5 types of fertilizers that are best applied in the fall
The autumn replenishment of the land is considered an important component of obtaining a good harvest in the next season. That is why it is extremely important to understand what kind of fertilizers should be used in this case. This will be discussed further.
Do I need to fertilize the ground in the fall
Autumn is the best time to properly fertilize the soil in the country. The soil rests, and microorganisms have a chance to process nutrients more efficiently. This gives the gardener the opportunity prepare a land plot in advance to future plantings, freeing up time in the spring for more important matters.
In autumn, the soil in the beds is replenished with various fertilizers and their complexes. But sometimes it's just a waste of your energy. After all, certain trace elements decay and are lost during wintering. To avoid the irrational use of fertilizers, it is recommended to know what exactly is used in the fall and what in the spring.
It is worth fertilizing the soil not only for cultivated plants in the garden, but also for fruit trees and bushes.
What necessary substances can be used in the fall
Before the onset of a severe winter, the soil needs additional nutrition. In this case, you can do various complex dressings. It all depends on the raw materials used and the plant itself.
For fruit trees are recommended to make:
- humus or compost, which improves the structure of the soil;
- phosphorus and potash complexes, simultaneously with organic matter, are poured into the pre-trunk circle;
- ready-made store dressings, for example, "Fruit Garden", "Universal" and "Autumn";
- manure, which must be brought in in the autumn. Moreover, it is strictly forbidden to use fresh manure. It must "reach" for at least several years. Otherwise, you can damage the root system of the tree.
For potatoes the best option would be:
- straw manure, which, according to experts, can almost double the yield;
- nitroammophoska, nitrophoska and ammophos.
For bushes berry it is recommended to use:
- ash as a natural mineral complex;
- chicken manure, which is added as a solution in a ratio of 1:15. Mandatory after harvesting during the digging process;
- dolomite flour, which can significantly reduce the acidity of the soil. This fertilizer is used exclusively when necessary. There are also plants that like acidic soil.
Since the nutrient complexes change for various summer cottages and garden plants, it is best from the fall determine the place of disembarkation certain varieties. If this is not possible, you need to use universal formulations.
Most often, plants receive nutrients in solutions. Because in this case the digestibility is much better. Today there are a huge number of ready-made mineral complexes, for example, for a lawn, fruit trees and bushes.
It is important to pay attention to the mark “for autumn”. The peculiarity of this kind of compositions is that they must have in their composition minimum amount of nitrogen... After all, it provokes active growth and may not allow the plant to prepare for wintering.
Mineral fertilizers for autumn application must necessarily contain such trace elements as: phosphorus, potassium and calcium. They will allow the plants to prepare for lower temperatures and, in general, for the harsh wintering conditions.
Correct use of organics
Organic fertilizers for autumn use include:
- horse dung, characterized by a dense consistency. This allows you to keep nitrogen in the soil for a long time. During the winter, manure begins to soften, and only by spring will nutrients enter the soil. For each square meter of land, it is recommended to apply about 3 kg of fertilizer. Moreover, in the autumn period it can be used fresh. Whereas in the spring it is strictly forbidden;
- mullein considered the most popular fertilizer among gardeners. It allows you to saturate the soil with nutrients. And even raw mullein can be added in the fall. After all, the excess ammonia will come off with melt water. For each square meter of land there is about 5-6 kg. But most experts advise using mullein in the spring, since almost a quarter of the nutrients are lost during the winter. But first, you need to punch it at the end of summer;
- bird droppings considered one of the most concentrated fertilizers. Therefore, it is more difficult to apply it in summer and spring. It must be diluted and watered carefully as a solution, otherwise the foliage and root of the plants can be damaged. It is the perfect food for strawberries. In the fall, the droppings can be distributed undiluted for digging.
There are a huge number of synthetic fertilizers that can be used to feed the soil in the fall.
- fertilizers based on phosphorus presented in the form superphosphates are made without fail in the autumn. Since these substances are difficult to dissolve, they take time to dissolve and saturate the soil. For every square meter of land there are 50 g of superphosphate;
- phosphate rock most often it is applied simultaneously with manure, since it allows you to create optimal conditions for the transfer of phosphorus to the nutrient complex of the soil. But at the same time it is important to understand that calcium, which is part of the fertilizer, is not "to the liking" of all plants. The advantages include the natural origin of the composition. This is not chemistry, but an absolutely safe component;
- urea refers to nitrogen substances. But with the difference that it can be used in the fall. Since its amide form allows retaining nutrients in the soil until spring. It is important to carry out its correct use according to the instructions.
As folk fertilizers, you can use husk and cleaning... This is a harmless, environmentally friendly waste that will nourish the soil with useful microelements. Potato peelings should be prepared in advance. They are poured with very hot water and infused for several days. After straining, it is recommended to water the plants at the root.
Such folk fertilizers are best used in springtime. For planted crops only, every 10 days during the growing season.
How to fertilize the soil for digging
The most difficult thing is if it is necessary to fertilize clay and sub-clay soil. Since in winter the site becomes even denser and it is completely difficult for any plant to grow on it.
Such soil must be dug up without fail in the fall, while adding nutrients.
- for each square meter of land, you need about 3 kg manure... Moreover, the frequency of use is no more than once every four years. After digging, the fertilizer is evenly distributed around the plant. But it is important to ensure that the manure does not reach the roots. They may die;
- grass cut based on grass and weeds, it is laid out in the furrow to a depth of not more than 0.2 m, and then sprinkled with soil. If desired, you can make a couple of such interlayers, for example, to a depth of 0.1 m from the surface;
- fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium in the ratio of 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt per square meter;
- optimal use time siderates - fall. Wait for them to grow 0.1 m and you can dig them up along with the soil.
There are many fertilizers that are recommended for use in the fall. They can be combined, used alternately. It all depends on the set of nutrients and their compatibility. We have already talked about this, we hope that this information will be useful to you.
Fruit trees and shrubs - how to feed in the fall?
An important procedure for fruit trees is feeding. It favors the growth of the trees themselves and the growth of crops in the future. Shrubs and trees require much less nutrients than vegetables. This is due to the fact that the roots of shrubs and trees penetrate much deeper, where it is easier to get the necessary vitamins. For the garden, feeding is best done in the fall.
With the onset of autumn, the garden begins to prepare for winter. If top dressing is carried out on time, the root system of the trees will strengthen and the next year there will be a bountiful harvest. During the summer period when it was fruiting berries and fruits, there was a weakening of trees and bushes. All reserves of organic and mineral substances have been used up. Therefore, in the fall, they must make up for the lack of nutritional components, that is, they carry out the autumn feeding of fruit trees.
Time of work
Coniferous plants are fed 2-3 times a year, trying not to overdo it with fertilizers and the frequency of feeding.
This is necessary in the following cases:
- Lean, barren soil.
- Seedlings lagging behind in growth.
- Unfavorable weather conditions.
If the conifers develop steadily, give a normal growth, do not get sick, you can take your time with feeding. It is better to underfeed them than overfeed them. Too "stuffed" with fertilizers, seedlings lose their natural immunity and become more susceptible to diseases and pests.
For the rehabilitation of the injured and weakened after wintering conifers, fertilizers are applied in early spring. The next portion arrives at the end of July, in August. This helps the wood to mature before winter. The last feeding should be carried out no later than a month before the onset of frost.
If compost is used, you can limit yourself to a one-time application of top dressing.
Autumn fertilizers. How to fertilize correctly in the fall
Autumn fertilizers. How to fertilize correctly in the fall
Autumn is the time for finishing works in the gardens and orchards. Many gardeners have made sure from personal experience that applying autumn fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the quality of planting next year.
Let's figure it out what fertilizers should be applied in the fall, and which is better to refuse. And for what reasons.
Over the summer, the soil in the gardens has lost its nutritional properties to the maximum. Plants "pulled" from it the greatest amount of nutrients, so it is better to prepare the fertile layer in the fall. It is necessary to enrich it with micro and macro elements, organic compounds.
If the soil is clean from planting, perennial crops do not grow on it, and plants are not planted "for wintering", you can dig it up with the introduction of all kinds of fertilizers. Such fertilizers can be both compost, manure, and purchased granular fertilizers. The main thing is that the applied fertilizers are not washed away by autumn rains and spring melting of snow. For this, the fertilizers applied are dug up at least onto the bayonet of the shovel. You can add them in large quantities, because in the spring some part will still dissolve before planting. Although this is a big plus for applying fertilizers such as granulated chicken manure. Which, when applied in spring, can burn the roots of plants.
But you need to be careful with planted perennials, shrubs and trees. The introduction of fertilizers under such plants that do not correspond to the season can lead to their death.
It is strictly forbidden to apply nitrogen fertilizers for plants in the autumn. Nitrogen stimulates the growth of new growth on bushes, flowers and trees, which is highly undesirable in the fall. Young shoots will not have time to ripen, which means they will die in winter. The death of a part of a healthy plant can lead to various rot, the appearance of fungus and a decrease in immunity.
It is recommended to stop using nitrogen fertilizers from the beginning of August. Flowers, shrubs and trees will strengthen existing branches and prepare them for the cold winter months.
From granular fertilizers, it is recommended to choose phosphorus-containing fertilizers, as well as potash fertilizers. Potash can be added, both chloride and fertilizers that do not contain this element. During the season of autumn rains and spring floods, chlorine will have time to dissolve, and potassium will be well absorbed by plants at the beginning of the season. For the introduction of phosphorus, gardeners most often use double superphosphate. The phosphorus content in it is almost 50%.
Potassium and phosphorus help the root system of the plant to develop sufficient immunity to the winter cold, as well as to strengthen its aerial part. With the introduction of potassium from the end of August, the shoots have time to ripen, and firmly endure the winter.
Potassium can also be used in conjunction with magnesium. This fertilizer is called potassium magnesium... Perennial crops also need magnesium in the fall. But it is better to apply such fertilizer in liquid form, and strictly observing the instructions for use measures.
Mulch is considered the main autumn fertilizer with the maximum organic matter content. Well-rotted manure, compost treated with a solution called "Baikal-Em-1", sawdust, peat, straw, husks from sunflower seeds, pine nut shells, needles of coniferous trees are suitable for this. Each gardener chooses the mulch that is more accessible to him and is best suited for a particular crop. Let's talk about the most popular types of mulch in a little more detail.
Rotten manure ... They bring it mainly under the digging of the upper fertile soil layer. This helps the micronutrients to be absorbed faster. They are also scattered in an even layer along the near-stem circle of plants. It is important that the manure is well peeled, otherwise the roots of the plant will receive severe burns, which often lead to the death of the culture.
Manure brought in for digging, as well as laid on top, will gradually nourish the plant during the rainy autumn, maintain its strength during wintering, and give a good impetus to awakening in early spring. As, however, and other types of mulch. You should not get carried away with the introduction of such material along the near-barrel circle. It contains nitrogen, which is contraindicated for plants in the fall. Also, in contact with the branches or trunk of the plant, it can cause burns. It is not necessary to make such a top dressing annually, it is enough to use it once every 2 years.
Compost ... The most affordable of all types of mulch. Gardeners prepare the correct compost mainly according to this recipe: cut and dried grass is chopped. Then it is placed in a container (barrel, bath), moistened with a solution of "Baikal-EM-1", mixed. They let it stand a little (literally a couple of hours), put it in bags, letting the air out of them, tie it up. In this form, the compost is infused for a couple of weeks, after which it can be used. Such fertilizer should be applied after the soil has been well shed with water with the addition of the above preparation.
Compost can be made both from cut grass and from fallen leaves, for example, birch leaves. The advantage of fall foliage is that, unlike grass, they will definitely not have weed seeds. And then you don't have to fight the weeds. Also, birch compost gives a pleasant smell, unlike grass compost. It is better to make such mulch for digging.
Mulching of plants is very popular peat ... It is rich in organic acids. You can buy peat both in a gardening store and bring it from the forest. It is important to know that store-bought peat has already been treated against more parasites and weeds than hand-dug peat.
You can disinfect "wild" peat by sprinkling it for several days in the sun before using it. It is also important to remove all the roots of the weeds, if possible, so as not to suffer with them later. During the calcination of peat, many gardeners recommend spilling it with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. This is to disinfect the brought material. It is also worth treating with the previously described "Baikal" tool. In the fall, it is not necessary to use peat mulch for digging. It will be enough to distribute the material along the near-stem circle of plants. And in the spring you can already dig it up.
Sawdust and straw ... A very affordable material for creating mulch. So, for example, if straw can be bought for a small price, then sawdust on sawmills is usually given free of charge. It is recommended to mulch planting with these materials with a sufficiently thick layer. Usually it is about 10 centimeters. But with this type of mulching, it is important to remember that the lower layers tend to rot, infecting the plants themselves. Therefore, you need to adhere to some rules when using them.
First you need to treat the soil from various possible diseases. Fungal infections will primarily spread quickly under such a cover. Next, it is important to loosen the ground, let it dry a little, and re-treat it with an antiseptic. You can use copper sulfate or solution bordeaux liquid ... Then, in a thin layer, you can begin to mulch the earth, slightly mixing the mulch with the earth.
Next, you need to wait a day or two for the mulch layer to dry, and add a second layer, a little thicker. This layer, like the second, should lie down, dry out within a few dry days. When the bulk of the mulch is laid, before the onset of cold weather, you can start mulching the final layer. With this introduction of sawdust and straw, fungal infections will not multiply, but the larvae of parasites will suffocate.
Very helpful mulching the soil with pine nut shells ... The shell is rich in various micro and macro elements, tannins and various sugars. When mulching the soil with cedar shells, you can additionally not disinfect the soil, and not treat it against pests. Of course, this can be done, but by the way, this material itself has an antifungal and anti-harmful effect.
This mulch is probably one of the most useful. Rotting in such an environment is excluded, pests are also afraid of this material. Weeds do not germinate in such an environment. In addition to all the other advantages, pine nut shells also apply to decorative types of mulch. Most often used in flower beds. You need to bring it in with a layer of 5-10 centimeters. It is known that such mulch completely wastes its useful properties only after 5 years. But it is worth adding material periodically, annually, in small quantities. Among other things, when wet, the shell exudes a pleasant aroma and glossy shine.
No less popular with gardeners sunflower seed husks ... It allows moisture to be well retained; when embedded in the soil, it increases its air and water permeability. The main disadvantage of husk mulching is the factor that it is quickly blown up by the wind and can erode the water pressure during irrigation. Therefore, it is best to lay a layer of straw on it in the fall. In the spring, mix well the husk of the seeds with the manure.
You can mulch the soil pine and spruce needles ... This material will protect plants well from cold weather. They also scare off various rodents and other pests. Inexpensive and practical material. You can use not only needles for mulching, but also pine and spruce litter, or cones. These materials also contain useful substances, but such mulch does not retain water well, therefore it is recommended to lay a layer of fallen leaves under it. It is especially good to use this mulch for conifers, strawberries and strawberries, roses, rhododendrons, raspberries, blueberries and fruit trees.
Almost all mulching materials acidify the soil. Therefore, in the spring, it is imperative to do a test for acidity of the earth so as not to reduce its fertility. This can be done with special liquids, devices, or test strips that can be purchased at your garden store.
To reduce the acidity of the soil, use wood ash , which can be applied both in autumn and spring, the use of dolomite flour is also allowed.
We select fertilizers
Perennial crops are defenseless against weather conditions and climatic changes. Provided that the farmer takes care of his "fruit pets" trees, shrubs and other perennials will not have to be afraid of cold weather.
For berry crops in autumn
It is best to opt for plant or wood ash. Dolomite or lime flour is also used. Complex substances intended for shrubs with a sufficient content of potassium and phosphorus will also come in handy.
Demanding shrub for application and maintenance. It is almost impossible to achieve a good harvest without feeding. Humus is suitable for raspberries. Introduced for digging. Per sq. m. at least 3-5 buckets are used.
Bird droppings, mullein are suitable. Ash prevents overwintering insects from settling in the roots. Mineral dressings provide large berries, improved palatability.
It is forbidden to use fresh manure, as the substance burns out the root system.
For fruit trees and grapes
To increase productivity, improve the quality of fruits, humus, potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are applied. You can use the complex: Universal, Autumn, Fruit Garden.
For vegetable plantings
Often summer residents plan future plantings in advance, prepare places for them. After the completion of the field work, the determination of future plantings, the following is introduced for digging:
- straw manure
- dig up siderates
- ammophos, nitroammofosk or nitrophosk.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers that contain organic compounds. These include manure, mullein, bird droppings, compost, peat, ash, straw, green fertilizer, silt (sapropel), etc.
By its composition organic fertilizers are complex fertilizers, as they contain many macro and microelements. They are also a source of carbon dioxide, which plants need.
In recent years, many gardeners and gardeners are increasingly making their choice in favor of organic fertilizers... Organic has many benefits. Let's try to figure it out.
Manure... It is a highly nutritious organic fertilizer. Due to its dense consistency, it is able to retain nitrogen in itself for a fairly long time. For this reason, it is better to apply manure to the soil in the fall - before winter. After lying under the snow for several months, in the spring it will be an excellent nutrient substrate for the soil. It must be remembered that fresh manure must be applied only to free soil, on which nothing grows. For perennials and fruit trees, rotted manure is usually used. It should dry well and crumble in your hands when pressed. If there is not enough manure, then it is not applied to the entire area, but to the prepared holes, which then need to be dug in.
Mullein... This is cow excrement. There are several types of mullein depending on what was used as bedding for livestock. Depending on the options - hay, straw, peat or without bedding - the chemical composition of this fertilizer changes. Mullein is a very valuable and popular organic fertilizer among summer residents. In a fresh (not fermented) form, it is applied to empty soil in the fall, immediately after harvesting. Application rate - 4-5 kg per 1 sq. M. In spring, it is used as a liquid nutrient solution for fruit trees and garden crops.
You can prepare liquid cow dung like this: 1 part mullein and 4 parts water.
Dry mullein can be used to feed fruit trees and shrubs. To do this, it is scattered (and then buried) in the trunks of apple trees, plums, pears, gooseberries and currants.
Bird droppings... This is feathered excrement. Poultry droppings are arguably the most concentrated organic fertilizer. Its chemical composition is the richest in substances valuable to plants. Perfect for berry and fruit crops, flowers and vegetables. It has one drawback - if you use it ineptly - you can simply "burn" the plants.
Most often, bird droppings are used in the form of a chatterbox. To do this, 1.5 kg of dry bird droppings are diluted in 10 liters of water and left to ferment for 3-7 days. After that, the infusion can be applied with subsequent dilution. It is difficult to name a uniform rate for watering. Due to the high concentration of the solution, each plant has its own norm. When feeding with bird droppings, care must be taken that the solution does not get on the leaves of the plant. If this happens by accident, the plant should be watered, washing off the remaining solution from the leaves. I must say that all dressings poultry droppings should be carried out with subsequent watering in order to reduce the concentration in the soil and in order to wash off the accidentally ingested solution from the plants.
Bird droppings are also suitable for digging in the fall. The only requirement is that it must be embedded in the ground, otherwise it loses nitrogen in the air. If, when digging in the fall, bird droppings are alternated with superphosphate, then nitrogen is bound with phosphorus, and in this case nitrogen will not evaporate.
Compost prepared from a variety of organic materials. Various plant residues that are not affected by diseases and pests, as well as manure, bird droppings, and other materials are suitable for its preparation. All this is piled up on a litter of leaves and sawdust, alternating with layers of peat and turf. Periodically, the compost heap is moistened with water and mixed.
Many summer residents bring ready compost into the ground in the fall, before winter. To do this, it is dug up together with the ground. Some gardeners advise using compost as follows:
All weeds must be removed from the beds immediately after harvest. Further, without digging up the ground, cover it with a layer of compost, and then water it with any EM-preparation (preparations of effective microorganisms containing yeast, fungi, etc.) in accordance with the instructions. After that, it is necessary to loosen it with a flat cutter and leave it that way until spring. The soil prepared in this way is ideal for growing early vegetables (such as asparagus).
Applying compost to fruit trees helps to protect the root zone. To do this, a thick layer of compost is laid over the entire diameter of the trunk circle and left so until spring. In the spring, the soil is loosened, and the prepared compost well nourishes the plant roots.
Ash... An excellent organic fertilizer rich in minerals such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, iron, etc.
In autumn, it is useful to add ash to heavy clay soils. The heavy structure of such soils does not allow ash to be washed out in the spring when melt water melts. The usual application rate is 1 glass - per 1 sq. M. On an area with light soils, ash should be applied in spring, after melt water and rains disappear.
Ash is great for crops such as potatoes, eggplant, cauliflower, peppers, cucumbers, plums, currants, raspberries, pears and apple trees.
Many gardeners recommend bringing ash along with nitrogen fertilizers... Wood ash has the ability to deoxidize the soil and decompose organic matter better, and thus increases the delivery of nutrients to plants.
It has been noticed that seedlings and seedlings treated with ash take root better and get sick less. Also, ash introduced into the soil in autumn, due to the phosphorus content, increases the frost resistance of plants.
In addition to a source of potassium, ash is a good helper in the fight against certain pests. For example, the soil that you planned in the spring for planting garlic and onions should be generously powdered with ash in the fall. For the same purpose, winter onions and garlic can be processed, but in a lower concentration.
Many gardeners use this wood fertilizer when preparing compost. The addition of ash to each layer of grass, as well as food and plant waste (in a proportion of 10 kg per 1 cubic meter of compost), accelerates the process of converting organic matter into humus.
Herbal infusion - an excellent organic fertilizer. A weak herbal infusion can be used for frequent watering. Spraying with such an infusion is also effective. To prepare it, it is necessary to collect the nettle in a non-metallic (plastic or enameled) container and fill it with water.
As soon as the nettle begins to ferment, it must be stirred. The process of such fermentation in the sun will end in about two weeks, in the shade - a little longer. The resulting solution must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1 part of the solution to 9 parts of water. This herbal infusion is good for root watering. For spraying, the solution should be made in an even weaker concentration - 1 part of the solution to 19 parts of water.
This is great top dressing for all vegetables, with the exception of onions and garlic.
Some gardeners add other herbs during fermentation, for example, chamomile, tansy, etc. You can add some organic matter, for example, bird droppings or fish scales.
Mineral fertilizers have a simpler chemical composition, although they also contain a large amount of nutrients. Mineral fertilizers are of two types: simple and complex.
This division is very arbitrary, since any mineral fertilizer contains a number of additional elements that are in it in small quantities.
Complex fertilizer consists of two or three basic chemical elements, as well as a minor admixture of additional substances.
Unlike organic fertilizers, mineral fertilizers are distinguished by increased hygroscopicity and better solubility in water. That is why the storage conditions are more demanding. In order for the granules to not stick together during storage (and this is due to the fact that they quickly absorb moisture from the air), it is necessary to provide them with ideal storage conditions in a closed container. Some gardeners recommend using ordinary plastic bottles for storing mineral fertilizers.
According to the composition of chemical substances, mineral fertilizers are divided into:
- Nitrogen Potash Phosphorus Complex
Nitrogen fertilizers are designed to provide plants with soil nitrogen. The amount of fertilizer applied for each type of soil and for each plant is always different. It also depends on the climatic zone of the site. Light sandy and sandy loam soils are most in need of nitrogen. It is known that the richer the humus content in the soil, the better it is provided with nitrogen.
The richest nitrogen content is found in the young leaves of the plant. With growth, nitrogen "moves" to young leaves and shoots. That is why the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers is necessary at the stage of active plant growth. Correctly applied nitrogen fertilizers increase the yield and its quality.
An excess of nitrogen in plants causes abundant growth of green mass and delays the ripening of fruits and flowers.
Plants with a lack of nitrogen have light green leaves and are stunted.
Urea belongs to the class of nitrogen fertilizers. Its other name is urea. Despite the fact that the introduction of nitrogen in the fall is not encouraged, urea has the property of retaining nitrogen in the soil. Thanks to this, it does not wash out or weather out. You can fertilize the soil with urea in the fall together with phosphorus. You can use the following mixture:
- 1 kg of simple superphosphate 100 g of chalk 2 kg of urea
Superphosphate and chalk should be pre-mixed, and then add urea.
To use urea as fertilizer in the orchard, organic matter should be applied in parallel. You can use the following mixture for application under fruit trees:
- 5 buckets of manure 70 g urea 40 g superphosphate
Potash fertilizers... Potassium is one of the most important elements for plant growth and development. With a lack of potassium, there is a delay in the development of reproductive organs, the formation of protein in cells slows down. One of the characteristic features is a weak plant stem.
When feeding with potassium fertilizer, cell metabolism is enhanced and the plant tolerates drought more easily, as well as negative temperatures. The process of photosynthesis is accelerated, as well as increased resistance to disease.
Potassium is best retained by heavy clay soils. Peaty and light soils, as a rule, most of all need potash fertilization. Potassium dissolves well in water, so liquid potash fertilizer is the most preferred for the plant.
I must say that potash fertilizers always contain 1-2 more elements. This "additive" is of great importance, and the introduction of potash fertilizer for a particular crop depends on it. For example, potassium chloride, which contains chlorine, cannot be used for plants such as potatoes, grapes, cabbage, and onions. Those. for those crops that do not tolerate chlorine. For all vegetables, as well as berry bushes and fruit trees, it is preferable to add potassium-magnesium sulfate. Today there are several types of potash fertilizers, the composition of which must be studied before use.
Phosphate fertilizers... Phosphorus is the slowest dissolving element in soil. That is why superphosphates must be applied in the fall, so that during the long winter months it has time to dissolve and in the spring it reaches the plant roots. For plants, phosphorus is also needed as nitrogen and potassium. Phosphorus is the main source of energy. Some plants need it more, some less, but its complete absence is impossible for the full development of plants. With an insufficient amount of phosphorus, metabolic processes slow down, the plant grows worse and bears fruit. With a large deficit, the plant may stop developing and producing seeds altogether.
Lack of phosphorites can be determined by the appearance of the plant. For example, the leaves are painted first dark green and then purple. The shape of the leaves may change, and some may develop dark spots. If there is a concern that your plants are not enough phosphate fertilizers, you can correct the situation, and make them as soon as possible.
It is noteworthy that an excess of phosphorus fertilizers in the soil does not harm plants, since it is absorbed only in the right amount.
Phosphorus is part of various mineral oils. Tukey is a mixture of one-component fertilizers. Phosphate fertilizers constitute the main group of fertilizers, which must be applied in autumn.
Fertilizers such as simple and double superphosphate, as well as granular superphosphate must be applied in the fall in accordance with the recommendations indicated on the package. In parallel with phosphorites, potash fertilizers must also be applied to the soil. This combination is most favorable for soil nutrition. Today on the market you can find ready-made phosphorus-potash fertilizers.
Disputes about when to apply mineral fertilizers - in autumn or spring - have been going on for many years. Supporters of fertilization in the spring believe that soil preparation in the fall is pointless, because during the cold period, all the necessary substances will be washed out by melt water and rains. Their opponents argue that fertilizing in autumn significantly increases soil fertility, and both spring and autumn fertilization is necessary for the harmonious development of plants.
Terms of application of mineral fertilizers
Fertilizing the soil should be done gradually. Potash must be applied immediately after harvest. The area where you plan to plant root crops, vegetables and herbs next season must be fertilized with phosphorus. It is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers to the soil in the form of organic matter - manure or compost.
Autumn fertilization shrubs and trees should be carried out annually, regardless of the current year's harvest.
Fertilization for flowers is carried out in the middle of autumn. Dry fertilizers - organic, phosphorus and potash, are embedded in the soil, followed by loosening to a shallow depth of 5-8 cm. Then the area with the applied fertilizers must be well shed at the rate of 20-30 liters per 1 sq. M. For flowering perennials, it is undesirable to use potassium salt and potassium chloride. For them, it is better to use ready-made mineral mixtures.
At the end of November, the main fertilization is carried out. In the northern and eastern regions of the country, this period may be slightly earlier. Fertilizers are distributed in the soil at a depth of about 20 cm. It is undesirable to leave dry fertilizers on the soil surface, as this will lead to oxidation and weathering of the elements.
It is very difficult to calculate the rate for fertilization. To do this, you need to know all the parameters of the soil and plants, as well as the nuances of the climate. Therefore, it is best to use ready-made mineral mixtures, which take into account the correct proportions of all useful elements.
Complex fertilizers Are fertilizers containing several chemical components. As a rule, the proportions of chemicals included in each specific fertilizer are calculated for different horticultural crops. They should be entered according to the instructions.
Complex fertilizers have a number of advantages
- The optimal concentration of nutrients and the complete absence of potassium, chlorine and other unnecessary elements. The technology for the production of complex fertilizers is such that each granule contains the entire set of nutrients. The use of complex fertilizers ultimately comes out much cheaper than conventional fertilizers. Fast positive effect from application.
I would like to say a few words about lawn care... The lawn requires special attention, and timely fertilization is one of the requirements for good maintenance.
With the onset of autumn, the lawn often takes on a miserable look. In order to restore its decorative effect and prepare it for the next season, there are ready-made mineral mixtures on the market.
For example, lawn ferrule... This fertilizer contains an increased and balanced content of phosphorus and potassium, which are necessary for the autumn feeding of the lawn. It should be introduced in accordance with the instructions in September.
There are other types of fertilizers that strengthen the root system of the lawn, thanks to which it regains its decorative properties in the spring.
In conclusion, I would like to say that there are several basic rules, the observance of which is mandatory for feeding plants (not for fertilizing "empty" land):
- Only healthy, well-rooted plants are fed. The soil must be moist before fertilizing. It is advisable to choose the evening hours or a cloudy day for nutritious dressings. After nutritious watering, the leaves of the plants should be sprayed with clean water to wash off any accidental solution.
With regular fertilization, the soil accumulates humus and becomes darker in color. The soil becomes more fertile, and as a result - an increase in yield and flowering time.
Plants love feeding and respond readily to fertilizers. It is always important to apply them accurately, avoiding an overabundance of one of the substances in the soil content.
It is not difficult to calculate the rate, the main thing is to know what the soil is lacking, and depending on the crops growing on the site, add only the necessary components.
Mineral mixtures, with the right approach, will be of great benefit, and the harvest will delight the gardener. Now there are bacterial fertilizers that introduce the same microelements into the soil, but much more efficiently.
Chief editor and author of the site. An agronomist-vegetable grower by education, he graduated from the Agricultural University of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. K. A. Timiryazeva in 2010
My hobbies are experienced gardening and journalism. I like to read classics, my favorite author is F.M.Dostoevsky. My dream is to become the director of a large agricultural enterprise