Detailed description of the Turgenevka cherry variety
A garden without cherries is like a Russian hut without a stove: it does not feed and does not please the eye. Therefore, breeders breed hundreds of varieties so that each garden has its own cherry tree. Such as, for example, cherry "Turgenevskaya", or simply "Turgenevka".
Description of the cherry variety Turgenevka
Let's start with a description of the variety. The cherry variety "Turgenevka" was bred by scientists from 1972 to 1979 at the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops. The tree reaches a height of 3–3.5 m. Its crown is raised, reverse pyramidal. Shoots are straight, medium length, brown. The bark of the trunk and main branches are also brown. Dark green leaves of a tree with a pointed top and jagged edges.
In mid-May, the tree blooms profusely with white four-flowered inflorescences.
This variety begins to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year. From one young tree, you can collect up to 12 kg of fruits, from an adult - up to 25 kg. The ripening period largely depends on the weather, but usually it falls on the 2nd decade of July. The regularity of the harvest, that is, whether the cherry will bear fruit every year and for how many years in a row, depends on the care.
"Turgenevka" is zoned in the Bryansk, Lipetsk and Voronezh, Kursk, Orel and Belgorod regions, as well as in the Republic of North Ossetia. However, it grows not only in these areas. Here the variety was tested and described. If you create all the necessary conditions for growth, cherries will bear fruit in other regions. But first you need to familiarize yourself with such conditions.
The fruits of "Turgenevka" are large (up to 4-5 g), wide-heart-shaped. The fruits are dark red both outside and inside. Small bones are well separated from the juicy and dense pulp. The sweet and sour taste of the fruit makes them indispensable for making jams, juices and compotes.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
"Turgenevka" is distinguished by winter hardiness, productivity and quality of fruits. However, due to the average frost resistance of flower buds under unfavorable conditions, the yield may decrease. In addition, this is a partially self-fertile variety - which means that if you have one cherry, it will bear fruit, but there will be few fruits. Therefore, it is better to plant even self-fertile trees in tandem with a tree of another variety, for example, with Favorit, Molodezhnaya or Lyubskaya.
The choice of a seedling is a responsible business. To get a healthy tree, follow these guidelines:
- buy one- or two-year-old seedlings from a trusted seller or manufacturer;
- pay attention to the appearance: a healthy tree does not have any spots, branches and roots should be intact;
- when buying in spring, choose seedlings with still dormant buds.
If there are no leaves on the tree, then check its viability like this: bend the branches - they will bend well and will not break if the tree is alive.
Cherries love sunny, windless places. However, "Turgenevka" should be planted on the southern side carefully, because here the snow melts faster in spring, which means that the sap flow begins faster and the buds swell. Returning spring frosts can ruin future crops.
The acidity of the soil for cherries should be with a pH of 5.5-7. The soils themselves are light loamy or sandy loamy soils.
It is better to plant cherries in the spring, until the leaves have blossomed on it. You can plant it among other fruit trees, just not in the place of the old cherry orchard. Groundwater should be located 1.5-2 m underground.
- Dig a hole 60 cm deep, 70 cm wide;
- In the middle of the pit, pour a mixture of humus (up to 2 buckets), ash (up to 1 kg) and mineral fertilizers (30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium nitrate);
- Install a planting stake, to which you will then tie a tree;
- Place the seedling in the hole, straighten the roots and cover with earth;
- Tamp the ground firmly so that all air voids disappear;
- Form a well with rims for irrigation;
- Water the seedling abundantly.
It is very important not to deepen the seedling when planting. The root collar - the place where the stem merges into the root - should be flush with the ground.
With proper care, the Turgenevka cherry begins to bear fruit in the 4th or 5th year. With poor care of the fruits, you can also wait, but there will be few of them.
After planting, cherries require frequent watering: at least 1 time per week, 2 buckets of water. An adult tree is watered only during dry periods.
Top dressing is also necessary for regular and productive fruiting:
- in the spring, before the flowers bloom, nitrogen is introduced into the soil (urea, ammonium nitrate);
- in spring, during flowering, nitrogen and organic fertilizers (chicken droppings, green fertilizers) can be added to the soil;
- in the spring after flowering, organic matter (manure, compost) is added to the soil to pour berries;
- in the summer, foliar fertilizing with nitrogen is done and organic matter is introduced into the trunk circle;
- in autumn, cherries need calcium, potassium and phosphorus.
Large amounts of manure can injure the roots. Don't overdo it.
Collection and storage
Cherry is a perishable product. No wonder they say: there were cherries, but they all came out.
The collection of "Turgenevka" usually takes place on July 5-15. A dry, calm day is the best day for harvesting. In the rain, the fruits gain a lot of moisture and are subsequently poorly stored.
If you need to keep the cherries fresh for several days, but there is nowhere to store them, collect the fruits together with the stalk so that the pulp does not drain out of juice.
The collected cherries will stay in the refrigerator for about 20 days. If there are a lot of cherries, and you have a basement where the air temperature is 8-12 °, put unwashed fruits without "barrels" in different containers. The layer should not exceed 5 cm. This will keep the crop fresh for 10-12 days.
And also cherries can be dried for the winter. This is done in three ways: the berries are dried in the sun, in the oven or in an electric dryer.
Unripe fruits will not ripen in the box, the product will be inedible. And overripe fruits will become prey for insects and birds. Collect cherries on time.
Crown formation is an important component in the life of a tree. Cherries grow quickly, and therefore require annual crown thinning:
- after planting, determine the 5 strongest branches, remove the rest;
- treat wounds with garden varnish;
- in the 2nd year, cut off all branches growing inside the crown;
- shorten the length of the branches and make the same;
- as you grow, form new skeletal branches, there should be 13-15 pieces.
- when the trunk reaches 3.5 m, it should be trimmed to prevent the cherry from growing again.
If you do not thin out the thickened crown, the tree will weaken, the yield will decrease, and the fruits are crushed.
Diseases and pests
Cherry "Turgenevka" has an average resistance to the most common stone fruit diseases - coccomycosis and moniliosis. However, with poor care, the tree can suffer from any disease or pest.
In order to minimize the fight against diseases and harmful insects, it is worth carrying out preventive spraying. A biological insecticide "Fitoverm" or "Aktara" is suitable for various pests. Strong immunity will help to resist diseases, and the preparations "Zircon", "HB-101" and "Energen" strengthen it. The prophylactic agent "Green Soap" will help to cope with both diseases and pests.
However, prevention lies not only in the timely spraying of trees, but also in their cleaning:
- remove infected leaves, as well as dried and damaged branches;
- remove and burn the remnants of fruits, fallen leaves and branches;
- treat all damaged areas of the bark with garden pitch;
- loosen the soil in the trunk circle regularly.
If there are old infected trees and shrubs in the garden, the young seedlings are more likely to get sick as well. Heal your garden - forget about diseases.
Every man to his own taste. This statement applies to any side of life, and even more so to the taste of fruits and berries.
Most gardeners appreciate the cold and frost resistance of "Turgenevka", as well as the ability to grow this cherry in central Russia and even in the north-west of the Moscow region. However, not all gardeners are satisfied with the yield and taste of the fruit. For example, a gardener from Michurinsk, Tambov Region, notes the large size and good taste of cherries, but is not happy with the rare harvest (once every few years). A gardener from Kiev points to the rich dark color of the fruit and the sour taste.
Cherry "Turgenevka" is an unpretentious tree. Shows high yields with proper care. However, the sugar content of its fruits is low, so they have a sour taste. Large dark red berries with a small pit are perfect for canning, drying and freezing.
The tree of this cherry is small - up to three meters. The crown is in the form of an inverted pyramid, the branches are straight, plaque appears on them over the years. The leaves are narrow oval, with a glossy surface, resembling a boat in shape. Flowers are white, fragrant, 4 pieces per inflorescence.
Photo gallery: Turgenevskaya cherryCherry flowers are adjacent to each other Cherry crown slightly raised Cherry leaves are dark green, narrow oval in shape
Fruit weight - about 5 g, deep burgundy skin. The pulp is dark red, dense, juicy, taste - sweet and sour. Turgenevka blooms in the second decade of May, the ripening period is average - early-mid July.
The variety has another similar name - Turgenevskaya.
The mass of Turgenevka cherries is an average of 5 g
Table: advantages and disadvantages of the variety
|High winter hardiness||Pollinators are needed for good fruiting|
|Resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis||Sour taste|
|Good yield||Average winter hardiness of flower buds, susceptibility to sudden changes in temperature|
|Large berries||The crop appears only 5 years after planting|
|A short tree for easy maintenance and harvesting|
|Small bone is easily separated from the pulp|
The high yield of Turgenevka is one of the essential advantages of the variety.
Description of the variety
The tree of this variety has a neat crown, reaches a height of 2.5 - 3 meters, and also boasts numerous leaves of a rich green color. The crown is inversely pyramidal and does not need regular thinning.
The bark is gray-brown with straight, strong branches. With proper care, such a tree will become a real decoration of any site, and high yields will create an additional advantage.
The main characteristics of the variety:
- Early variety, ripening and harvesting takes place at the beginning of July... Flowering occurs in early May, which is important when choosing a suitable pollinator.
- Berries are large in shape, reach two centimeters in diameter and weigh 5 - 7 grams... The shape of the berries is heart-shaped with a characteristic bright crimson color. The pulp is dense, the peel calmly withstands transportation.
- On an expert scale, the fruits earned an average rating of 3.7 points (5 maximum), largely due to their rich taste.... Most often, the fruits are used for conservation, as well as for the preparation of juice and liqueurs.
- The frost resistance of the culture is quite good... Branches and roots can withstand temperatures as low as -35 degrees. The situation is worse with flower buds. Spring frosts can significantly damage the future harvest.
- Begins to bear fruit in the fifth year after planting... The lifespan is up to 25 years with good care. Usually, it is recommended to renew the planting every 15 to 20 years so that the yield does not decrease.
It will also be interesting to watch a video about Molodezhnaya cherry varieties, for that. to understand it is worth planting such a tree in your garden, or not.
The video shows a description of the cherry variety:
The flavor characteristics of the berries are quite impressive. They are often used in canning and making homemade liqueurs. Saturated sweet and sour aftertaste will give dishes a unique taste, in addition, this cherry is famous for its excellent aroma, which is also important.
The culture is not distinguished by its large size, as a rule, the maximum height of an adult tree will be 3-3.5 m. The crown has a pyramidal shape, with an average thickening. The green mass is large, the plate is similar in shape to cherry leaves. The bark of mature branches is gray-brown, while new shoots develop without the presence of gray in color.
In the flowering phase, Turgenevka is characterized by increased decorative attractiveness. In temperate climates, it blooms in mid-May. In this case, the tree will be decorated with a large number of white and fragrant flowers of a small size, collected in inflorescences of 4 pieces.
Fruits with berries of a dark scarlet color, the weight of one does not exceed 5.5 g. In shape, they resemble a heart, with a beige stone inside. The length of the stalk is 5 cm.
The palatability deserves an average rating, since ripe berries are distinguished by the presence of a noticeable acidity. Sugar in fruits contains about 11%, fruit acids - 1.5%. Cherries are valued for their piquant taste, therefore they are in demand for the preparation of compotes, jams and liqueurs.
Reaches ripeness in early to mid-July, the exact timing of ripening will vary depending on the climatic characteristics of the region.
As a rule, the yield of one adult tree is 20-25 kg, while a young plant (up to 10 years old) can produce half as many berries per season. The tree retains its ability to bear fruit for up to 25-30 years. With proper agricultural technology, the first harvests can be harvested as early as 4-5 years after planting a young seedling in the garden.
For regular fruiting, Turgenevka will need pollinators, despite the fact that she was positioned by breeders as partially self-fertile. The following varieties will become suitable:
Demonstrates good drought resistance, winter hardiness. An adult culture remains viable when the air temperature in winter drops to -35C, however, flower buds will be less resistant to recurrent frosts.
Pros and cons of the variety
The Turgenevka variety has many advantages. It differs in:
- high and stable yields
- fabulous frost resistance
- excellent taste
- long shelf life of berries
- the ability to transport them over long distances
- good disease resistance
- early ripening
- large fruit size
- ease of growing and care.
Among the disadvantages, it is noted that at too low winter temperatures, flowering buds often freeze. This significantly affects the yield of the variety.
In order for the Turgenevka cherry to bring a good harvest, it is enough to pay attention to watering, regularly fertilize and do not forget to prune in time.
Cherry Turgenevka does not like waterlogging and prolonged drought. Maintain a constant soil moisture level for young seedlings - 10-15 liters of water per plant. For mature trees during the dry season, irrigate occasionally - 30-60 liters of water.
The roots grow faster than the crown, so direct the water along the edges of the trunk circle.
Regularly clear the trunk circle from foreign plants and make sure that no crust appears on the surface of the earth, as it prevents oxygen from entering the soil.
Weeds compete for water and food, and carry disease.
To maintain soil fertility and provide plants with nutrients, carry out periodic feeding. For seedlings and mature trees, use different nutrient application regimens.
Fertilizing young seedlings:
- In mid-April, apply foliar top dressing with urea (urea). Dissolve 20 g of urea in 10 liters of water and spray the crown.
- After flowering, apply foliar dressing with Ideal. Dissolve 5 ml of liquid in 1 liter of water and spray until the seedling is completely wetted.
- In September, apply an autumn root dressing. Per 1 cu. m of the trunk circle 3 tbsp. l. superphosphate, 1.5 tbsp. l. potassium chloride.
Fertilizing mature trees:
- Do spring root dressing in mid-April. Take ammonium nitrate at the rate of 20-30 g per 1 cu. m of the trunk circle and fill it with a bucket of water.
In early spring, the first pruning of the seedling is carried out in order to lay the formation of a sparse-tiered crown. A fresh wound is treated with garden varnish.
Pruning of mature trees is done in the spring to form a crown. With the help of summer pruning, dry shoots are removed. They also make sure to remove root growth.
Preparing for winter
In the fall, prepare the tree for wintering:
- Dig the soil of the trunk circle to a shallow depth.
- Cover the trunk circle with a layer of peat mixed with sawdust.
- After the leaves have fallen, carry out a moisture-replenishing watering. Give a young tree 8 liters of water, an adult - 15 liters. A moist root system overwinters more easily.
- Wrap the trunks and main branches with burlap or paper. This will protect against frost and rodents.
Possible diseases and pests
The Turgenevka variety has good resistance to miniliosis and coccomycosis. But under unfavorable conditions, such as temperature changes, high humidity, the formation of injuries, cherries can be affected by these ailments.