Seed stratification at home - what is it, how to carry it out
In nature, seeds fallen from plants overwinter in the soil, and by spring their hard shell becomes softer and cracks under the influence of frost and moisture. Low temperatures and high humidity provoke the growth of the embryo, and it breaks through the shell in search of food and light.
In horticulture, there is an agrotechnical technique that imitates the necessary weather conditions and thereby accelerates seed germination. This technique is called stratification.
What does seed stratification mean?
Why stratification in culture, and what is stratification at home?
Stratification (Latin stratum - flooring, facere - to do) - This is a process that artificially creates winter conditions (cold and moisture), as a result of which there is an acceleration of seed germination and an increase in their germination. As a rule, stratification includes exposure of seeds to low temperatures: The seed of some plants must pass through the sleep of the embryo, otherwise it will not sprout.
In the Middle Ages, seeds were placed between two layers of moist soil to stimulate rapid germination and left in the open air. For now, it is enough to place the seeds with damp sand, vermiculite or a cloth napkin in a zipper bag and keep them in the refrigerator. The substrate should be three times more than the seed, and its moisture should be moderate - too much moisture can lead to too fast germination of seeds or the appearance of mold on them.
Timing of seed stratification
For the seeds of many trees, shrubs, and herbaceous perennials, artificial or natural seed stratification is mandatory, especially in the northern regions. The temperature for stratification of seeds should be from 1 to 3 ºC, and the period of such exposure for each plant, its species and variety is different - from several weeks to six months. For example:
Stratification period in days:
- for apricot from 80 to 150;
- for quince from 70 to 90;
- for cherry plum from 120 to 150;
- for barberry and honeysuckle from 75 to 90;
- for hawthorn and viburnum from 210 to 240;
- for cherries and chokeberries from 150 to 180;
- for walnuts from 50 to 80;
- for pears from 70 to 100;
- for strawberries from 20 to 30;
- for cotoneaster and rose hips from 75 to 90;
- for lemongrass from 90 to 120;
- for grapes from 120 to 140;
- for almonds from 50 to 140;
- for peach from 100 to 120;
- for plums, rowan and sloe from 120 to 180;
- for bird cherry, lilac, aconite, host and anemones from 30 to 50.
The stratification of flower seeds, such as clematis, bulbs, peonies, lavender, violets, phloxes, irises and other perennials, lasts 2-4 months, and if you are planning a spring planting of flowers such as delphinium, Chinese rose, lobelia, primrose or aquilegia, then their seeds must be exposed to cold and moisture for 3-4 weeks before planting.
Carrots, celery, onions, parsley, and other biennial vegetables require two to three weeks of seed stratification.
When sowing in winter, the seeds undergo natural stratification in winter.
Home seed stratification
Seed stratification at home is performed in several ways - cold, heat, combined and stepwise. What type of stratification corresponds to a particular culture and how to stratify seeds in an apartment?
For perennials of a temperate climate (stone fruits, pome fruits, some vegetable and flower crops) ending the growing season in the fall, the method of cold stratification is usually used. The seeds are kept at temperatures from 0 to 4 ºC at 65-75% humidity. The duration of the procedure is from one to six months. If the seeds are not stratified, they may not sprout during spring sowing. For crops such as sea buckthorn, honeysuckle and strawberries, seed stratification is not necessary, but desirable, since seedlings will be rare without it.
Heat stratification mainly affects vegetable crops - tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and eggplants. To awaken life processes in them, their seeds should be soaked in water at a temperature of 18-22 ºC. After staying in a humid warm environment for one to two days, the seeds of these crops are sown, that is, they peck.
There are crops, the seeds of which differ in toughness due to their too dense shell. For such seeds, a combined stratification is used to simulate weather conditions when the seasons change. Plants with tightly similar seeds include, for example, perennials such as viburnum, snowberry, yew, hawthorn, plum and apricot.
In order to soften the dense skin and awaken the embryos, the seeds are first kept for four months at a temperature of 20-25 ºC, and then they are stored for six months in a cellar or in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 to 5 ºC. As you can see, the process of combined stratification takes a long time, although for plants such as yew and maple, or rather, some types of maple, the heat period fits only 1-1.5 months.
The most difficult method of pre-sowing seed treatment is stepwise stratification. It consists of several cycles of seed treatment with alternating low and high temperatures. This is how the seeds of actinidia and some types of peonies are treated. And the seeds of aconite, aquilegia and primrose before sowing are kept in water at a temperature of 18 ºC for a week, placing them in the freezer every night until morning.
For seed stratification at home, both dry and wet stratification are used. Dry stratification is performed in the following order:
- The seeds kept for half an hour in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate are washed several times with clean water, dried, poured into a plastic bag and placed in the refrigerator, where they will be stored at a temperature of 0 to 3-4 ºC until sowing. You can put disinfected, washed and dried seeds in a plastic container, tightly cork it with a lid and bury it in the yard in the snow, and with the onset of heat, transfer it to the refrigerator before sowing;
- an excellent way is cold stratification of seeds in cabbage stumps of late varieties of cabbage. Remove the middle from the stump, fill the formed cavity with seeds, close the entrance with the rest of the stump and secure it with tape. Bury the stumps with seeds in the ground in an upright position to the depth of a shovel bayonet and leave a mark above them. In the spring, when the ground warms up enough to sow the culture stored in the stump, remove your treasure from the ground and sow the seeds.
Wet stratification is performed in two ways:
- sanding: carefully washed from organic residues, disinfected and dried seeds are laid out in containers filled with 2/3 wet substrate (sand, sawdust, moss or peat) treated with a solution of biofungicide (Trichodermina, Fitosporin or Alirin-B). From above, the seeds are covered with a layer of the same substrate. The containers are closed with a lid, placed in a plastic bag and stored in a vegetable refrigerator box at a temperature of 0 to 3-4 ºC. The condition of stored seeds should be checked periodically, moistening the substrate if necessary. The last couple of weeks before sowing, the storage temperature should be 1 ºC;
- strips of 30-35 cm long and 10-12 cm wide are cut from the fabric, a thin layer of cotton wool or moss is laid along in their middle, on which the seeds are carefully laid out. The edges of the tape are wrapped along the length so that they cover the seeds, after which the tape is rolled into a roll, tied so that the roll does not unfold, and this roll is lowered into the water. Then the rolls are wrung out, placed in a plastic bag and stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, from time to time checking if the seeds require additional moisture, and examining the seeds for the appearance of mold. If you find moldy, rinse, disinfect, dry the seeds and repack them.
Stratification of seeds of different crops
How to stratify cedar seeds
Pine nuts in very hard shells do not germinate well without stratification. To facilitate seed germination, pine nuts are placed for stratification in cellars, glaciers, refrigerators, in the snow, buried in frost-free trenches or pits.
Before stratification, pine nuts are disinfected for 2-3 days in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate - during processing, empty seeds float, and full-grain nuts after disinfection are taken out, mixed with raw sawdust or wet sand in a ratio of 1: 2, placed in a plastic bag, glass jar or a plastic box, tightly closed and stored at a temperature of about 0 ºC with an air humidity of 90-100%. The stratification of cedar seeds lasts 3-4 months, but sometimes it may take six months.
How to stratify pome seeds
Apple seed stratification at home is carried out in two ways - in a substrate and without it. For the stratification of seeds in the substrate, you need to fill a wooden box 15-20 cm high with well-washed river sand, then mix the apple seeds previously disinfected by the method described by us with sand in a ratio of 3 (sand) to 1 (seeds) and put in storage in a basement or cellar at temperature 3-4 ºC. Keep the sand slightly moist throughout the stratification, which can last for about 90 days.
Seed stratification without a substrate involves immersing the seeds placed in a linen bag for 2-3 days to swell in water, which is changed daily. On the fourth day, immerse the bag of seeds for half an hour in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate, then squeeze, rinse in clean water, squeeze out excess moisture again and hang the bag of seeds to dry. When the water stops dripping from the bag, remove the seeds from it, put them in plastic bags and store them in the conditions described above, stirring and moisturizing them once a week as needed.
Stratification of seeds of quince, pear and other pome fruit trees is carried out in the same way.
How to stratify strawberry and strawberry seeds
For strawberries and strawberries, fast seed stratification is used: when sowing, a layer of snow 2 cm thick is laid on top of the soil, and small strawberry or strawberry seeds are spread over the snow with a wet toothpick, without covering them or covering them with anything. The container with the crops is placed on the lower shelf of the refrigerator for 2-3 days - during this time the snow will melt and pull the seeds into the soil as much as necessary. After three days, the crops are placed on a light windowsill and covered with glass or transparent film.
There is another way of pre-sowing preparation - warm stratification of strawberry (strawberry) seeds. The seeds are laid out on a damp paper napkin, covered with another one, then this "sandwich" is rolled into a roll, placed in a plastic bag, tied or closed, leaving a little air in the bag, and kept in a warm place for 24 hours.
How to stratify conifer seeds
The stratification of pine (cedar) seeds is carried out in peat - it is pre-soaked in water, then squeezed well and placed in a layer in a small plastic container. The disinfected seeds are spread on the peat, covered with another layer of peat on top, the container is closed with a lid and placed in the refrigerator until sowing.
The stratification of spruce seeds is carried out in the same way, and the stratification of thuja seeds is a simplified process: a week before sowing, the seed is kept for two days in cool running water (it is most convenient to put them in a bag of gauze and lower it into the toilet bowl), and then they are placed wet on Refrigerate for 2-3 days, after which they are ready for sowing.
How to stratify clematis seeds
Large clematis seeds are best sown before winter, right after harvest, but keep in mind that some seeds germinate for a very long time - about 500 days. Therefore, it is better to stratify them and sow in spring. The seeds are mixed with a moist substrate of equal parts peat and sand, and kept for three months at a temperature of about 5 ºC - in the refrigerator or in the snow in the yard. Be aware that large seeds can become prey for rodents.
The stratification of medium-sized clematis seeds is carried out within one month: first, they are soaked for 1-2 days in water, which is changed at least once every three hours, after which the seed is bubbled - lowered for a week in water saturated with air using an aquarium compressor.
Before sowing, small seeds should be simply soaked in water for 24 hours.
How to stratify grape seeds
Stratification of grape seeds begins 35-40 days before sowing: after disinfection, they are mixed with an equal volume of well-washed sand, placed in a layer no thicker than 6-7 cm in a container and placed on stratification at a temperature of 3-5 ºC for 20-25 days ... After that, the container is transferred to a room and the seeds are germinated for 5-6 days at a temperature of 25 ºC, preventing the seeds and substrate from drying out. Seeds that crack are sown immediately.
How to stratify lavender seeds
Small lavender seeds are laid out on a cotton pad moistened with boiled water and covered with another moistened disc, then placed in a zipper bag wiped with hydrogen peroxide from the inside and placed in a vegetable drawer of the refrigerator, where the temperature is approximately 5 ºC. The stratification of lavender seeds lasts for two months.
How to stratify honeysuckle seeds
Honeysuckle seeds do not require mandatory stratification, however, it is still desirable to carry out pre-sowing treatment. The stratification of honeysuckle seeds is carried out within 1-2 months by the method of sanding, a description of which we gave at the beginning of the article.
How to stratify walnut seeds
Some gardeners insist that walnut seeds should not be stratified before spring sowing, but simply soaked. Walnut seeds are stratified within one to three months, and seedlings after processing appear in 2-3 weeks, and seeds soaked for 2-3 days germinate not earlier than after more than three months. But you can experiment with both options.
Walnut seeds are stratified in wet sand: nut seeds with thick shells are kept at a temperature of 5-7 ºC from mid-January for three months. The period of stratification for thin-skinned nuts is 1-1.5 months, otherwise they begin to rot, and it is necessary to keep them in the sand at a temperature of 15-18 ºC, therefore they are placed for stratification later.
How to stratify persimmon seeds
After disinfection, persimmon seeds are placed between two layers of wet sand or peat, placed in a plastic bag and kept at 5 ºC. The stratification of persimmon seeds lasts from 2 to 3 months.
How to stratify linden and maple seeds
Before sowing, linden seeds are kept in water at room temperature for a week, changing it every other day. Then the seeds are placed in a container with wet sawdust or sand (1 part seeds per 3 parts substrate), a little peat is added to improve air circulation, covered with a lid with holes and placed at a temperature of 1 to 5 ºC. Stratification of linden seeds takes two to three months, but if the seeds have not sprouted two weeks before sowing, move them to a room with an air temperature of 25-30 ºC, moisten and stir daily until they begin to peck.
Maple seed stratification can take up to 4 months.Put 20-30 disinfected maple seeds in a small plastic bag with a lock, add a handful of vermiculite moistened with a fungicide solution, remove most of the air from the bag, then close the bag and place it at a temperature of 1 to 5 ºC. Check the condition of the seeds weekly, removing condensation or, conversely, slightly moistening the drying substrate. If some seeds develop mold, remove them and adjust the humidity of the environment in the bag. Once the seeds have sprouted, they are ready to be sown.
How to stratify delphinium seeds
Delphinium seeds are stratified by wet method in strips of fabric. The method was described in detail at the beginning of the article. Rolls of cloth with seeds inside should be covered with damp moss, folded into a container and placed at a temperature of 5-6 ºC for a week. At the end of the period, the rolls are unrolled to check the condition of the seeds - they should swell by this time.
However, if you find small white shoots on some seeds, they will have to be sown immediately, and the rest should be placed in cooler conditions. The fact is that such sprouts almost always break off when sown, and you will in vain wait for these seeds to sprout.
How to stratify aquilegia seeds
Aquilegia seeds are stratified in two ways - cold and warm. With cold stratification, seeds disinfected in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate are placed in a container with a moist substrate and then put in a refrigerator for a month at a temperature of 5-7 ºC. With thermal stratification, seeds are kept wet for a month at 35 ºC.
How to stratify rose seeds
Disinfect the seeds of roses freshly extracted from the fruits, washing them for 20 minutes with a sieve in hydrogen peroxide. Then the seeds are placed on a substrate moistened with a solution of hydrogen peroxide, capable of retaining moisture - cotton pads, tissue napkins or paper towels. Cover the seeds with the same pad on top, and roll the tape, place in a bag or container and store in the vegetable section of the refrigerator at 5-7 ºC. The stratification of rose seeds takes about two months, during which time the seeds need to be ventilated and the material in which they are wrapped should be moistened as necessary.
If you understand the general rules of seed stratification, then you will not have to ask for advice on this issue every time. And if you back up your knowledge with experience, you can give advice on stratification yourself to less experienced gardeners.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Information about Garden Plants
Sections: Garden plants Garden plants Growing seedlings
Literally this term means "making a layer" (from Latin). Previously, it was understood as laying layers of plant seeds and sand.
This arrangement allows you to get uniform seedlings. Stratification of seeds now means mixing them with sand or other substrates. What is it used for and how is it performed?
Stratification - the method of keeping poorly germinating seeds with a long dormant period in a moist substrate (sand, peat, vermiculite) at a low temperature or under snow. This method allows not only to increase the germination of seeds, but to accelerate their germination.
This can be a basement, a balcony, a refrigerator, a plot of a vegetable garden with a high snowdrift, a greenhouse. In regions with warm winters, cold-resistant plants can easily grow in the open air, protected from the winds. Boxes and containers must be marked: they write the name of the plants, the number of seeds, the term stratification.
Self-collection of aquilegia seeds and their selection for sowing
If you want to collect seeds from aquilegia yourself, then it is better to plant varieties at a considerable distance, not to mix in compositions, since they are very easily pollinated and crossed. If you collect seeds in decorative compositions and flower beds, then you can control the varietal purity of aquilegia by preventing natural pollination - by tying gauze isolators and self-pollination of flowers with a brush (you need to rinse and dry it after each pollination).
The collection of aquilegia seeds is usually carried out in August, before they wake up (it is better to dry the seedlings in room conditions). With a slight pressure on the sides of the "boxes", the seeds easily wake up. Tying allows you to prevent this process. If it is not possible to sow seeds directly into the soil, then they are stored at a low temperature.
It is advisable to sow aquilegia seeds as fresh as possible. The seed life is limited, even after several months, the harvested seeds will need to be stratified. When buying aquilegia seeds, you need to carefully study the collection time and storage conditions, try not to buy seeds older than 1 year, even if you really like the varieties.
The maximum shelf life is 5 years, seeds older than 2 years are difficult to force to sprout, but with proper sowing, strong seedlings can be obtained from them. Aquilegia is popular and affordable, there are a lot of seeds on sale, you just need to choose a reliable manufacturer. It is better to select mixtures and varieties to your taste.
Aquilegia seeds. © naturesurrounds
Tips for growing a cedar seedling at home from seed
Siberian cedar is a symbol of health and strength, a tree of life that you can try to grow at home. Growing a cedar from a nut is not as difficult as it seems. First you need to purchase planting material: it is desirable that it be a whole cone with large scales - the seeds are stored in it better. It is important that it is fresh, of a new crop, without mold or foreign smell: such buds are sold in the fall, from the end of September. Roasted or dried pine nuts are not suitable for this purpose - the embryo dies at high temperatures. It is better to find a reliable seller in advance. You should not buy cones in places where cedars definitely do not grow.
To extract the seeds, the cone must be scalded with boiling water - then it will open. From the remaining scales, you can prepare a healing tincture or decoction, which are used to treat many diseases.
Pros of winter crops
- strong, vigorous, healthy seedlings, resistant to diseases, pests and adverse environmental conditions. In this offspring in the fall, choose mother plants from which to collect full-fledged seeds.
Sowing in the snow, photo of the website dljadachnikov.ru and smelly hellebore, not afraid of snow: neither plants, nor its seeds
- saving precious spring time for other flower and vegetable crops, the sowing of which cannot be transferred to autumn-winter
- reducing the amount of stratification at home
- the number of seedlings decreases, as a result we save our energy, time and space on the windowsills
- earlier seedlings (at least 2 weeks) compared to spring sowing
- flowering occurs earlier (at least 1-3 weeks). But not always, the exception is many perennials, the germination of which is much better during winter sowing, but they bloom in the second year.
Practical advice. If in the spring you cover the places of perennials sown before winter with foil, they will begin to bloom at the end of summer.
How long does it take to stratify
Seeds of different breeds require different duration of stratification at a low positive temperature, the period depends on:
- type and depth of seed dormancy
- temperature conditions (with significant fluctuations, stratification is less successful)
- the growing conditions and the state of the mother plant from which the seeds were collected (the healthier the specimen and the more comfortable the conditions for growth and development for it, the more benign the seeds, therefore, the more effective temperature pre-sowing treatment)
- the shelf life of the seeds (the longer it is, the longer it will take to awaken), and so on.
Seeds are stratified for a long time with deep rest period and solid covers. For them, a 2-stage stratification is used:
Stage 1 - at a high temperature of +17 ° C. + 20 ° С (while the hard covers are softened and the internal processes of the seed are stimulated)
Stage 2 - low positive temperature +1 ° С. +2 ° C removes the embryo from a dormant state.
The introduction of the first stage shortens the period of cold stratification. Below is the duration of the two stages for the seeds of some tree species (in days):
- hawthorn, rosehip: 25-35 and 120-140
- cotoneaster: 35-50 and 200-220
- low almonds and blood-red dogwood: 30-40 and 65-80
- euonymus and linden: 10-15 and 120-130
- ash: 40-60 and 120-125
- viburnum: 65-75 (at +20 ° C. +25 ° C) and 90-100 (at +5 ° C. +8 ° C)
- common hazel: 25-30 (at +20 ° C. +25 ° C) and 120-150 (at +1 ° C. +2 ° C) or 60-70 (at +5 ° C. +8 ° C)
- tree hazel: 25-30 (at +20 ° C. +25 ° C) and 80-100 (at +1 ° C. +2 ° C).
For certain rocks, it is better to add a warm stage at the end of stratification. So, the seeds of elderberry and mountain ash are initially kept for 110-120 days at +5 ° C. +8 ° С, and then 10-15 days - at +17 ° С. +25 ° C.
Some practices contain rowan seeds at varying temperatures: 7 days at + 12 ° C, then 7 days at +1 ° C. +2 ° С and so on. 5-7 days before sowing, they are brought into a warm room with a temperature of +17 ° C. + 25 ° С, so that they bite.
The low positive temperature of stratification can be different and significantly affect the period of the process. See for yourself:
- at +1 ° C. +2 ° С for seeds of the western frame, juniper, oak, clematis - 180-200 days, and at +5 ° С. +8 ° С - 90-120 days.
- seeds of honeysuckle, irgi, barberry, golden currant at +5 ° С. +8 ° C needs 50-60 days, and at +1 ° C. +2 ° С - 90-120 days
- at +1 ° C. +2 ° С to the seeds of the ginnal maple - 60 days, since the pseudoplatanus - 90, since the field - 180, and at +5 ° С. +8 ° С the period is shortened by 30-50 days
- at +5 ° C. +8 ° С for sea buckthorn seeds - 90 days, and at +1 ° С. +2 ° С - 180-200 days.
Siebold's hard nut shell, o. black, oh. gray and others splits at the seams without exposure to high temperatures, so they only need a low positive temperature of +5 ° C. +8 ° С for 2-4 months.
Tree seeds with shallow dormant period prepare for germination at a low positive temperature for a shorter period of stratification:
- at +1 ° C. +2 ° С privet, lilac, holly mahonia, Amur grapes, bird cherry and others - in 50-60 days, and at +5 ° С. +8 ° С the period is halved
- at +1 ° C. +2 ° С the seeds of the loch undergo stratification in 120 days, and at +5 ° С. +8 ° С for 80-90, and at +12 ° С. +15 ° С - in 30 days.
Seeds of Lankaran acacia, Canadian bunch, gorse, shrub caragana, bladderwort and others are prepared at + 17 ° C. +22 ° С for 30 days.
We continue stratification until signs of seed germination appear.
How to tell if seeds are ready to germinate
- shell cracking
- full release from the shell
- increase in seed size
- the appearance of outgrowths from the side of the root.
Seeds ready for germination at a temperature of +17 ° С. + 25 ° С are able to germinate within 2-7 days.
Axiom. In the spring, it is better to sow naklyuvshuyu seeds, which give more friendly and strong shoots. If, 10-15 days before sowing, stratified seeds of any tree species have not grown, then they are germinated at high temperatures, for example, in wet gauze on a saucer.
Dionea is an unusual houseplant, which many growers consider a living organism. The fact is that the Venus flytrap (the second name of a tropical plant) eats insects perfectly, and this cannot but arouse the interest of others. But is it so easy to keep this exotic at home and what is worth knowing about growing a plant from seeds on your own - you will learn more about this later.
- We fill a new pot with the prepared substrate.
- We carefully remove the plant along with the soil from the old pot, trying not to slam the traps.
- Thoroughly shake off the soil from the roots, while making sure that the dirt does not get on the leaves.
We make a recess in a new pot, place the roots of Dionea in it, straighten it and fill it with soil, slightly tamping it.
We water with Epin-extra solution, which will help the plant to more easily endure the stress from the transplant.
The drug is diluted in distilled water, 1 sachet is designed for 5 liters.
Country tricks and reviews on growing strawberries from seeds
There is another trick on how to plant seeds directly into open ground. I learned about this method in one of the videos on YouTube. This method consists in the following. In the garden, a site is selected, which is covered from above with rotted compost or nutritious soil. And on this nutritious surface layer, strawberry seeds are sown.
Cover the top with a transparent plastic cake cover. On top of the cover you need to live a small pebble so that the tire is not blown away by the wind.
This method is good because there is always good lighting under the lid, the necessary humidity and temperature are maintained. But the most important thing is that the seedlings grow strong under such a shelter, because they receive a lot of sun. And they grow at a certain temperature, as it should be in nature, and the nighttime temperature drop allows it to harden and this has a good effect on the development of the plant.
And more about the secrets of growing strawberry seedlings from seeds, see this video.
I plant, third year. Last year I planted it in January, in the second half of the summer they were with berries. This year I planted it in March, maybe there will be berries in the fall, maybe not. Moreover, the strawberries planted according to all the rules - stratification and everything else - sprouted poorly, but simply planted rose well. I will not dance with her anymore - what grows up will grow up. I really like the remontant strawberry - all summer and autumn there are berries, unlike strawberries.
I didn’t dance with strawberries this year either.
On February 12, I moistened peat tablets with hot water, threw the seeds into a container under the lid. Five days later I looked: the seeds began to bite. The germination rate is 90 percent, I didn't expect that much ...
Sowed by Baron Salemacher, Alexandrina and Cinderella.
That year I grew a wagon and a small cart of remontant strawberries. I sowed it in January - it is still in the freezer. Kan-kan variety. Not large, but a lot of berries. True, I have not yet seen how she overwintered, tk. Spruce branches were not raised - it was still damp there.
As far back as I can remember, my mother and grandmother sowed strawberries. They rarely bought seeds, more often from their own dried berries. It is best to sow from the first, largest dried berries, directly into the beds. In the middle of summer, we make nursery-greenhouses in the beds - we cover with glass on sticks.
They hibernate in the same place, but no longer covered. We do not dive. We plant the next year in the beds in small bunches. Just like in January, those planted, bear fruit for two years. The more convenient the January disembarkation: There are no seedlings on the window)), it survives frosts well in the year of transplantation, because has already wintered.
What else is good with the repair of strawberries - it ripens every week, but at least some week will be warm and sunny and it will have time to fill up with taste and sweetness. But you have to vomit every week, otherwise the new strength will not be enough.