Carissa (Carissa) - belongs to the genus Kutrovye, which include several dozen varieties of dwarf trees and shrubs. As a rule, the growing area of a plant occupies a fairly large area. Carissa is found in Asia, Africa and Australia.
Description of the plant
The branches of the plant have thick, two-toothed thorns. They serve as a kind of protection, their length can reach about 5 cm. The arrangement of the leaves is opposite, the leaf blades are small oval, grow 3-8 cm long and are colored light green. Thanks to this feature, they stand out against the background of other greenery.
The duration of flowering can last throughout the season. The flowers of the plant resemble jasmine, but do not have the ability to exude the same heady scent. The five-petalled inflorescences are small, formed in the leaf axils and are pink in color.
Flowering ends with the formation of purple or black fruits that look like a plum. Their diameter is 1.5-6 cm. The sizes are determined by the parameters of the tree itself. Their value lies in the tender and juicy pulp, which smells like strawberries. Carrisa is often grown as a cultivated plant in many garden plots and produces a good harvest along with other fruit trees.
Popular types of carissa
There is a huge variety of varieties of carissa, each of which is characterized by a high ability to bear fruit. For example, the varieties "Fancy" and "Torrey Pines" ripen large and juicy fruits, and "Gifford" is one of the most productive varieties.
The breeders attached great importance to the branching property when breeding a plant. They set themselves the task of developing dwarf varieties of carissa, which will be used in the creation of landscape design as hedges or sculptures. The representatives of dwarf species include "Grandiflora". The plant is distinguished by its attractive appearance, short stature, abundant flowering and is considered one of the most popular varieties for growing at home, since it does not require special care.
Carissa care at home
Location and lighting
Karissa is a prominent representative of the Kutrovy family, therefore it is considered a light-loving plant. For growing in an apartment, the optimal room for a flowerpot will be a room with windows on the south side. If there are none, then you can put it on the windowsills of the east or west direction. Placing on the north side adversely affects the development of the plant, the growth of internodes is disturbed, which begin to stretch out intensively.
The optimum temperature for growing carissa in the summer is 18-25 degrees. In winter, it is advisable to keep the plant in cool rooms at a temperature of 14-18 degrees, which will ensure long and abundant flowering with the onset of the season. If additional artificial lighting is used, flowering and fruiting can be achieved throughout the year.
Karissa has the ability to tolerate temperature fluctuations well and withstand short-term drops of up to 3 degrees. The plant feels great on glazed balconies or loggias. Flower pots can be kept there from spring to late autumn.
It is necessary to observe regular watering, but avoid waterlogging of the soil. Karissa can go without water for a long time and is resistant to drying out of an earthen coma. Watering is required in moderation so as not to provoke soil acidification and decay of the root system. Water for irrigation is used only soft and settled during the day.
This parameter does not play a big role for carissa, since the tree easily withstands dry winter air, which is formed under the influence of heating devices located in the apartment. However, in order to improve the decorativeness of the plant, it is sprayed from time to time with warm water, and the foliage is cleaned of dust.
It is necessary to regularly prune the plant, since carissa is characterized by rapid growth and rapid overgrowth of shoots. Novice growers will have to try hard to cope with the strong branching of the tree and achieve a beautiful and neat crown shape. If we neglect the formative pruning, then after a while the carissa will fill the entire window sill. In this case, with its long thorns, it will cause inconvenience to the owners.
The carissa plant prefers a slightly alkaline environment. Sandy and humus soil types are often chosen as soil for planting. The roots are resistant to salinity. For cultivation, a purchased soil mixture or a self-prepared soil composition is used, which includes turf, peat, sand, humus and leafy soil. Each component is taken in equal proportions. A thick drainage layer is created at the bottom of the flowerpots to prevent root rot in case of stagnant water after irrigation.
Top dressing and fertilizers
For regular fruiting and flowering of carissa, it is necessary to fertilize every few weeks throughout the year. The most optimal and balanced fertilizer is considered, which contains a high amount of phosphorus, which ensures the maximum duration of flowering. Nitrogen fertilizers should be applied very carefully, as they stimulate the growth of foliage and shoots. In order to prevent chlorosis, iron chelates are sometimes added to water for irrigation.
Every year, with the onset of spring, young carissa trees need to be transplanted. Adult specimens are transplanted only once every few years. If you keep the plant in one place for a long time, then its growth slows down and the leaves become smaller. In order for fruits to form, artificial pollination must be carried out under conditions of home cultivation.
Reproduction of carissa
Karissa can be propagated both by seeds and by cuttings. Seed germination occurs within two weeks, but the first shoots then stop growing. A plant grown by a seed method begins to bloom only in the second year of life.
For cuttings, small pieces of apical shoots are chosen, on which three internodes were located. Rooting of cuttings is slow, but if they take root, then you can expect flowering next year. The ideal conditions for the development of roots are equipped mini-greenhouses, which are filled with a soil mixture consisting of peat and perlite. In water, as a rule, cuttings rarely develop roots.
Diseases and pests
Karissa is resistant to any disease. One of the most common diseases is the defeat of the plant by root rot, which is caused by excess moisture.
Among the pests there are spider mites, thrips and scale insects. If traces of infection are found, the tree is carefully washed with warm water, and the leaves are treated with special compounds.
Home-grown carissa fruits are equally tasty and healthy. They can be used for food, prepare salads, jellies, add to cocktails. However, the fruits are considered edible only after they are fully ripe, and all other vegetative parts of the plant are poisonous, therefore, when consumed, they can cause a serious dispatch.
Carissa grandiflorum bloom 2017
Although caries is called "room plum", it has nothing to do with a real plum. This is a completely different plant, however, with fruits very similar to plums.
If our common plum belongs to the pink family, then Karissa belongs to kutrovyegrowing in the subtropics and tropics of Australia, Africa. These are highly branching evergreen shrubs or trees up to 10 m in height.
Carissa twigs are covered with tough, dark green, waxy, oblong and pointed leaves up to 8 cm in length, as well as numerous sharp and long thorns. Due to its unpretentiousness and ability to grow rapidly in warm countries, this crop is often used to create hedges.
For food - only fruits!
In the Russian climate, caries can only grow in indoor or greenhouse conditions. Temperatures below 6-8 ° are fatal for her. Since the bushes of the culture are 6-8 months old, they are dotted with cute white or pink flowers with five petals (up to 5 cm in diameter) a year, the plant is also used for decorative purposes. Moreover, the flowers are pleasantly fragrant, their aroma is similar to jasmine.
Shoots, leaves and roots of carissa are poisonous, but the fruits are edible. They are oval, up to 6 cm long, when mature they are (depending on the variety) red, purple or black. Inside they have juicy tasty pulp and up to 16 flat-shaped brown seeds.
I learned about caries quite by accident - from a TV show. The seeds, surprisingly, were easy to find - in one of the flower shops. There were 4 pieces in the bag. I soaked them in warm water for a day and sowed them in a pot with a moist substrate of peat, coconut fiber and perlite (2: 1: 1), deepening them 0.7-1 cm. I chose a ceramic pot for sowing.
Drainage from broken bricks was laid at the bottom. Then she covered the pot with glass and put the pot in the warmth. Every day the sowing was aired and periodically moistened. After a week and a half, 3 seedlings emerged. Considering that there were only 4 seeds, I think this is a good germination rate.
Reproduction of carissa
It is carried out by cuttings and air layers, less often by seeds.
Apical semi-lignified cuttings are rooted in August-September at a soil temperature of + 4 ° C. When using rooting hormones (Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Zircon), cuttings root quite easily in a mixture of peat and perlite. Rooting in water is problematic, the stem can rot. Sometimes, to speed up the formation of roots on the cuttings, it is recommended to first split the bases of the cuttings and leave them on the plant for about 2 months. And only then finally cut them off and root.
Carissa is also propagated by seeds, which germinate very well within about 2 weeks.
Genus Karissa (Carissa) belongs to the Kutrovy family (Apocynaceae) and has 8 types. The natural habitat of these plants covers the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Oceania.
Carissa - the Latinized form of the Indian folk name of this genus.
These are evergreen shrubs or small trees that contain white milky sap. Branches are often dichotomously branched, with simple or bifurcated spines. Leaves are opposite, without stipules, beautiful, shiny. The flowers are white, fragrant, clustered 1-5 in apical scutes or racemes, have a cylindrical tube and a flat star-shaped limb. The bend lobes are curved, overlapping to the left or right. Fruits are oval or ovoid, decorative and edible, from scarlet to crimson. The seeds are disc-shaped or flattened-elliptical, velvety.
Different types of carissa have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases such as headache, rheumatism, edema, gonorrhea, syphilis, and rabies.
In room culture, there are 2 types:
Karissa large-fruited (Carissa macrocarpa) synonym Carissa grandiflora - native to the coastal regions of South Africa.
These are shrubs or small trees up to 5 m tall. Spines are solitary or forked, 2-4 cm. Leaves are broadly ovate, 2.5-7.5 cm long and 2-5 cm wide, thick, leathery, glabrous, rounded or obtuse at the base, pointed at the apex, with indistinct lateral veins. Inflorescences are terminal, cymoid, 1-3-flowered. The flowers are fragrant. Sepals are very narrow, ovoid, 3-6 mm. Corolla white or pink, tube 1.1-1.8 cm, pubescent corolla lobes are oblong inside, 0.9-2.4 cm, overlapping to the left. Berries from bright red to purple, ovoid, 2-5 cm, contain up to 16 flat seeds.
Cultivated for its edible fruit, it is often referred to as the room plum. When fully ripe, the fruit is edible unprocessed. The peeled fruits are used to make jams, syrups, jellies, sauces, puddings, etc.
There are decorative forms:
- Desert Star - a small compact shrub with rounded shiny green leaves. The flowers are white, star-shaped, with a sweet aroma. Drought tolerant and extremely hardy plant.
- Humphreyi Variegata - compact dense shrub up to 1.5 m tall, with foliage covered with yellowish-white patterns.
- Variegata - up to 1.8 m in height, with foliage having an uneven creamy-white edging.
Karissa pencil (Carissa carandas) - originally from India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
Strongly branched evergreen shrub 3-5 m high, with numerous branches dotted with sharp thorns up to 5 cm long, forming a dense crown. Branches are dichotomously branched, spreading, glabrous, with spines 2-2.5 cm long, thick, mostly straight, sometimes bifurcated. Leaves broadly ovate, 4-8 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, leathery, young - with pink median veins, solid along the edge, rounded or slightly depressed at the base, notched at the apex. The flowers are white, often with a pink tinge, 2 cm in diameter, bracts are subulate, pubescent, the peduncle is pink, 1.2-2 cm long. Calyx 5 mm long, pubescent, with linear lobes. The corolla tube is cylindrical, naked, swollen and pubescent at the apex, 1.5-2 cm long, the limb lobes are white with a pink tinge, overlapping to the right in the bud, lanceolate, sharp. Fruits 1.25-2.5 cm long, spherical, ovate or elliptical, when ripe white with a red tint, then purple-black, with milky juice, containing 4-8 seeds.
Fruits are edible, very sour, sweet and sour when fully ripe. They are eaten fresh or stewed with sugar.
Karissa - gardening
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Karissa - gardening
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