Promising varieties of gooseberries and currants - Vitamin berries - 2
What varieties of gooseberries and currants will delight the owners of garden plots with the harvest Leading experts on currants at VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina is the head of the department of berry crops - Tatyana Vladimirovna Zhidekhina and a variety specialist Olga Sergeevna Rodyukova. Thanks to their work, at present the Institute has collected and is studying the richest collection of species and varieties of currants.
Our own highly productive varieties have been created, which have found their application not only in the Black Earth Region, but throughout Russia. For amateur gardeners, the following black currant varieties are offered: Green Haze, Kipiana, Little Prince, Tamerlane, Chernavka, Minx, as well as red currant varieties: Viksne, Jonker van Tets, Smolyaninovskaya. Based on the results of many years of research, specialists have proposed and introduced into industrial gardens a group of black currant varieties: Openwork, Green Haze, Temptation, Kipiana, Little Prince, Selechenskaya, Constellation, etc. Among the varieties of red currants for industrial cultivation, the following varieties are recommended: Bayana, Cream (white fruits), Vika, Viksne, Generous, etc.
The best time for planting currants is autumn. It is planted with two-year-old seedlings. Agrotechnology of currants is in many ways similar to gooseberries. It bears fruit for 2-3 years after planting, but it gives an industrial harvest for 4-5 years. Currant fruits are less transportable than gooseberries, but this does not lead to a decrease in their prices. In 2011, in Michurinsk, the cost of 1 kg of fruits of both black and red currants fluctuated around 100 rubles. Despite the wider prevalence of currants, its fruits are in great demand. This is due to the well-established system of their freezing and processing. In winter, on the shelves of supermarkets, there are often currant jams, juices, marmalades, wines, which are easy to prepare at home.
Promising varieties of red currant
Bred by the State Research Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops. A variety of medium early ripening. The bush is medium-sized, upright. Shoots of medium thickness, green. Berries with an average weight of 0.7-1.1 g of purple-red color. Average yield up to 16 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, anthracnose, weakly affected by powdery mildew.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Michurin. Early ripening variety. The bush is vigorous. Shoots are straight, dark brown. Berries with an average weight of 0.6 g of dark cherry color. Average yield is 10 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, powdery mildew, relatively resistant to anthracnose.
Jonker van Tets
Bred in Holland. The bush is vigorous, upright. Berries with an average weight of 0.6-1 g of bright red color. The average yield is 12-16 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, powdery mildew, anthracnose and spider mites.
Promising varieties of black currant
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. A variety of medium ripening. The bush is medium-sized, semi-spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.2-1.5 g of black-shiny color. Average yield is 10-13 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, powdery mildew, relatively resistant to kidney mites.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.3-2.2 g of black-shiny color. The average yield is 13-15 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to kidney mites.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. Berries with an average weight of 1.2-1.5 g are black. Average yield is 9-11 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to powdery mildew, damaged by kidney mites.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. A variety of medium late ripening. Berries with an average weight of 1.3-2.1 g are black in color with a slight sheen. The average yield is 12-13 tons per hectare. Resistant to low temperatures and fungal diseases.
Brought out GNU VNIIS them. A very early ripening variety. The bush is undersized, medium spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.2-2.5 g are black. Resistant to low temperatures, powdery mildew and kidney mites.
For gardeners of the North-West region from the named varieties of currants, varieties are suitable: red currants - Wiksne and Jonker van Tets; black - Green haze, Little Prince, Constellation, Chernavka, Minx.
The description of the varieties was prepared based on the materials of T.V. Zhidekhina and O.S. Rodyukova - Recommendations on the assortment of berry and non-traditional garden crops for the conditions of the Tambov region.
Dmitry Bryksin, Researcher of the Department of Berry Crops GNU VNIIS them. Michurina, candidate of agricultural sciences, member of ANIIR, member of the All-Union Society of Geneticists and Breeders
Photo by the author
Chapter 1. History and current state of horticulture
Chapter 2. Objects, methods and conditions of research.
2.1. Soil and climatic conditions of the Kirov region.
Chapter 3. Results of variety study of berry crops.
3.1.1. The timing of the onset and the heat supply of the main phenological phases.
3.1.4. The chemical composition of the berries.
3.2.1. The timing of the onset and the heat supply of the main phenological phases.
3.2.4. The chemical composition of the berries.
3.3.1. The timing of the onset and the heat supply of the main phenological phases.
3.3.4. The chemical composition of the fruit.
3.4.1. Timing of the onset and heat supply of the main phenological phases.
Blueberries, gooseberries, irga and currants.
Tired of dealing with gluttonous insects in your garden? Effective tools to help you!
Is this procedure as effective as it is commonly believed?
Do you want to harvest large and sweet currant berries? Choose the right varieties!
In order not to lose the currant crop, you need to timely protect the bushes from diseases and pests.
Doubt whether you need to cut the currants in the fall. We will convince you of what is needed and tell you exactly how.
There are a lot of currants on the bush, but the berries are so tiny that the whole crop can be folded into one mug? This is fixable.
We will tell you how to care for currants after harvest so that there will be a lot of berries next year!
To get a decent harvest of currants, several important work needs to be done right now.
The gooseberry bush in the fall looks so scary to even approach? It's time to put it in order so that next season you can safely pick berries.
Secrets of fertilizing under berry fields.
With the help of a multi-colored berry, we will make the site not only fruitful, but also elegant!
Do not make these typical mistakes - and your currant bushes will delight you with a good harvest of large berries every year.
Berry bushes are among the first to wake up. So, it is impossible to delay spraying currant bushes in the spring - diseases and pests are not asleep!
Closer to autumn, plants are depleted of nutrient reserves. How much fertilizer should be applied under berry bushes and when is it better to do it?
Timing table for pruning garden shrubs.
We tell you about the benefits and rules of planting currants in the fall.
List of black currant varieties most popular among gardeners.
It is not so difficult to grow a currant tree. It is only important to know how to properly form the crown of a plant. For everyone who loves experimenting in the garden, our master class.
What to wish if, instead of a good harvest, spots appeared on the black currant bush, and the leaves began to bubble? To help the plant correctly, you first need to learn how to correctly diagnose.
Never make these 7 mistakes when growing currants!
What varieties of red currants need to be planted in order to gain eternal youth and health, as well as enjoy the wonderful taste of fresh berries?
Currants are called "black pearls of beauty and health" for a reason. And it is not only healthy, but also delicious berry.
A selection of the best varieties of gooseberries without thorns.
Everything you need to know about growing gooseberries on your site.
A detailed instruction for the gardener on the protection of gooseberries and currants from all kinds of misfortunes.
Everything about planting gooseberries, starting with soil selection and ending with pruning a bush.
How to grow a wonderful hybrid of black currant and gooseberry on your own?
And how do you propagate currants: cuttings or layering?
How to increase the yield of currants several times? Prune the plant correctly every season.
Powdery mildew resistant blackcurrant varieties have long been a reality thanks to the efforts of breeders.
Have you noticed multi-colored spots on currant leaves? Are these single signals of nutritional deficiencies or signs of disease?
How to protect yourself from unscrupulous sellers and low-quality planting material when buying currant and gooseberry seedlings?
Learn when and how to prune gooseberries.
This article will help you identify the disease of red and black currants, as well as gooseberries.
We protect berry bushes from insects and ailments without the use of "chemicals".
2 common reasons for the formation of red spots on currants.
To your attention - the best varieties of gooseberries with amazing taste.
Description of the best gooseberry varieties for making delicious jam (+ recipe).
A selection of gooseberry varieties with descriptions and photos that are worth paying attention to the residents of the Moscow region.
We will tell you how to successfully grow white currants on your own plot.
We will tell you how you can feed berry bushes in the wettest season of the year.
Is it worth messing around with berry bushes in the fall, or will it do just that? We are looking for a definite answer!
Do you know what you need to do to make the currant branches bent under the weight of the berries?
This plant is beautiful in all seasons. Earlier in Europe, irgu was called "wine cherry". Why it's time to plant an irga on your site, read our article.
We have planted a blueberry bush and are waiting for berries, but they are still missing. We will tell you why this is happening, and list the mistakes that you could have made.
If the leaves on the currants are covered with red spots or begin to curl, then it's time to fight the aphids.
Learn how to protect your favorite berries from dangerous insects.
Promising varieties of gooseberries and currants - Vitamin berries - 2 - garden and vegetable garden
A well-groomed gooseberry bush can bear fruit for 30 years or more. Fruit buds of gooseberries are formed on annual growths and pods and, like black currants, they are mixed. Not only flowers develop from them, but also small replacement shoots with a fruit bud at the top. The next year, this fruit bud also produces flowers and a shoot. This growth feature leads to the formation of simple fruits in some varieties and, in the case of branching, complex ones in others. The formation of this type of fruit is a varietal feature.
Gooseberry pods live longer than black currants. Therefore, gooseberry branches bare more slowly and retain high productivity up to 7-8 years, and with good care - up to 9-12 years. On the same bush, the fruits that are in the worst conditions are less durable. Gooseberry shoots have thorns at the base.
Gooseberry leaves are three- and five-lobed with large denticles. Inflorescence is a raceme with one to three flowers. Sepals are green, yellow or reddish, petals are whitish. The flowers are bisexual, well pollinated with their pollen. The flower buds are mixed. Gooseberry vegetation begins in late March - early April, and in late April and early May, it blooms. Flowering lasts about 10 days.
The berries ripen at the end of June, the fruits are false berries of various shapes: round, oval, elongated, of various colors - yellow, green, dark purple with pubescence in some varieties. The average weight of fruits depends on the variety and ranges from 1.5 to 10 grams.
The gooseberry is fast-growing, quickly bearing fruit. The best varieties, with good care, have high productivity. The average berry yield reaches from 4 to 6 kilograms per bush, and the maximum is 20 kilograms. Gooseberries bear fruit regularly, but the number of berries fluctuates over the years, which indicates a certain periodicity of varieties, which, in turn, depends on careful and timely care of the plants.
Most gooseberry varieties are self-pollinating, but there are also unisexual varieties, which in bad weather, in the absence of summer insects, almost do not set berries. Gooseberry blossoms early, in unfavorable years, its flowers can be damaged by frost. They are readily visited by bees, and this contributes to an increase in yield. A feature of the gooseberry is the presence of thorns on the branches in most cultivated varieties. They come in less or more. Currently, the breeders of our country have bred low-thorn and thornless gooseberry varieties.
Gooseberry, like all berries, is picky about the soil, bears fruit well on fertile and structural soils. It is no less demanding on humidity conditions. Gooseberries grow poorly and bear fruit when there is a lack of moisture. Therefore, during the period of berry pouring, it is necessary to carefully water its bushes, especially in dry years, which increases the yield to 15-20 percent. But its growth is strongly inhibited on cold, excessively moist soils.
In addition, gooseberries need sufficient light to produce high, annual yields, although they tolerate partial shade well.
Biological features of currants and gooseberries
Currants and gooseberries are perennial berry bushes of the saxifrage family. By morphological and biological features, they are very close to each other. The currant grows in the form of a strong bush up to 1.5-2 m high. Depending on the variety, the bushes have a spreading or compressed (upright) shape.
Currant shoots are straight, of different strength of development. The leaves are three- or five-lobed, arranged alternately, their base is straight or with a slight notch. Black currant leaves (unlike red and white) have glands that emit an essential oil of a specific smell, so they are often used as a spice when pickling cucumbers. Fruit buds of currants are laid in the summer in the leaf axils. In the spring of next year, the buds give a flower cluster, from which the fruit develops.
The flowers of the currant are bell-shaped: in red and white, they are usually self-pollinating, in black, they need cross-pollination, since they are not self-fertile in all varieties. Fruits (berries) are rounded or somewhat elongated (in some varieties), collected in more or less long clusters.
The most popular are currant varieties with long, dense clusters and large berries.
Berries of black currant - black in different shades, red - red in different tones, white - whitish-yellow. The bulk of currant roots is in the soil at a depth of 10-40 cm and spreads 50-60 cm to the sides of the bush. Separate thick roots go 2 m and deeper into the soil, which makes the currant more resistant to temporary drought.
Currant buds bloom in early spring and are therefore sometimes damaged by frost. The flowering period for currants lasts about two weeks, depending on weather conditions.
The ripening time of different varieties of currant berries varies within 30-40 days, which makes it possible to extend the period of consumption of fresh berries.
Black currants are more moisture-loving than red currants. Therefore, under natural conditions, it grows in humid places (on the banks of rivers, along ravines), easily tolerates a slight excessive soil moisture. It reacts negatively to soil acidity and positively to liming, does not tolerate swampy and too damp areas.
Red currant is a more thermophilic plant, it does not tolerate shading and excess moisture in the soil, therefore it grows well only in warm, protected areas.
The gooseberry grows in the form of bushes up to 2 m high, its branches bear fruit well up to 7-8 years. The root system is fibrous. The bulk of the roots lies at a depth of 10-40 cm and spreads 50-60 cm away from the bush. Young shoots of recovery grow from the base of the bush from the buds located on the stem. In the following years, lateral ramifications are formed on these shoots: shoots of the second and third order, bearing the main crop. Shoots have thorns in the nodes, and in some varieties, thorns on internodes. Leaves 3 - 5-lobed, glabrous or pubescent, with denticles. Fruit buds are mixed. The flowers are bisexual, bell-shaped with five petals, five sepals and five stamens. Berries are round or oblong, yellow, green, purple or black, pubescent or without pubescence, with a large number of seeds.
Gooseberry vegetation begins earlier than other berry crops. Duration of flowering - 5-12 days, depending on the variety and weather conditions (temperature and precipitation) during this period. Gooseberry is a self-pollinating plant, however, with cross-pollination, the berry yield increases significantly.
During the flowering plantation gooseberry Various insects visit well: bees, wasps, bumblebees, flies carrying pollen, they contribute to cross-pollination of plants. Ripening of berries occurs in 1.5-2 months after flowering. If you plant on the site several varieties with different periods of fruit ripening, then you can get fresh berries within 40-50 days. Ripening of berries on the bush occurs almost simultaneously, only in the heavily shaded part of the bush it is somewhat delayed.
More details about agricultural technology, growing, planting and caring for currants can be found in the section "Currants", and gooseberries in the section "Gooseberries".
The recommended list of dissertations in the specialty "Breeding and seed production", 06.01.05 code VAK
Economic, biological and breeding assessment of new forms and hybrids of black currant in the conditions of the Bryansk region 2007, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Markelova, Natalya Vasilievna
Efficiency of black currant breeding for the creation of varieties with a high level of adaptation for the Central regions of Russia 2002, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Knyazev, Sergei Dmitrievich
Assessment of new Altai varieties of black currant in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Territory 2000, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Nazaryuk, Nadezhda Ivanovna
Phytosanitary monitoring of the main pathogens of the Ribes L. genus and isolation of resistance sources in the North-West region of the Russian Federation 2004, Candidate of Biological Sciences Shvedov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich
Source material of black currant for priority areas of breeding in the North-East of the European part of Russia 2004, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Plenkina, Galina Arkadyevna
Diseases of currants and gooseberries
Powdery mildew (spheroteka) The most dangerous diseases of currants are terry (reversion) and anthracnose... Different species and varieties have a certain degree of resistance to them.
Terry - mycoplasma disease. Its pathogens are found in the juice of diseased plants, so the disease affects the entire plant and partial or complete pruning of the affected branches does not help, the bush quickly loses its ability to bear fruit. Therefore, at the first signs of terry, the bush must be uprooted and burned.
The most characteristic signs of doubleness are acquired by flowers. The petals become abnormally narrow and small, often acquire a color unusual for the variety, the pistils grow strongly. They do not tie berries, and the whole flower cluster looks like a thin green twig with scales instead of flowers and berries.
On the affected bushes, instead of the usual five-lobed leaves, they become three-lobed and elongated, a large number of densely located branches are formed, the bushes thicken abnormally. The disease spreads with planting material if cuttings are taken from diseased plants.
Previously, terry was noted only not in black currants. In recent years, this disease has been found on red, white and even golden currants, which are considered resistant to many diseases and pests.
Anthracnose It mainly affects leaves that turn brown, dry out and crumble prematurely. Sick fallen leaves are the main source of infection in late May - early June. Later, conidiospores appear - sources of summer infection. Severe annual anthracnose infestation can lead to drying out of individual branches and even bushes.
Powdery mildew (spheroteka) - a dangerous fungal disease of many cultures. In currants, it affects leaves and shoots. At first, not young leaves form a light powdery bloom, which gradually darkens and becomes like a dense felt with small black dots (the fruiting bodies of the fungus). The diseased leaves and ends of the shoots curl up and gradually dry out. In winter, as a rule, such shoots freeze slightly. If the affected parts of the bush are not removed in time, the overwintered fungus will infect the leaves and shoots in the spring.
In gooseberries, powdery mildew in years with a cold and rainy growing season affects leaves, young growing shoots and ovaries, branches on thickened, thinned bushes, as well as vigorous young plants with excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers, especially suffer from it.
The disease proceeds in the same way as in currants. The tops of the shoots are bent, turn black, freeze out in winter. The berries dry up. In some varieties, the growth phases of shoots and ovaries, which are most vulnerable to spheroteca, pass quickly, due to which they do not get sick.
Most of the thornless and weakly thorny varieties with a strong waxy bloom on the berries are resistant to powdery mildew - Smena, Slaboshipovy 2, African, Kolobok, Northern Captain, Eaglet.