, the horizons of which can vary significantly.
Aquifers are a kind of underground lakes, mainly consisting of sand soaked in water
At the shallowest depth of about 25 meters, the water of the first layer is located, referred to as subcutaneous or perforation. It is formed by filtration of melt water and atmospheric precipitation through the ground. Such water is suitable only for irrigation of green spaces and for household needs.
The water of the second layer of continental sands is already suitable for human consumption. The third layer is represented by waters with excellent taste and rich in useful chemical compounds and mineral salts.
You can find out when it is better to drill a well on the site here: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kogda-i-gde-luchshe-burit-skvazhinu-na-uchastke.html
Effective ways to find water
There are more than a dozen ways to determine the proximity of water to the surface. The search for water under the well can be carried out using one of the following effective methods.
Using silica gel
For this, the granules of the substance are carefully dried in the sun or in the oven and placed in an unglazed clay pot. To determine the amount of moisture absorbed by the granules, the pot must be weighed before instillation. A pot of silica gel, wrapped in a non-woven material or dense cloth, is buried in the ground to a depth of about a meter in a place on the site where a well is planned to be drilled. After a day, the pot with the contents can be dug out and weighed again: the heavier it is, the more moisture it absorbed, which in turn indicates the presence of an aquifer nearby.
The use of silica gel, belonging to the category of substances that have the property of absorbing moisture and retaining it, will allow in just a couple of days to determine the most successful place for drilling a well or arranging a well.
In order to narrow the place of finding water for a well, several such clay containers can be used simultaneously. You can more accurately determine the optimal location for drilling by re-instilling the pot of silica gel.
Ordinary red clay brick and salt also have moisture-absorbing properties. The determination of the aquifer is carried out according to a similar principle with preliminary and repeated weighing and calculation of the difference in indicators.
The readings of 0.1 mm Hg of the barometer correspond to the difference in the pressure drop of 1 meter. To work with the device, you must first measure its pressure readings on the shore of an existing nearby reservoir, and then, together with the device, move to the place of the proposed arrangement of the source of water production. At the drilling site, air pressure measurements are taken again, and the depth of water occurrence is calculated.
The presence and depth of groundwater is also successfully determined using a conventional aneroid barometer
For example: the barometer readings on the river bank are 545.5 mm, and on the site - 545.1 mm. The groundwater level is calculated according to the principle: 545.5-545.1 = 0.4 mm, i.e. the depth of the well will be at least 4 meters.
The material on the rules for installing equipment for a well will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-obustroit-skvazhinu-na-vodu-svoimi-rukami.html
Test exploration drilling is one of the most reliable ways to find water for a well.
Exploration drilling allows not only to indicate the presence and level of occurrence of water, but also to determine the characteristics of soil layers that occur before and after the aquifer
Drilling is carried out using a conventional garden hand drill. Since the depth of the exploration well is on average 6-10 meters, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of increasing the length of its handle. To carry out the work, it is enough to use a drill, the screw diameter of which is 30 cm. As the drill deepens in order not to break the tool, excavation must be carried out every 10-15 cm of the soil layer. Wet silvery sand can be observed already at a depth of about 2-3 meters.
The material on how to choose a pump for a well will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-podobrat-nasos-dlya-skvazhiny.html
The place for the arrangement of the well should be located no closer than 25-30 meters relative to drainage trenches, compost and garbage heaps, as well as other sources of pollution. The most successful well placement is in an elevated area.
Terrain-repeating aquifers in elevated areas provide cleaner, filtered water
Rainwater and melt water always flows down from a hill to a lowland, where it gradually drains into a waterproof layer, which in turn displaces clean filtered water to the level of the aquifer.
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When is well restoration required?
Source degradation can be caused by both improper well operation and natural causes. Let us consider what kind of troubles may lie in wait for the owners of wells during their operation, what are their reasons, how to avoid or delay them.
Deteriorating water quality without reducing flow rate
Deterioration of water quality at the source can occur for the following reasons:
- Contaminants got into the casing (working string) from the surface. This happens when storm water or melt water penetrates into a caisson that is not sufficiently protected from the external environment or into an still unequipped well.
Never allow surface contaminants to enter the working string. Immediately after drilling and the first flush, install a special sealed head on it.
The water can become cloudy from mechanical impurities, in this case it is enough to pump the source for several hours. It is worse if harmful microorganisms from the surface have penetrated into a clean underground environment. For example, iron oxide bacteria. These and other unwanted guests give the water a very unpleasant taste and smell. The infected source will have to be "treated". Disinfection of the well with the help of traditional antiseptics helps: potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide. They fall asleep, wait a few hours, flush the well. In a couple of days it becomes clear whether the desired result has been achieved. As a last resort, if repeated flushing does not help, chlorine-containing products are used. There are also special preparations for disinfecting water pipes, but they are not cheap. At the end of the treatment, the well must be thoroughly flushed for several days.
- As a result of corrosion of the steel casing, rust particles and even soil get into the water if the joints become loose. Water, as a rule, is clear, but it contains small solid particles. Installation of a filter from mechanical impurities will help.
To make a more accurate "diagnosis", a laboratory analysis of the water should be done. It will allow you to determine the nature of measures to "treat" the source, to choose the right filter system.
If the problem is not a decrease in the flow rate of the source, but in the deterioration of water quality, start measures to resuscitate the well with a laboratory water analysis
Reducing the flow rate of the source
A shallow borehole, built on a top water, can completely dry out during the dry season. After heavy rains or melting snows, water will reappear. The productivity of the well "on the sand" can also decrease depending on the season, but only slightly. If a previously normally operating submersible pump during a long drawdown began to "grab air" or the dry-running protection is triggered, there is cause for concern. Well production is falling and regression is likely to continue. Up to the point that the source is completely unusable. Well performance degradation can occur for the following reasons:
- Incorrect operation. The well must be pumped regularly. If no one lives in the house and does not constantly use the plumbing, at least once a month several hundred liters of water should be pumped out of it. In the case when the source stands without use for many months, the soil in the water intake zone, as well as the filter, begins to clog up with the smallest particles, "silting up". In hard water, calcium salts settle, the well "calcifies". Small particles, being motionless, accumulate and are compressed, forming rather hard layers. The pores in the soil and the holes in the filter are clogged, sludge can accumulate in a rather thick, indelible sediment at the bottom of the casing. Water stops flowing into the string. For a year or two of insufficiently intensive use, the source can be spoiled. Silting and calcination also occurs naturally, even with proper well operation. But usually this process is long, stretching for tens of years.
Over time, contaminants of various origins accumulate in the well, which reduces its performance and equipment service life. But the source of drinking water can be reanimated
- If there is no filter at the bottom, poor quality or damaged, sand can enter the casing from the bottom. Sand and dirt can also penetrate inside due to leaks in the working string pipes, resulting from corrosion.
In the case when the reason for the drop in flow rate lies not in the disappearance of the aquifer, but in the pollution of the source, there is a chance that it will be possible to restore the well with our own hands.
How to find water for a well - an overview of 5 search methods + dowsing method in detail
Water is the basis of life. Every day people use tons of this priceless mineral for their own purposes, so it is constantly in short supply. Owners of suburban real estate in any of its manifestations strive to provide themselves with life-giving moisture and are engaged in the arrangement of wells or wells. Many people are interested in how to find water for a well on their site. It turns out that you can try to do it yourself, using one of the many existing methods.