When and how to plant Daikon in open ground
Daikon is a root vegetable crop, bred by Japanese breeders from the sowing radish known to us. In Japanese cuisine, this vegetable is the most important ingredient in most dishes. In our country, long white roots are more often found in markets and supermarkets, but vegetable growers are in no hurry to plant daikon in their plots. Meanwhile, growing a daikon, planting and caring for which does not present any particular difficulties, is within the power of even a novice gardener, since the agricultural technology of culture is practically no different from the cultivation of ordinary radish or radish.
Planting daikon seeds can be done directly in open ground, or in containers (pots, containers) for seedlings. In the climate of the middle zone, the first method is more often used, since the daikon is a precocious culture, and with a summer planting it has time to ripen before the onset of cold weather, moreover, it is easier to sow the daikon immediately into open ground. With any method, the sowing technology is no different.
In order for the sprouts to appear as soon as possible, the seed should be prepared. There are several simple ways to do this:
- the first is easy stratification - the seeds are placed in well-heated water (50 ° C) for half an hour, then quickly cooled in ice water, and then placed in the refrigerator in the lower (vegetable) compartment for a day;
- the second - the seeds are poured with warm (about 40 ° C) water for a day, after which they are slightly dried;
- and the last method - the seeds are placed in a well-moistened cloth or gauze, and put in a warm place for a day.
Soaking the grains is only an opportunity to accelerate their germination from the soil, and not a necessary procedure. Many vegetable growers sow daikon with dry seeds in open ground or pots, but in this case, the soil must be watered abundantly, and then constant moisture must be maintained until sprouts appear.
Video "How to plant Daikon correctly"
In this video, an experienced gardener gives advice on how to properly plant this vegetable.
It is recommended to grow daikon radish with rounded or oval root crops through seedlings - varieties with long rhizomes do not tolerate transplanting and picking well, therefore sowing directly into open ground is preferable for them.
Planting dates depend on many factors: crop varieties, climatic conditions, expected harvest time, but on average, sowing is done about a month before transplanting to the garden - at this age, plants usually have 3-4 permanent leaves.
To obtain seedlings, the easiest way is to plant seeds in a special peat mixture (peat tablets), together with which they are then transplanted into the ground, but you can also plant them in ordinary boxes or pots. In this case, you need to remember that the root of the daikon is long, and so that the sprout is not cramped, the depth of the dishes should be at least 10 cm.
If ordinary soil is used for planting, then it should be mixed with peat and humus in equal proportions. Next, the prepared soil mixture should be watered well, and then the daikon should be planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
To create the most favorable conditions for germination, the container is covered with glass or film and placed in a warm place. After 5-7 days, when the first shoots begin to appear, the shelter is removed, and the pot is moved to a lighted place. After the daikon has risen, caring for it consists only in periodic watering and loosening the soil. When the first pair of true leaves appears, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving the strongest plants.
Approximately two weeks before the proposed transplant, the seedlings are hardened - they are taken out daily for several hours, gradually increasing the residence time until the plants can be outdoors for a whole day. During this period, it is important to ensure that the daylight hours for seedlings are not too long, otherwise the ground part of the plants will stretch out, and the roots will become weak.
The main and, probably, the only problem that vegetable growers face when growing daikon is the shooting of plants even before the root crop ripens. This happens because the landing dates have not been met. Daikon, like radish or radish, grows best in cool conditions (18-20 ° C) with a day of light lasting no more than 12 hours. With more daylight and higher air temperatures, the growth of the root crop stops, and the plant begins to release arrows and bloom.
To avoid shooing, it is necessary to plant the crop at the correct time: early spring, or in the middle of summer, when the length of the day is declining.
For mid-season and late varieties, the first half of July is considered the ideal time for planting; in the southern regions, this period may shift to the end of July or the beginning of August.
The duration of full vegetation of daikon is on average 60-100 days, but some early varieties mature even after 40-45 days, so they can be planted in spring - as soon as the snow melts.
There is no need to be afraid that the seeds will freeze. Daikon, like radish, perfectly tolerates small frosts, and is able to germinate at a soil temperature of + 3-5 ° C, therefore, planted in early spring, it will have enough time to ripen before the onset of the summer heat. At a later date (late April - early May), it is not worth sowing a crop, unless the goal is to obtain seeds. It is best to plant a daikon on seeds at the end of May, then by August it will be possible to collect planting material, but, again, it all depends on the variety.
The choice of planting dates in accordance with varietal characteristics is an important condition for a high and high-quality harvest. Carefully read the recommendations for sowing dates on the seed package, and be sure to adhere to them. In spring, only early varieties with a growing season of 1.5-2 months can be sown. Autumn varieties with a long ripening period should not be planted in spring - they can immediately go to flowering, while skipping the phase of root crop formation.
Daikon is not picky about the soil. Some of its varieties are able to grow even in heavy clay soil, however, a loose sandy loam or loamy soil with neutral acidity is ideal for culture - in acidic soil, roots do not form, and plants begin to hurt.
It is advisable to prepare a garden bed for growing daikon in advance: for spring sowing in autumn, and for summer sowing in spring. If you have time, you can sow siderates - the daikon feels great in areas rich in humus. And so, first, the site is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. If the soil is not fertile enough, during the digging, mineral (potassium sulfate 20 g, superphosphate 40 g) and organic (compost, humus 0.5 buckets / m²) fertilizers are added to it.
It is necessary to add lime to the acidic soil, but you should not apply it at the same time as fertilizers - it is better to do this two weeks before digging. Immediately before sowing the culture, it is recommended to add ash (1 glass / m²) - its presence in the soil significantly improves the taste of root crops. Daikon grows well after potatoes, dill, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers. It is not advisable to plant the crop after any cruciferous plants.
How to plant in open ground
Planting daikon, both by seed and seedling, is most often carried out according to the scheme of 30x60 cm, where 30 cm is the distance between the plants, and 60 cm is the distance between the rows, however, here it all depends on the variety. For varieties with round root crops, as well as with a voluminous aboveground part (tops), such a scheme is most acceptable, but for narrow and long root crops of small diameter, a more compacted planting is acceptable, for example, 20x40 cm.
Seedlings or seeds are planted in pre-moistened soil, in which holes are made (for seedlings), or long furrows for seeds, however, they can also be planted in shallow holes. In the furrows, seeds are placed in nests of 2-3 pieces at a distance of 20-30 cm, depending on varietal characteristics. Then the holes are covered with earth, compacted a little, and then mulched with a thin layer of peat.
Under favorable conditions, the first shoots appear 5-7 days after sowing. They easily tolerate spring night frosts, but in order to surely preserve the crops, it is recommended to cover the bed with a film at first at night, and to remove it during the day, when it gets warmer. When 2-3 true leaves appear, the plants are thinned out - the weak ones are removed, and the strongest one is left. Further care of the radish consists in watering, loosening row spacings and periodic hilling, since the roots of most daikon varieties protrude above the soil surface.
Landing before winter
Sowing a daikon in the winter is convenient in that it is possible to use the plots already vacated after harvesting for it. In addition, this method is often used in the southern regions, where spring is quickly replaced by summer, and it is not always possible to get a harvest of early root crops. Sowing in late autumn allows you to solve this problem, since seeds sown before winter sprout very quickly and early. In addition, podzimny sowing allows you to get not only an early, but also a better harvest, since the largest and healthiest specimens survive in severe frosts.
The technology of under-winter sowing in open ground is no different from summer and spring sowing. However, it is important to meet the deadlines and not rush to disembark. Since daikon seeds germinate very quickly and at fairly low temperatures, there is a high probability of germination in autumn, in which case you can forget about the harvest. Therefore, it is better to sow the daikon in the wells dug in advance after the first frost, and add them to the frozen ground.
After planting, the bed is covered with a small (4-5 cm) layer of peat, leaves, or humus - this helps to maintain the looseness of the soil and prevent the grains from freezing. Until spring, no maintenance is required for the garden bed. When the snow melts, the mulch should be carefully removed and the surface shallowly loosened. Further care measures are standard: watering, weeding, hilling. Thus, with a minimum investment of time and money, you can get a fairly high yield of tasty and very healthy root crops.
Video "How to care for a Daikon"
In this video, you will see how to properly care for this vegetable.
In Japan, the homeland of the daikon, where vegetable plantations occupy the first place in the world in terms of area, there are more than 400 varieties of it. In Russia, the assortment of this crop is much more modest, but still those vegetable growers who want to grow white radish should pay attention to the characteristics of the main groups of daikon varieties according to the shape and degree of depth of root crops in the soil.
- Shogoin - roots are very thick (up to 20 cm in diameter), round or flat-round in shape, grow well on heavy soils. At 1 / 4-1 / 5 they are deepened into the ground.
- Sirogari - are distinguished by the optimal sizes of cylindrical root crops, which reach a length of up to 30 cm and a diameter of up to 7 cm. They protrude 2 / 3-3 / 4 above the soil surface.
- Miyashige - long (up to 50 cm) and thick (up to 9 cm) cylindrical root crops, half submerged in the ground.
- Tokinashi - Suitable for growing on loamy soils. They are similar in shape to the previous variety type, but shorter in length.
- Nerima is a group of varieties with smooth and long roots (up to 70 cm), fusiform, up to 10 cm thick. They protrude 1 / 4-1 / 3 above the soil surface.
- Ninengo are cold-resistant and resistant to flowering varieties, forming a root crop up to 40 cm in length and up to 6.5 cm in thickness, completely immersed in the ground.
Among the common varieties in Russia, you can choose:
- Daikon of the Minovashi variety is mid-season, resistant to diseases and drought. The root crop is cylindrical, with a conical tip. In length up to 50 cm, reaches a mass of up to 1.5 kg. The pulp is white. Productivity 10-13 kg / m 2.
- Dragon is a mid-season variety, cylindrical root crop, with a conical tip, weighing up to 1 kg. It grows up to 30-60 cm, up to 8 cm thick. The pulp is white, with a dense structure. Productivity 5-7 kg / m 2.
- Dubinushka is a mid-season variety, forms a root crop up to 45 cm long, up to 8 cm thick, weight - up to 2.5 kg. The pulp is snow-white. Productivity, like that of the Dragon variety - 5-7 kg / m 2 when cultivated in the open field.
- The canine of an elephant is a mid-season variety (ripening period 70-90 days), forms an elongated-cylindrical root crop, up to 50 cm long and weighing 0.3-0.5 kg. It is immersed in the soil by 2/3, its flesh is white, juicy, rare spicy taste is absent. Productivity 3-4 kg / m 2
- Sasha is an early maturing variety of round-shaped daikon (up to 10 cm in diameter), weighing up to 400 g. White pulp, without bitterness and pungency. Resistant to bacteriosis. The yield of this variety is 1.5-3.5 kg / m 2.
- Sugar rose - early maturing, cold-resistant, very productive. Root crops are homogeneous, round, up to 10 cm thick. The pulp is pink, sweet, tender, retaining excellent taste for a long time. The yield of this daikon is 1.5-3 kg / m 2.
Daikon seeds are distributed by Russian seed companies Gavrish, Aelita, SeDeK. They have been producing good quality certified products for many years.
When to plant a daikon outdoors?
Daikon is a hybrid of radish and radish. I grew daikon Sasha, it is round and large, I did not like varieties with a long root crop. Daikon should be planted early, only the snow will melt when radishes are planted, or later after harvesting onions and garlic. In very hot weather, it blooms and does not produce root crops. Seedlings can be sprinkled with ash from pests. A very early ripening vegetable in a little over a month, you can already collect juicy roots.
Daikon it is a root vegetable between a radish and a radish, a Japanese vegetable that tastes sharp, but salads with the addition of daikon are very tasty.
Daikon is the root vegetable of a long day.
The daikon should be planted when daylight hours increase to 13-14 hours, with a decrease in daylight hours, the daikon inhibits flowering and the formation of root crops is disturbed.
If the daikon is planted in the middle of summer, then at the beginning of October it can be laid for storage.
The growing season of daikon is 60-100 days, but depends on the climatic conditions in your area.
To get Japanese radish seeds daikon, it should be planted in the second half of April (for southern regions) or after May 20 (for cold regions).
I always plant the daikon in open ground in the tenths of July, the ripening time from the moment of sowing is two months.
A few days before planting, I wrap the seeds in a wet gauze for germination, then plant them.
Thus, shoots appear faster, then it is necessary to thin out, remove weak shoots, and leave strong ones.
To have a good harvest, it is necessary to regularly water the daikon, but not overflow, the roots can rot and be sure to loosen the soil.
Many have already appreciated this rich in vitamins and delicious vegetable, but not everyone succeeds in growing it. Many complain that the daikon goes to the arrow.
In order to harvest a good daikon harvest, you need to choose the right variety and choose the right time for planting in open ground.
The most "golden" time for planting a daikon is the very middle of summer from July 15 to August 1. If you plant at this time, the daikon will not bloom, and will not go into the arrow, it will be the root crop that will develop.
It would be nice to plant a bow in the aisles.
In the middle lane, the daikon should be sown no earlier than July 20, earlier sowing leads to flowering, the last sowing date is August 10. To grow a long, even root crop, there is a little trick: we make "funnels" in the soil by sticking a pointed stalk from a shovel or a root remover at a distance set for a daikon (from 25cm to 60cm, depending on the variety).Then we pour loose fertile soil there and spill it well, sow 2 seeds into each funnel, sprinkle it with 2-3 cm of soil and slap it lightly with the palm of your hand. Do not water so that the seeds are not dragged into the depths. We cover the bed with agrofibre from drying out. Seedlings at an early age require regular watering, 2-3 times a week, water abundantly in funnels. After the formation of 2 true leaves, we remove the weaker seedling, pluck it or cut it (do not pull it out). When 6-8 leaves are formed, watering is enough once a week, but very plentiful - with surface watering, multi-stemmed root crops are formed.
How to care
To get the maximum and high-quality yield, you need to regularly water the plant. Keep the soil slightly damp throughout the growing season. Watering for the first time after the first shoots appear. If there is a lack of moisture, the radish will go to the arrow, and the pulp will become rough, bitter and smell unpleasant.
If irrigated irregularly, the roots will crack and their storage capacity will decrease.
It is necessary to moisten the soil every 5 days. If there is a drought, then irrigate more often. But during the rains you will have to forget about it.
If you grow radish on well-cultivated land, then there is no need to feed. It is worth adding mineral compositions with watering. You can get an excellent effect from fertilizers if slurry is used for these purposes.
For 10 liters of slurry, there are 10 liters of water, 4 g of potassium sulfate. For feeding, you can also use fertilizer mixtures (garden, fruit and berry) for 1 m2 it will take 10-20 g. But how the plant is fed with a plant after planting in the ground, this information will help to understand.
Pest and disease control
If the daikon is affected by fungal ailments, then radial measures should be used to combat it. Their essence is that the plant will have to be treated with such biological products as Binoram or Planriz. But with a mosaic defeat, there are no drugs. Simply remove the affected bush from the ground and burn it. And the land where the radish grew should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
To combat the cabbage flea, you must take action immediately after sowing the seeds. Sprinkle the bed with coarse ash. As soon as shoots have appeared, sprinkle the ground with fine ash.
For pest control, you can use such a composition. Take 5 pods of red pepper, pour 1 liter of water. Wait 12 hours, and then filter, add 10 liters of water. If after one treatment the pests did not die, then after 3-4 days the treatment should be performed again. To destroy the larvae, the root crop should be watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
To scare off flies, it is worth planting marigolds near the radish. And if a slug occurs, it is necessary to prepare a groove near the site, which is filled with ash.
But how the carrots are processed from the carrot fly, and which remedies are the best, is indicated here.
What other seedlings are you planning to plant?
Most daikon varieties have one characteristic. These are plants of a short day: the root crop grows actively when the daytime is shorter than the night. That is why they are sown at the end of June - July. You can, of course, sow in May, but then the daikon will bloom in the summer. For radishes and radishes, this would be a disaster, since the arrow takes away all the tenderness and taste from the vegetables. But the qualities of the daikon do not change during flowering: the roots remain juicy. But they stop growing, which is why the yield falls.
The optimal sowing time is from the third decade of June to the end of July. Soils should be light - daikon works best on peaty or sandy areas. In such conditions, root crops grow even as if they were picked. However, experienced gardeners successfully grow it on heavy clay, using a cunning technique: holes 0.5 m deep are made in the soil with the help of a hand drill and they are filled with sand or peat. Better yet, a mixture of sand and peat in a 1: 1 ratio. And only then seeds are sown in each hole to a depth of 2 cm.The distance between plants in a row is 25 - 30 cm, between rows - 60 - 70 cm.
How to plant seeds
To plant seeds in peat glasses, you need to add the previously prepared soil mixture. It should fill the containers to two-thirds of the total height. After that, the soil in the cups is poured with warm water and compacted.
In each pot, dimples are made for planting seeds. Many are interested in whether it is possible to deepen the grains of cucumbers. Seeds with deeper holes germinate much more slowly. Therefore, the depth of the holes should not be more than 1-2 cm.
When all the cucumbers are planted in cups, they should be covered with plastic wrap and transferred to rooms with temperatures above 20-25 degrees. The pots are opened only after the first shoots appear.
Experienced gardeners know to harvest only in dry weather. The daikon matures 1.5–2 months after planting. The root must be pulled out by the tops. First, the root crop should be set aside for a while along with the adhering soil. When it dries, this soil will be easier to remove. It is recommended to leave whole root vegetables in reserve, and those that have flaws can be immediately used for preparing salads and other dishes.
Remember that regardless of the timing of planting, even with proper care of the plant, people over 50 should first consult with a doctor before using daikon.