Ways and methods of growing potatoes
At all times, the cultivation of agricultural crops has been one of the most important industries in any state. Therefore, the process of growing potatoes is of great importance. The quality depends on this, which includes taste, content of nutrients and vitamins, shelf life.
Growing potatoes: methods
Potatoes in bags, boxes or barrels
Method of growing potatoes in bags or barrels applies in areas with a limited amount of space... Such containers help well to save space, and at the same time get a fairly good harvest. This requires a barrel, box or bag without a bottom.
The technology is pretty simple:
- Previously, the bottom of the container is removed, and holes are made on the sides for the passage of oxygen.
- A container without a bottom is placed on the soil. Then lie down on the bottom of the container compost in a layer of 20 centimeters.
- The tubers are laid on the compost, and covered with a fertile layer of soil.
- After the potatoes have sprouted and the length of the shoots has reached 5 centimeters, they must be covered almost completely with a layer of soil. This should be done until the container is full. In this interval, one should not forget about watering and feeding.
In the same way you can grow potatoes in mounds, tower, waste basket and pit.
New method: under agrofibre or cardboard
Agrofibre helps to get an early harvest of potatoes in May. For this, a plot (a small one is also possible - in the country) is prepared for potatoes in the fall, dug up and applied organic and mineral fertilizers.
In early spring, they are waiting for the topsoil to warm up. At this moment, you can already plant the tubers.
For so that the potatoes are early, the tubers are germinated in advance.
- To do this, they are placed in 2 - 3 layers in a cool room at a temperature of 10-15 degrees Celsius. Excessive temperature threatens strong elongation of the shoots, which will affect the decrease in yield.
- The appearance of sprouts in 1 - 2 centimeters, will greatly reduce the period of obtaining young potatoes.
- I plant sprouted tuberst at a distance of 25 centimeters in a row, and 50 -60 centimeters between the rows.
You can also place tubers not only in a row, but also in a checkerboard pattern. This allows the bushes to grow better, as they do not shade or interfere with each other. Then cover with agrofibre or cardboard.
Agrofibre is good for moisture and air, and holes must be made in the cardboard for ventilation. Agrofibre and cardboard help the frost sprouts survive, and when the threat has passed, the covering material can be removed. In this way, you can get a healthy and tasty young harvest.
In the ridges
The meaning of this method of cultivation is very simple.
When grown in ridges, potato bushes are covered with a layer of soil, and the more, the better. Thus, there is room for the root system to grow and develop well.
In this case, noticeably more tubers are formed. The yield is increasing. This method is widespread in Holland and is called the Dutch method.
On high ridges
The meaning of this way of growing similar to barrel growing, bags, boxes and combs. Since the volume of soil for the potato root system is larger than usual, it begins to grow well. Thus, there is an abundant build-up of tubers.
When laying high ridges, humus or foliage, as well as dry tree branches, lie on the bottom. As these materials decompose, they will release heat and nutrients. If you cover the ridge, you can also get an early harvest.
According to Meathlider
The point of Meathlider cultivation is to create long and narrow beds for the plants. In this case, a rather large space for culture is created.
Plants receive the maximum amount of sunlight, and therefore release more nutrients for themselves through the process of photosynthesis. therefore the root system in plants develops well, and in this case, the potato grows more bulky tubers. And their number is increasing.
Under the straw
Growing potatoes under straw significantly reduces labor costs. This is one of the main advantages of this method. Potatoes can be planted either in holes or without holes, on a flat surface.
This requires so that the soil is sufficiently loose and moist:
- Tubers are stacked in holes or just on the soil, in rows, or in a checkerboard pattern.
- Then the tubers are covered with a thick layer of straw or hay. The thickness is about 7-10 centimeters. Straw is good for air permeability to tubers, and moisture permeates well. Therefore, this material helps to grow and develop well both the root system and the bush itself.
- Over time, the straw layer will settle. Therefore it is necessary to add a layer of straw.
In the same way grown potatoes under the moss... The effect is the same. Good air and moisture permeability. In addition, moss not only allows moisture to pass through well, but also retains it. This is one of the advantages of this growing method.
The point of growing from seed is that over time, the planting material loses its original characteristics and brings less and less harvest every year.
In addition planting material is capable of accumulating diseases... But if you grow potatoes from seed, it will help return the potatoes to their former harvest. The seeds are collected from the fruit that remains after the flowering of the bush.
Sowing is carried out in advance so that when the soil has warmed up, the seedlings are already ready for planting. Care is the same as for ordinary bushes.
An important point in harvesting such potatoes. You need to choose bushes with the best tubers. Thus, you can provide yourself with a constant rich and tasty harvest.
Under the film
This method is similar to growing under agrofibre, only the film does not allow air and moisture to pass through, only preserves it. But this promotes early harvest... As soon as the soil has warmed up, the sprouted potato tubers are planted in the soil and covered with a film on top.
The film allows you to transfer frost, and also provides the culture with moisture for a long time. This allows you to get not only an early harvest, but also its increase due to the creation of a longer growing season.
According to the Gulikh method: in kobts
The essence of the Gülikh method (growing potatoes in kobts): one square meter is allocated for each tuber. Quail manure is laid out in a circle in this square. The soil is poured into the circle, and the tuber is planted with the top down into the soil. Shoots will grow in different directions, in the form of rays.
When the length of the shoots reaches 5-8 centimeters, sprinkle them with soil... And this must be done until the potatoes form several tiers. In the process of growth, one should not forget about timely watering and feeding.
Thus, using this method, you can get up to 16 kilograms of harvest from one tuber.
According to Mikhailov's method
The meaning of this method is the same as that of Gülich. A hole is made in which humus is placed. Then the tuber sits down and is covered with a layer of soil. When the tuber sprouts, 4 of them are left to grow vertically, and the rest are tied to pegs and placed in the form of rays in a circle.
As the shoots grow, both vertical and horizontal sprinkled with soil... The yield increases markedly. With proper observance, you can get from 14 to 16 kilograms.
Table 1... Potato growing methods.
|Traditional ways||In the ridges (Dutch method)|
|New ways||In high beds|
under agrofibre or cardboard
|Unusual ways||Gulikh's method (in kobts)|
according to Mikhailov's method
|Growing methods for small areas||In a barrel|
under the film
in the mounds
in the tower
In the box
waste basket or mat
in the pit
in the straw
under the moss
in the bag
young from the box
in the box
Preparation and germination of tubers before planting
How to choose planting material
The variety that will be cultivated in the field, should be zoned, this will allow you to be confident in the suitability of the potato to the given growing conditions. It is important to know the information about the timing of ripening in order to ensure proper care.
Important aspects when choosing a potato planting material are morphological characteristics. The color, taste, smell, shape must correspond to the variety and be free from damage. The weight of tubers for planting is 50 - 100 grams.
The soil should be plowed in the fall, this will allow moisture to accumulate... The soil composition of the soil, preferably a loam with a humus content. If the soil is solid, then it needs to be loosened and organic matter added.
Distance between tubers when planting
If potatoes are planted in a trench, then the distance between the rows is 60 - 70 cm. The distance between the tubers is 30 - 40 cm. When potatoes are planted with holes, the distance does not change.
Planting timing and depth
Potato planting time depends on soil temperature. Its temperature should be at least 5 degrees Celsius. Planting depth is approximately 10 cm.
Irrigation carried out of necessity... If enough precipitation fell over the summer, and the soil was in a wet state most of the time, then watering is not required.
In dry summer and spring, the main irrigation is carried out during the period of germination, growth and flowering of shoots. If August is dry, watering is also necessary.
The most important role for hilling is to reduce the temperature around the tubers. The tuber must be in a space where the temperature is several degrees lower than the stem... If hilling does not occur, the tuber begins to re-germinate, spending energy and nutrients for the development of the plant.
One of the advantages of hilling: it promotes the development of the root system and an increase in the plant's nutritional area, due to which the potato tubers become larger.
It is necessary to huddle the soil in cloudy weather, after precipitation, in order to avoid moisture evaporation. Hilling is also carried out on compacted soils, where gas exchange is poor.
Exist complex mineral fertilizersthat should be brought in along with the planting. Mineral fertilizers increase germination, disease resistance and yield.
They make, as a rule, potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers, the amount and frequency of application is determined by the composition of the soil and the needs of the crop. Better in the spring to fertilize directly into the hole. Ash can be used as a top dressing.
Organic fertilizers always have a beneficial effect on yields. Horse manure is the most useful and high-quality option for organic fertilizers.
Mulching is always necessary, it increases the content of organic matter, and therefore nutrients, preserves soil moisture. Plant residues are always best suited for mulching at all times.
Same mulching is carried out with straw and sawdust, but this option is suitable only if the soil is well warmed up, and in the yard on June 15. In spring, straw and sawdust are not mulched, they reflect the sun's rays, preventing the soil from warming up. Sawdust acidifies the soil.
Diseases and pests of potatoes
The extermination of diseases and pests by chemical means is carried out if the economic threshold of harmfulness is exceeded. The main pest is Colorado beetle... If there is not much of it, then you can collect it by hand, the most important thing is to destroy the larvae.
Wireworm harms potato tubers, when ammonia fertilizers are applied, its population decreases.
Potatoes are often affected different types of nematodes... There are no safe chemicals to fight hookworms. It is recommended to change the soil if possible.
If growing in large areas, then you need to add urea to the soil, and then the infusion of potato young residues. This process is carried out in early spring, so that the larvae of the nematode, feeling the potato feeding, can go outside, and die from lack of food.
For prevention, bird droppings are introduced into the soil.
When harvesting, it is important to select seed material for further cultivation.
Start harvesting potatoes recommended when the tops turn yellow... If you start harvesting earlier, the potatoes will be worse stored.
When harvesting, it is important not to damage the tubers. Damage will lead to the development of pathogenic microorganisms. If such potatoes fall into the total crop mass, then neighboring tubers will be affected.
Potatoes are one of the staples of traditional cuisine. The culture does not require much maintenance. It is important to know only certain subtleties. And with the help of the above described methods and methods, you can simply grow bountiful and healthy harvest High Quality.
Potatoes, so familiar and beloved, have been successfully grown in our country for several centuries. Our great-grandfathers managed to get a good harvest of "second bread" without using chemical fertilizers and agricultural machinery. How did they do it? This article will focus on the effective old-fashioned ways of growing potatoes, in which the interest of gardeners is being revived. Maybe these "new items" will be useful to you, it is not for nothing that they say: "Everything new is well forgotten old."
My grandmother told me how her grandfather grew potatoes under straw (fortunately, there was enough straw). He did not bury the tubers in the ground, but simply laid them out on level, unplowed ground and filled them up with straw, grass, leaves and various plant waste. The potatoes were not harrowed, not huddled, not weeded or watered. There were enough worries with sowing and harvesting rye, haymaking, gardening, caring for livestock. And only in the fall they remembered about potatoes, removed the straw and rejoiced at the big harvest. My grandmother said that not only their family grew potatoes this way. The only pity is that this good tradition was forgotten during collectivization by the "efforts" of party functionaries alien to the land and the countryside.
There are varieties of potatoes with early, mid-early, mid-ripening, mid-late and late ripening. The ripening time of your favorite vegetable varies from 50 to 120 days. Experienced gardeners prefer to sow several varieties at the same time. Remember that early species do not store well. The technology of growing potatoes, which is known to experienced summer residents, must be followed. Landing is carried out in April in the ground, warmed up to at least + 8 degrees. It should have time to dry out normally. Potatoes are planted to a depth of about 10 cm. The smaller the tubers, the shallower the depth.
In the case of planting in clay soil, the depth should be no more than 8 cm, in arid regions - up to 20 cm. Planting is carried out according to the standard scheme. A distance of 30 cm is left between the plants, about 60 cm between the rows. It is permissible to plant the early species somewhat denser.
Gardeners who are familiar with the difficulties of growing a potato crop are constantly inventing ways that reduce physical effort, but not at the expense of the crop. They master already existing methods, empirically reveal their advantages and disadvantages.
Traditional cultivation method
This simple method of growing potatoes has been mastered by many gardeners. In Russia, it has already become a tradition. The young generation of gardeners adopts the experience of their grandfathers and grandmothers, learns from them the secrets of agricultural techniques for growing potatoes.
- A plot of land is dug up manually or with a tractor (if the area is large), harrowed with a rake or a cultivator.Manure and mineral fertilizers are spread on the surface of the earth.
- Determine the landing method: smooth landing, in trenches, or on the ridge. It depends on the structure of the soil and the location of the site. Ridge planting is advisable on heavy soils with high groundwater levels. The distance between the ridges should be about 0.7 m, and their height is 15-20 cm. Potatoes are planted in trenches if the soil is light (sandy), so that moisture can be kept near the tubers longer and does not evaporate. Smooth planting is chosen for flat areas with soil that is good for moisture and air (black soil).
- Mark the direction of the rows. They should be located from south to north so that the entire field is well lit by the sun.
- Dig holes or trenches with a shovel in the chosen direction. Onion peels (or other Colorado potato beetle repellents) can be added to each planting site. Seed tubers are placed in holes or trenches at a distance of 30-40 cm, buried in earth.
- The first time they spud the potatoes after the growth of 5-6 leaves. The height of the potato bush is no more than 15 cm.
Further care for potatoes after planting is hilling, weeding is carried out as potato bushes and weeds grow, 1-2 times a month.
- the traditional method does not require special conditions for soil preparation
- simple potato growing technology is available for beginner potato growers
- to grow potatoes, you do not need additional materials for arranging the beds (boards, barrels, bags).
- a large harvest cannot be obtained in a small area of summer cottages
- the territory allotted for growing potatoes takes up a lot of space
- the Colorado potato beetle can move to other crops planted near the beds of potatoes.
Summer residents who own small plots grow early potatoes, and buy potato stocks for the winter at markets or shops.
In Holland (Netherlands), a warm and mild climate allows potatoes to be grown over vast areas. The amount harvested is sufficient to sell seed to other countries. These seeds are popular in Russia. However, not all varieties can be grown in the northeastern regions of the Urals and Siberia. Experienced potato growers recommend planting early and medium-sized Dutch potatoes in Crimea, Ukraine, Moldova.
The main principle of Dutch technology is shallow planting of tubers (up to 15 cm) in long furrows that separate wide (up to 75 cm) row spacings.
- The potato growing area must be level, without slopes and completely free of weeds.
- Prepare the soil in the fall or 1-2 months before planting the tubers. A field or a summer cottage is dug up, large clods of earth are broken.
- Organic and mineral fertilizers are laid out.
- Furrows are marked from south to north, leaving aisles 75 cm wide.
- Shallow (up to 15 cm) trenches are dug along the outlined lines.
- Every 30 cm, sprouted tubers are laid out in the furrow, shoots up. The length of the shoots is about 1-1.5 cm.
- The landing site is covered with earth, which is taken from the aisles. A low mound is erected over the furrow.
Russian summer residents have long mastered this method. They speak only positively about it, get a good harvest even in small areas. According to them, the yield exceeds the average rate for a normal planting by 2 times.
- when growing a plant using this technology, potatoes grow even on heavy soils with a high level of groundwater
- prepared soil substrate and shallow planting of root crops contribute to good aeration of the soil, constant access of oxygen
- potato bushes, due to the wide row spacing, receive a lot of light and air, so they rarely get sick
- it is possible to grow potatoes in the country, even in small areas
- high yield subject to all conditions of the technique and subsequent care, namely up to 400 kg from 1 weave of beds.
- the technology requires frequent watering or irrigation of plantings in dry weather
- with sudden changes in temperature, the resistance of potatoes to late blight decreases, there is a risk that the plant will undergo this disease.
Planting under straw
It is advisable to plant potatoes in this way on heavy virgin lands. In this case, it is not necessary to dig up the soil, even weeds cannot break through the layer of straw. It is easy to get rid of it in this way.
- The site for planting is plowed with a tractor, harrowed with a cultivator. If there is no equipment, the weeds are mowed by hand.
- Seed tubers are laid out according to the usual pattern 50x50 cm.
- The surface is completely covered with straw for 10 cm.
- Mineral fertilizers are sprinkled on top, rotted manure is laid out.
- Cover the area again with 5 cm of straw.
- As the tops grow, more straw is added.
- physical effort is reduced to a minimum: no need to dig up the soil, huddle and remove weeds
- easy to harvest
- new tubers are large, without adhering dirt.
- you will need a lot of straw, you need to think in advance where to get it
- mice can start in dry grass
- with persistent drought, frequent watering will be required.
A similar agricultural technique for growing potatoes in grass helps to destroy weeds on the site in one season. After harvesting, the straw is buried in the ground. This will improve the structure of the soil, loosen it, fertilize it.
In barrels or bags
This method of planting potatoes is used in suburban areas where there is little space. The container can be placed on any suitable site. During unexpected cold snaps, barrels or bags are brought into greenhouses or other insulated rooms (sheds).
- Bags and barrels are filled with fertilized soil or compost to 1/3 part.
- In each container put 2 tubers of root crops, sprinkle with a substrate.
- Sprinkle with a small amount of water, close hermetically, leaving a 10-15 cm high "air cushion" on top.
- After the first shoots appear, the bags are opened, and compost and fertilizers are added little by little.
The advantages of this method are obvious:
- ideal conditions for growing early potatoes are created
- planting is easy to care for, harvesting does not pose any particular problems
- you can quickly and without loss multiply varietal potatoes.
There is one small drawback - it is necessary to collect the required number of bags, buckets or barrels. If desired, this problem can be solved by collecting used bags of sugar and flour. A few old buckets and barrels will complete the container shortage.
In the mounds
The method of planting potatoes on mounds is used for the cultivation and reproduction of valuable varieties of root crops. The cultivation technique requires some effort in planting and caring for plants. Potatoes in tall beds grow quickly, but constant watering is required.
- Choose a flat square or round piece of land measuring 150x150 cm, or about 2 meters in diameter.
- They dig up the soil, apply fertilizers, dig holes along the perimeter of the mound at a distance of 30 cm from each other, spread seeds in them and sprinkle them with earth.
- As the tops grow, the lateral stems, when hilling, spread along the ridge, leaving the tops. Around them, soil is poured from the aisles.
- In the center of the mound, make a small depression (8-10 cm) for watering
Gardeners hardly use this method due to the difficulties in planting maintenance. It is ineffective, but sometimes it helps vegetable growers if it is impossible to use other methods.
Growing potatoes using this method is almost no different from the usual method.
Potato growing methods
Most summer residents, who have the opportunity to place boxes with seedlings on their windowsills, successfully prepare for the season and germinate seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers or eggplants. But it is quite possible to grow potatoes by the seed method. And the classic tuberous version has many original options. The conditions for planting potatoes largely depend on the size of the plot, the goals set and the desired yield.
How to grow potatoes from seeds?
The space for germination is several times less, the potatoes are not infected with diseases, they are not susceptible to late blight, this is a good option for obtaining high-quality planting material through the season. But even the most correct planting of potatoes will not save you from some difficulties, you will have to constantly use all kinds of preparations in order to preserve fragile and capricious seedlings:
- seed preparation consists in hardening, soaking in water or a growth stimulator
- at the end of March, planting in boxes begins: a mixture of part of the earth and four parts of peat is supplemented with fertilizers and moistened
- hatched seeds are planted on beds 5 cm wide every 10 cm and sprinkled with sand (the sand is slightly compacted so as not to wash off during watering)
- for most regions it is convenient to drive potatoes in greenhouses, growing seedlings after the appearance of a couple of leaves is continued in peat pots
- the end of May is quite warm for transplanting into open ground.
Planting potatoes with tubers
Although the tuberous method is considered a classic, it has a number of interesting solutions. Features of growing potatoes always come from the growing conditions and the possibilities of the summer resident:
- in addition to the already familiar methods under straw or foil, planting in ridges is used, when the tubers are not planted in dug trenches, but beds heaped up with hills (the soil warms up there sooner, there is no need to huddle and excess moisture always flows down into the furrows)
- when there is very little space on the site, they practice growing potatoes in bags or in narrow beds
- some summer residents managed to master the method of growing in organic trenches.
Growing potatoes in bags
This rather original way of growing potatoes will be especially interesting for those who do not have the opportunity to constantly huddle potatoes. For planting, bags of flour or sugar, which are up to 50 centimeters deep, are suitable. The ½ bags are filled with rotted manure, after which the sprouted tubers are planted in them and the bags are placed in a well-lit place. As they grow, you should pour soil into the bags, and water the potatoes well, it will grow quickly and when the bag is 2/3 full, you should stop adding soil and just water the potatoes until the harvest season begins. Often, for this, it is enough just to cut the bag and choose clean potatoes from the tubers, without weeds and pests.
The advantages of the method of growing potatoes in bags make it possible to achieve a sufficiently large yield, while growing potatoes is accompanied by a complete absence of weeds, phyto flora of open soil and damage to tubers by garden pests.
A similar way of growing potatoes is growing in boxes or boxes, with the only difference that the box is collected as the potatoes grow, and the harvest can be done gradually, as the tubers ripen, leaving the unripe tubers to ripen. This method belongs to the methods of growing potatoes without weeding, and is suitable for growing seed potatoes from sprouts, since in boxes under vigilant supervision, seedlings give good germination results and high yields.
Potato growing methods to save time and effort
In addition to increasing the yield, many gardeners are also worried about how to reduce physical and time costs for planting and caring for potatoes. For those who are accustomed to using their time rationally, you can try non-standard growing of potatoes: the video in the tab will give you an idea of how to grow tubers in straw, in moss or in a box. In addition, you can plant potatoes in barrels or bags - you definitely won't have to waste time on hilling!Video about planting potatoes
Potatoes in barrels
This unusual method has many advantages:
- You need to make a minimum of effort, you do not need to loosen, weed, huddle.
- The yield from the barrel is several times larger than usual (with a competent approach to business).
- It is possible to reduce the water consumption for irrigation by 3-4 times, so that serious savings are obtained.
- The barrel can be placed anywhere, even just on the lawn.
Prepare a drum with a capacity of 70 liters or more. Paint it white to keep the potatoes from overheating. Punch 1 cm holes on all walls 20 cm apart for ventilation. Mix the EM-1 preparation, ordinary soil and drainage soil in equal parts. Fill in the mixture with a thickness of 20 cm. Next, fill in ordinary soil about half the height of the barrel. Plant potatoes in it at a distance of 20 cm from each other, water them and sprinkle with a layer of earth 10 cm. When the first shoots appear, cover them with 10 cm of earth, repeat this procedure 4 more times. This will allow the tubers to grow and not the stems.
Water the vegetable abundantly in a barrel 3-4 times per season, but if the weather is hot, you can increase the frequency of watering. Apply a mixture of EM-1 and woody soil as fertilizer twice a week.
Potatoes in bags
This is another unusual method that competes with the previous one in its simplicity and economy of the gardener's efforts. The advantages of the method are the same as for potatoes in barrels, but you can add the following: humus in bags heats up perfectly and fertilizes tubers, there is no stagnation of water, they do not rot, and the fruits are clean during harvesting.
Here are step-by-step instructions for planting this method:
- Pour loose nutritious soil that has already been fertilized at the bottom of the bag. Layer thickness - 30-35 cm.
- Arrange the pieces of potatoes with eyes on top. Cover them with 15 cm of light soil.
- After 1-2 weeks, when already good shoots have risen, cover them with earth to the very leaves.
- Repeat the procedure with filling the seedlings until a third of its height remains to the top of the bag.
The main condition for caring for bagged potatoes is frequent and abundant watering, since moisture in this case evaporates faster than from ordinary soil. Regular watering during flowering is especially important. It is also important that moisture reaches all soil levels. From top dressing, preference should be given to potash fertilizers. Add them in moderation. With this growing method, nitrogen fertilizers should be abandoned.
If you want to simplify things even further, make a hole in the bottom of the bag that you can open and close. It will allow you to periodically ventilate the tubers and significantly reduce the harvest time. It will be enough just to open the hole and remove the ripe tubers. In addition, before planting, it is advisable to make small cuts on the bag for ventilation if it is made of too dense material.
Material updated on 28.02.2018.