Choosing a potato variety and preparing it for planting
Preparing for planting potatoes
The last growing season turned out to be extremely unfavorable for potatoes, as a result of which the harvest not only turned out to be about 2-3 times less than the previous one, but also the seed was laid for storage, to a large extent contaminated late blight and bacteriosis.
There are several reasons for this: cold spring during planting, lack of heat during the entire growth and development of plants, epiphytoty of late blight and active development of bacterial soft rot (warm July with sufficient moisture), significant precipitation in July-August (soaking and suffocation of tubers ). This phenomenon was observed both in the gardens of summer residents and in large seed-growing and farms.
It is hardly worth hoping that during the coming season it will be possible to quickly rectify the situation with the level of gross tuber harvest, so many gardeners will have a problem with acquiring good potato planting material.
What practice has shown
Last year I had to simultaneously observe the "behavior" during the growing season of a number of potato varieties in the Pskov and Leningrad regions, therefore, summarizing the observations, I can draw several conclusions. The dry period of the first half of the growing season contributed to the too rapid onset of flowering of adult plants, which significantly affected the yield. Very high yielding Belarusian variety Scarb, which has become widespread in the Pskov region and "penetrates" into our region, turned out to be severely affected by late blight, as a result of which it was significantly inferior in yield to the Charodey variety (north-western selection), which is characterized not only by high resistance to this mycosis, but also by resistance to a number of viruses, drought and short-term waterlogging of the soil.
Although in an unfavorable year (and in the Leningrad region a similar phenomenon is observed every 2-3 years), the Charodey still turned out to be the most productive. True, he was seriously attacked Colorado potato beetle (especially in the Pskov region), who loves this highly starchy variety. Therefore, I could not fully demonstrate my potential (up to 500-600 kg / weaving).
The nematode-resistant variety Naiada also showed good productivity. It is also considered to be resistant to viruses, late blight and relatively resistant to the Colorado potato beetle. This is important because nematode diseases are becoming more common every year.
The seedlings of the Riddle of Peter cultivar in the first weeks were uneven, but then they leveled off and gave a good harvest in a wet area. However, this variety, when used for 3-4 years, accumulates a lot of viral infection.
For example, tubers of the Shaman variety are characterized by a long dormant period: they do not germinate for a relatively long time in indoor (warm) conditions. This factor is very important for the residents of St. Petersburg, because many gardeners of the city are forced to keep their crops at home in the first half of winter. But, according to my observations and the observations of many colleagues and friends, this variety requires very careful care (a lot of dressings) and attention, otherwise there will be many very small tubers in the harvest.
Approximately the same requirements are presented by the Skazka variety, which has a beautiful shape and interesting color of tubers. The potential in this variety for the formation of 30-35 tubers in a bush does not always allow turning them into high-quality tubers that are good for consumption (especially in arid vegetation). One gets the impression that the early maturity of the variety does not allow to cope with the sufficiently complete maturation of most tubers in the bush. But with favorable soil moisture, good feeding with a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer and hilling at the beginning of flowering (the latter method lengthens the growing season of the variety), the gardener increases the chances of getting a decent harvest of tubers of this variety. It is even better if, during this period, foliar feeding with a weak solution is carried out along the tops. organic fertilizer.
But the plants of the susceptible early Dutch variety Latona last summer, the disease literally "mowed down".
High-yielding variety Zarevo (starch content - 18-25%), which gives a good yield for loamy soils, tolerates arid vegetation painfully. In this weather, in addition, viral diseases are activated on it.
A comparatively good result this year on a fertilized field (judging by the harvest from their plots) was also shown by the varieties - early Lark, mid-early Elizaveta and Lisetta.
Cooking tubers for planting
I hope that gardeners remember that mid - end of April is the time of the beginning of vernalization of potato tubers, which takes up to one and a half months. As a rule, it is optimal for planting potatoes to warm the soil to 8 ... 10 ° C to a depth of 10 cm (according to the popular calendar, the beginning of work coincides with the opening of leaves on a birch, and the end - with the formation of a full leaf of poplar). Thanks to high-quality germinated tubers, you can get an excellent harvest. It has been verified that potatoes planted in unheated soil sit in it for a long time without signs of development, then germinate slowly, and its shoots are more often than usual affected by rhizoctonia (the tips of the shoots turn brown because of this, turn black and often die without leaving the soil surface).
To get very early harvest you should use early varieties of potatoes - Zhukovsky early, Lark, Lisette, Pushkinets, Skala, Snegir and others.
It is known that vernalized potatoes and planted much later than non-sprouted or unheated tubers overtake excessively early plantings from such tubers, and also provide friendly, even shoots without lunges. Such potatoes are more likely to get away from the most harmful disease in our zone - late blight. A good supply of moisture in the soil, which has not yet had time to evaporate from spring, will also contribute to the successful early formation of the crop. According to experts, a well-sprouted planting material forms a crop 2-3 weeks earlier (with an increase in yield by 50-60%) than non-sprouted tubers.
For vernalization, healthy varietal tubers of sufficiently high reproduction are taken (they can be of different sizes). If potatoes of unknown origin are used, then the tubers are thoroughly washed from the ground; it is also better to support them for 15-20 minutes in a 1% solution of boric acid or in a slightly boric solution of potassium permanganate.
Tubers are laid out in one or two layers in diffused light (direct sunlight causes surface burns). The first 1.5-2 weeks, the tubers are kept in a warm room at room temperature, and then transferred to a room with a temperature of 10 ... 14 ° C. Due to this temperature difference, the majority of the eyes hatch at the same time in the tubers (such tubers give powerful multi-stem bushes).
If germination is started at a low temperature, only the eyes of the upper half of the tubers awaken. Correctly sprouted tubers have strong, thick, two to three centimeter sprouts with a green top and a base of numerous root tubercles, from which a root system is formed after a few days. In such potatoes, the sprouts do not break off during transportation and planting.
After germination, diseased tubers are discarded: they activate pathogens and manifest them in plant material. Tubers that form very thin sprouts are discarded - this is a sign of viral diseases.
When growing tubers in a moist, breathable substrate (peat, humus or sawdust) at a temperature of 15 ... 22 ° C, an even earlier harvest is obtained. A substrate 2-3 cm thick is poured onto the layer of tubers, then the next layer of tubers is applied (up to 4-5 layers can be placed); keep it this way for 2-3 weeks. The substrate is moderately moistened with water, it is possible with a weak solution of complex mineral fertilizers. At the same time, sprouts of several centimeters and a fully developed root system are formed. It is necessary to plant such potatoes immediately in order to prevent overgrowth of sprouts (it is better that they do not exceed the diameter of the tuber) or excessive drying of the roots during transportation.
If gardeners are planning cut the varied large tubers, then, firstly, the knife should be constantly disinfected in a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate, and secondly, this operation should be performed 2-3 hours before planting (for healing-corking of the cut), and thirdly, it should be cut in such a way that each part was at least 40-50 g and with 2-3 sprouts.
If one of the gardeners plans to get a potato crop through hybrid (F1) seeds and seedlings (similarly growing tomato), then he must remember that a strong pulling of young plants should not be allowed, since they take root worse when planted in open ground.
Any gardener knows that potato varieties differ in early maturity. If you are interested in mid-late (Zarevo, Nikulinsky) or late varieties, which need 100-110 or 110-120 days to form marketable yield, respectively, then you cannot do without long-term vernalization.
It is very important for every potato grower to know the characteristics of the potato varieties that are most suitable for your zone and the soil of your site. More detailed information on the characteristics of the most acceptable and promising varieties for the conditions of the Leningrad region can be obtained from my reference and practical brochure "To be with the potato harvest in the XXI century. Potato varieties for the gardener and farmer of the North-West region of Russia".
A. Lazarev, candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Description and characteristics
Zhukovsky potatoes are considered one of the most popular among vegetable growers. It differs in average yields, but it is preferred due to the fact that it has many advantages.
The variety is characterized by the following criteria:
- Bush. Semi-spreading bush with numerous highly branched shoots. Large, dark green foliage with fluted veins. Blooms evenly and profusely, not for long. Inflorescences are small, do not form fruit. The flowers are pinkish-purple in color with a white tint at the tips of the petals.
- Tubers. Root vegetables are distinguished by a neat, rounded shape of medium to small size. The peel is thin, pink in color, the surface is smooth. Small number of eyes. Up to 12 potatoes are harvested from one bush. The pulp is dense, white, watery. The mass of tubers varies from 100 to 120 grams. Keeping quality is 90-92%. Root crops do not lose their attractiveness when transported over long distances.
- Nutritional value. A feature of the variety is the content of many vitamins, organic acids, protein, bioflavonoids. Also, potatoes are rich in minerals: phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium. There is little starch in potatoes - up to 12%. Low-calorie variety.
|Variety name||Zhukovsky early|
|general characteristics||table variety that guarantees excellent taste, preservation of presentation during transportation, unpretentiousness|
|Ripening period||60-70 days|
|Mass of marketable tubers||100-120 g|
|The number of tubers in the bush||10-12|
|Yield||400-450 c / ha|
|Disease resistance||resistant to all diseases|
|Consumer qualities||more often young potatoes are boiled, baked, chips are made from it|
|Growing features||does not require special care, germinates even in poorly heated soil, does not form berries|
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
At the beginning of this century, it was considered pointless to grow potatoes in the south of Russia. The reason was that the potato itself does not react well to a lack of moisture and heat, and these unfavorable factors contribute to an increase in the number of sucking insects (aphids, leafhoppers) that spread viral diseases.
Potatoes in our area yielded outdoors only when the temperature rose slowly and gradually in spring.
The introduction of drip irrigation and fertigation made it possible to increase the potato yield and get it twice: at the beginning of summer and in autumn.
Moreover, thanks to drip irrigation, now during summer planting (third decade of July), it is possible to grow not only marketable tubers, but also high-quality planting material varieties Vershininsky, Kislovodsky and Evgenia.
From an economic point of view, it is valuable to obtain a super-early and early harvest of potato tubers. It is more in demand after winter, and it can be sold at a higher price, moreover, outside our region. Therefore, our institute for almost 10 years at the Lezhber farm (Limansky district), Yubileiny CJSC and Nadezhda-2 LLC (Kamyzyaksky district of the Astrakhan region) studied different varieties and methods of growing potatoes to obtain an early harvest.
We have found that early potatoes in large areas are best planted after perennial grasses, grain crops and in place of ponds in rice-based engineering systems. In peasant farms and private household plots, crop rotations with rotation of potatoes after leguminous and melon crops are suitable.
However, the potato yield is highly dependent on the preparation of the land. On light soils, favorable conditions are created for the development of the root system, the formation and growth of tubers. On compacted soil, the tubers take on a form unusual for the variety and there are fewer of them. In addition, the upper layers of the plowed soil during irrigation are oversaturated with moisture, while the lower ones, on the contrary, are not saturated with water enough.
To obtain a high yield of early potatoes, the preparation of tubers for planting is of particular importance. Their sprout length should not exceed 15-20 mm. Therefore, tubers typical of the variety weighing 50-80 g must be germinated at a temperature of 12-15 ° in a well-lit and ventilated place for a month, in an unlit room - 15 days.
Since the timing of planting cannot always be precisely matched, it is preferable to use seedlings at the age of 25 days. For its preparation, sprouted tubers are planted in cassettes 6 cm high, 6.5 cm in diameter at the bottom of the cell and 9 cm at the top.
By the time of planting in open ground, potato seedlings should be 20-35 cm high and with 8-13 leaves. Plants with a clod of earth are removed from the cassettes and planted in pre-cut and watered furrows, along the bottom of which a drip tape is laid. On light sandy and sandy loam soils, when planting, it is necessary to add the Spring soil conditioner (2 g per hole). It helps to regulate the humidity regime.
Potato planting time in the South of Russia
Our experiments have shown that when planted in the third decade of March - the first decade of April, the potato yield is higher than with a late placement period (second decade of April). However, at an early date of planting, the return cold threatens potatoes. In addition, active growth of potatoes occurs when the soil temperature at the depth of planting tubers (6-10 cm) is set at least 8 °.
Therefore, to protect plants from recurrent cold snaps, the site should be covered (on arcs or directly on the soil) with a non-woven covering material with a density of 42 g / m2. Under it, the main part of the potato can withstand frosts down to minus 3 °, and damaged plants recover within a week. The shelter gives an additional effect: during a trial digging on the 45th day after the emergence of shoots on the bushes under temporary shelters, mature tubers are formed 5 times more than in the open field.
Potato planting scheme
In our region, the potato planting scheme 0.7 × 0.25 m is the main one both on personal household plots and on the lands of large commodity producers.
But it does not fully meet the biological requirements of the potato bush. Therefore, in our experiments for early potatoes, we used the scheme according to which most vegetable crops are traditionally grown in the Astrakhan region: with a row spacing of 1.4 m, every 0.15 m in a row. This scheme has several advantages:
- in the heat, the soil in the rows heats up less, retains moisture better
- the soil is less compacted by the wheels of agricultural machines when caring for potatoes
- cultivation, processing, harvesting of potatoes are of high quality, and it is convenient to carry out these works.
In our region, potatoes are affected by viruses: common and speckled mosaics, banded and wrinkled mosaics, leaf twisting and curling viruses, which cause a sharp decrease in potato yield. For the treatment of such an infection, no funds have yet been created. Therefore, prevention is important. We recommend using pre-sowing treatment of tubers with plant growth regulators Zircon and Epin-extra - among the studied preparations, they gave the greatest protective effect.
In the conditions of the Astrakhan region, we evaluated 84 varieties of potatoes of domestic and foreign selection. Of these, 10 varieties were most suitable for early planting (see table).
However, in terms of yield from year to year, including this season, it leads among all Impala grade.
Research carried out by our institute has shown that in the Astrakhan region it is possible to get a very early harvest of potatoes. The proposed technology makes it possible to extend the time of receipt of products, provides the population of our region with domestic potatoes, and helps to increase the profits of farmers.
Until 2000, the Astrakhan region produced up to 25.7 thousand tons of potatoes, mainly in private subsidiary plots. The average yield of tubers was 5-7 t / ha, and more than 70% of potatoes were imported to the region from other regions. Thanks to drip and sprinkler irrigation, in 2008 the area under potatoes increased to 8.6 thousand hectares, and this season 14.1 thousand hectares are already occupied by potatoes.
The potato growers of the Astrakhan region get two crops a year: in spring and summer plantings. Last year, the average potato yield was 22.3 t / ha, advanced farms consistently receive 40-45 t / ha, and there are examples of record yields of up to 80 t / ha. In recent years, the region has become a potato exporting region. Today, one can safely add “Astrakhan potato” to the well-known brands “Astrakhan watermelon”, “Astrakhan tomato”.
Seedling potato yield in 2014
Watering, loosening and feeding
Potato harvest Luck can be obtained by almost forgetting about it after planting (not counting hilling), but for minimal care, Luck will reward you a hundredfold.
One potato bush takes 100 g of potassium, 50 g of nitrogen and 20 g of phosphorus from the soil per season, they must be replenished!
Care of potatoes after planting, table
|Watering||Loosening and hilling||Top dressing|
|Active growing season before buds appear||Once a week 10l / m 2 in the evening (in the absence of rain).||When the bushes reach a height of 10 cm - the first hilling, after 2-3 weeks - the second. Hilling is carried out only on wet soil. In a dry period, it is necessary to limit ourselves to surface loosening to aerate the soil. The purpose of hilling is to create favorable conditions for the development of tubers in the surface layer of the soil. Weeds are periodically cut with a hoe or flat cutter and left on the ground.||Spraying with ash solution (300 g per 10 l of water) 2 weeks after germination. Held in the evening in dry cloudy weather.|
After the bushes have faded, feeding is stopped, only moderate watering is performed in dry weather.
Dig breeze potatoes in dry weather so the tubers can dry out in the sun.
After a couple of hours, they are cleared of the ground and sorted out, separating large fruits for food, and small livestock. Medium-sized potatoes are laid separately for next year's sowing.
At the end of sorting, Breeze potatoes are irrigated with Fitosporin or Baktofit antifungal agents, and then placed in a container for transportation to the storage site.
The optimum temperature for maintaining the integrity of the tuber is + 2-4 ° C. Potato Breeze under these conditions does not form roots and is not exposed to low temperatures.
Preparing for planting potatoes
The volume and quality of the future harvest largely depends on the correctness of the implementation of the preparatory measures. Basically, preparation for planting potatoes includes the selection of planting material, its processing, as well as preparation of the soil for planting this crop. Correctly carried out preparation of potatoes for planting in spring can increase the yield by two or more times compared to growing this crop without such measures.
Potato growing methods: preparation and selection of varieties. To get a good harvest of potatoes, it is not enough just to plant them and harvest them when the tops are dry. For the results to please, it is necessary to take into account many nuances concerning, for example, the choice of a variety, soil preparation, planting methods and the elimination of pathogenic microflora. By listening to the advice of professionals and following their tips, it will be possible to significantly increase the yield and avoid spoilage of the vegetable during storage.