Broccoli is ripe: determining the cutting time
Broccoli has a reputation for being a capricious vegetable. And if you decide to grow this type of cabbage on your own, then you need to know how to correctly determine the time for cutting the ripe heads of this useful vegetable. They must be neither immature nor overripe.
When to cut a head of broccoli
To get a tasty and healthy product, it is important to cut it off on time.
It is important to cut broccoli heads on time
The timing of the readiness of broccoli cabbage for cutting in each region is different. Ripeness occurs, depending on the variety, on the 75-110th day from the moment of germination. Most often, broccoli begins to ripen in mid-August. But since this process occurs gradually (after cutting the central inflorescence, lateral shoots begin to grow, which are in the leaf axils), the entire harvesting process can stretch until October.
It is important not to miss the moment of being ready to cut
Determine the ripeness of inflorescences
Readiness for cutting can be considered the moment when the green buds that make up the broccoli inflorescence are already collected in a dense elastic head of cabbage, but have not yet begun to bloom. If, instead of buds, yellow flowers appear, the time for cutting is missed.
In order not to miss the moment of readiness for cutting, it is better to view the planting every 2-3 days. Of course, this is easier to do if you do not live in the city when your broccoli grows in your summer cottage.
Broccoli can be considered ready cut if:
- inflorescence weight not less than 250 g, head diameter - not less than 10 cm (approximately the size of a palm);
- the buds in the center of the head are larger than the lateral ones;
- the inflorescence has a dark green color, the buds are not open;
- inflorescences are dense and elastic, but not too hard, which is determined by light squeezing.
If the inflorescence has yellow flowers, the broccoli is overripe
Video: when to cut broccoli
- Cut broccoli in the early morning or late in the night, at the time of the evening dew. This will make it possible to get more juicy inflorescences.
- Using a sharp knife, make an oblique cut, while trying not to damage the leaves located on the stem below, because new inflorescences will later grow from their sinuses.
- The upper central inflorescence is cut first.
- Lateral inflorescences are cut as they grow back, they are smaller in size, but do not differ in taste and nutritional value.
Cut broccoli early in the morning.
Unfortunately, I myself did not grow broccoli. Therefore, I can only share my opinion on its use. The simplest option is good: boiled or stewed broccoli with the addition of a small piece of butter. And as a side dish - broccoli, divided into small inflorescences, fried in batter.
Broccoli loves a considerate attitude. To get a tasty and nutritious product, it is better to cut the inflorescences a little earlier than being late with the cut.
It is an annual vegetable, a member of the vast and varied Cabbage (Cruciferous) family.
Origin and development
According to historical data, broccoli as a vegetable crop (lit. - shoot, dry twig) was bred by the ancient agronomists of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 5-6th century. BC e.
The vegetable came to Europe in the middle of the 16th century. The British began to call it Italian asparagus in the 18th century. In the 20-30s. last century broccoli began to grow in the USA, Spain, Italy, Russia.
Reference. Broccoli is the progenitor of cauliflower.
The Japanese seed company "Sakata Seed Corporation" has been developing and distributing valuable varieties of vegetables and flowers since the beginning of the 20th century. Broccoli Parthenon F1 - the result of tests (crossing of parental types) with the aim of breeding the best variety, a product of high quality selection. This is a first generation hybrid patented in many countries.
Distribution agrarian firms distribute it throughout the CIS: Gavrish (Russia), Sakura Ukraine (Ukraine).
Chemical composition, trace elements and vitamins, useful properties
The inflorescences used for food are a dietary product. There are only 34 kcal per 100 g.
This cabbage contains (per 100 g):
- up to 3 g of useful protein
- 0.5 g fat
- over 6.5 g of carbohydrates
- up to 3 g of dietary fiber
- 88 g of water.
Rich in vitamin composition:
- vitamins A, C, E, K, PP
- B vitamins: B1, B2, B5, B6, B9 (folic acid).
Minerals (fraction of the daily value):
- 29% calcium
- 24% iron
- 33% magnesium
- 42% phosphorus
- over 50% potassium.
Broccoli Parthenon F1 contains antioxidants, removes salts of heavy metals, poisons, cleanses the intestines, promotes weight loss.
Important. Protein (protein) in this hybrid is three times more than in asparagus, spinach, corn. In terms of the amount of essential amino acids, the vegetable is not inferior to beef. The content of lysine, tryptophan in inflorescences is equal to that of a chicken egg.
Sulforaphane has been proven to resist cancer and viruses. Sinigrin prevents the proliferation of malignant cells. Choline and methionine remove harmful cholesterol, cleanse blood vessels.
Broccoli Parthenon F1 is used in cooking both fresh and frozen - added to salads and summer cold soups, vegetable smoothies and cocktails are prepared.
Taste and useful properties are preserved after heat treatment. Variety of delicate fruit dishes:
- boiled broccoli (important not to overcook)
- steamed or blanched
- casseroles, omelets and vegetable stews
- fried pieces in batter and breading
- as a side dish fried and boiled
- added to vegetable diet soups and cheese puree soups
- finely chopped buds are kneaded into muffin dough
- decorate pizzas and open vegetable pies.
The average ripening period is up to three months (90-95 days) from the day the seedlings are planted in open ground. Under optimal conditions of soil, lighting, climatic zone, humidity.
The late-ripening variety gives a high yield. Average indicators - 3-3.5 kg per 1 sq. m.
On large areas, 12-18 tons per hectare are harvested per season.
Disease and pest resistance
Parthenon F1 inherited resistance to viruses and infections from genetic "parents". It painlessly tolerates daily temperature drops, lack of water and high humidity from seasonal precipitation.
Broccoli Parthenon F1 is cold-resistant, adapted to harsh climatic conditions. Withstands even small frosts.
Characteristics, description of appearance, taste
The plant develops into a sprawling bush. The leaves are large, bluish, juicy even in the absence of abundant watering. The leaf plate is vesicular, the edges are wavy. There are no covering leaves. Side shoots are rare.
The root is powerful, providing nutrition and fluid storage.
The stalk is thick, it grows up to 50 cm in height. Succulent peduncle branches are formed at the top, forming groups of small buds. The buds are collected in a compact fruit head. "Beads" are homogeneous, small.
The inflorescence head is bright green, dense, round, and has a solid mushroom shape. The weight of the matured head is 0.5-1 kg. Under favorable conditions, it grows up to 1.5 kg.
For which regions it is best suited and what is the exacting climate
Agronomists recommend planting early spring (EOS, Ironman) and autumn (Parthenon, Triton, Batavia) broccoli varieties in the southern regions.
Parthenon is also planted in areas of the central, middle strip. The only condition is that sowing is carried out 7-10 days later.
How to plant broccoli seedlings
Unlike cabbage, broccoli has a one-year development cycle. Broccoli needs to be harvested before its buds open and the entire head turns yellow with flowers.Although broccoli is native to Italy, there are varieties that grow well and produce crops in temperate regions.
In addition, with the right varieties, you can not only have fresh broccoli all season, but also put it in storage. You can plant broccoli in the country both directly in the open ground and through seedlings.
Sowing broccoli seedlings
For broccoli seedlings, both ready-made soil and soil mixture are suitable, which will be prepared with your own hands from the following components:
- 10 kg of garden soil
- 1 kg of wood ash
- 0.2 kg of chalk or lime
- 0.2 kg of sand
It is important not to use the land where cabbage or other related crops previously grew. The soil must be well mixed and free of large parts, foreign inclusions. In addition, before sowing, it must be moistened and allowed to stand for several hours, it must be moist, but crumbly.
Preparing broccoli seeds for sowing
To get strong broccoli seedlings, its seeds can be prepared in the following way:
- heat the water to + 45
- dip the seeds there for 20 minutes
- then immerse them in ice water for 5 minutes
Such treatment will accelerate the germination of broccoli seeds and will provide healthy planting material. Before you put the seeds in the water, you need to read the information on the package. If the seeds have undergone industrial processing, for example, with such a substance as tiram, then they cannot be soaked, but must be planted immediately in the ground. As a rule, seeds of imported, mainly Dutch origin are processed with thiram.
Sowing dates of seedlings
Considering that at the age of 35 - 40 days the seedlings are ready to move into open ground, then sowing broccoli seeds for seedlings can be done in early April.
- In the seedling boxes, make 1 cm deep grooves and sow seeds in them. The distance between the grooves is 2 cm, the distance between the seeds is 2 cm.
- Cover the seedling box with glass and wait for the shoots to appear. When the seeds germinate together, the glass is removed.
The seedlings do not need additional light in April. At the stage of 1-2 true leaves, broccoli dive into individual pots 5 by 5 cm in size. When diving, the seedling deepens almost to the cotyledon leaves. At the age of 35 - 40 days, broccoli is ready to be moved to an open garden.
Broccoli is grown in a similar way to other types of cabbage. It tolerates sharp temperature fluctuations well, but grows better at 16–20 ° C and 85% air humidity. Most often, this cabbage is grown by the seedling method. Only to obtain an autumn harvest in those regions where weather conditions permit, seeds are sown in open ground.
Broccoli seeds should not be germinated at temperatures below 9 ° C: this will slow down the development of plants in the future.
Broccoli grows best in fertile soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. You cannot plant broccoli on the beds where cruciferous plants (turnips, radishes, radishes) grew last year. These plants need the same nutrients and have the same pathogens.
The period of obtaining fresh produce in this type of cabbage is more extended due to the fact that after harvesting the main crop, new, smaller flower stalks grow from the sinuses.
Another positive quality of broccoli is that its heads do not need to be shaded like cauliflower.
Photo gallery: failed predecessors for broccoliBroccoli should not be planted in garden beds where radishes used to grow. Radish is a poor precursor for broccoli because these plants require the same nutrients Turnip and broccoli have the same pathogens, so these crops are considered unsuccessful predecessors for each other.
The later the variety, the longer the vegetables can be kept fresh. The optimum temperatures are 0 .. + 5 ° С and humidity of the order of 90–95%. Heads of cabbage are stored in boxes, on shelves, laying them out in 1 layer or hanging. Well suited for this cellars, basements, underground storage.
Broccoli or cauliflower can be stored frozen for up to one year. It is noteworthy that after defrosting, they do not lose their taste and useful properties.
Broccoli Tonus - review
I like the Tonus broccoli variety: it does not require special care, it bears fruit two or three times a season. I am planting seedlings in June to get a double harvest. The very last - the second harvest in this case falls on the period of late autumn - the onset of the first frosts. So in winter I always have fresh cabbage on my table.
"Tonus" broccoli tastes good. Good in any form, including canned. Frozen fruits are stored for a long time and do not lose their benefits.
I recommend the variety for cultivation.
Any gardener can leave reviews on the broccoli "Tonus" on the site, as well as add, if desired, a photo of the grown crop to the reviews.
Description from the manufacturer Aelita
Early maturing variety. The central inflorescence weighing up to 200 g ripens 35-40 days after transplanting. After cutting, up to 7 lateral inflorescences develop, which ensures long-term fruiting. Deserves the widest distribution due to its exceptional benefits for human health.
For early production, sowing seedlings in mid-March. Pick in the phase of cotyledons. Planting seedlings in the ground in late April - early May, at the age of 35-45 days with 4-5 true leaves according to the scheme 60x30 cm.To extend the season of broccoli consumption, you can sow seeds for seedlings with an interval of 2 weeks 3-4 times per season and use varieties of different ripening periods. It is possible to sow seeds in open ground from May to early July, to a depth of 0.5-1 cm.
For good growth and abundant fruiting, plants need timely watering, regular weeding, loosening and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Also, this variety is produced by many other producers: Plasma seeds, Gavrish, Udachnye seeds, Altai seeds and others.
In this article, we'll talk about how to grow broccoli cabbage, Tonus variety. Consider the main features of the variety, the rules for planting, growing and using it.
There are so many cabbage in the world, how many varieties and species are known.
But the growing popularity is gained by the broccoli variety Tonus, which is often called super-yielding.
It was bred by breeders of the Institute for Research of the Moscow Region, specializing in developing new varieties and growing vegetable seeds.
In 1983, they applied for registration of the variety in the state register, and three years after the tests of broccoli, Tonus was included in the lists of officially recognized food varieties approved for cultivation by gardeners.
Perhaps one of the most important advantages of this broccoli is just its excellent taste, richness in vitamins and mineral salts, it can be eaten both raw and thermally processed.
Predecessors and neighbors of broccoli
Do not neglect the rules of crop rotation and the choice of neighbors for broccoli. The "right" plants in the beds adjacent to broccoli will contribute to pollination and repel pests, while the "wrong" ones will lead to the development of diseases. In order for broccoli to develop well, it is recommended to plant it in a place where other crops used to grow. Do not plant cabbage after other plants of the Cabbage (Cruciferous) family.
The cruciferous family includes not only different types of cabbage, but also radish, horseradish, radish
The best precursors for broccoli are:
Best Neighbors for Cabbage:
Tomatoes, beans and strawberries (strawberries) should not grow near broccoli.
Many pests (for example, the cabbage scoop) find their favorite plants by smell. If you plant aromatic herbs with a strong smell next to cabbage beds, they will confuse insects. However, it should be borne in mind that there is always competition between neighboring plants. Grasses should be sown in sparse "islets" in rows of broccoli or along the edges of the beds, so as not to drown out the cabbage.
Photo gallery: plants that repel pests
Thyme growing next to cabbage with its smell scares off earthen fleas and cabbage scoop Nasturtium scares off whiteflies, aphids and cabbage caterpillars Bitter wormwood protects broccoli from ants, cabbage flies, earthen fleas and whiteflies helps to reduce clutches of cabbage flies Cucumber grass (borage), sown between cabbage rows, reduces damage by caterpillars, and also drives away slugs and snails Dill sown to cabbage, helps to significantly reduce the number of cabbage aphids Tansy scares off earthen fleas and cabbage caterpillars
Growing broccoli cabbage in a seedless way is not difficult. The main thing is to choose the right place for planting and prepare the soil. You can start sowing seeds in open ground after the onset of persistent heat. To get a good harvest, you need to carefully look after the seedlings and follow all the recommendations.