Agrotechnology for growing cauliflower
Brassica oleracea in your beds
Seedling age is desirable at 40-45 days. The landing date is June 15-20.
Are carried out two dressings: the first - 10-15 days after planting the seedlings - with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers; the second feeding - in the phase of the beginning of the formation of the head - with complex fertilizer, and it is desirable that 1 part of nitrogen accounts for 2 parts of phosphorus and potassium.
Harvesting is carried out selectively when the head reaches a diameter of 12-14 cm, for early varieties - 10-12 cm. For summer planting cauliflower can be put into storage when the diameter of the head reaches 5-7 cm. Plants are uprooted and placed in storage at the rate of 25-30 plants per 1 m2. During the storage period, due to the outflow of nutrients from the leaves and stump, the head grows. Accordingly, as you grow up, it should be used for food.
An unconventional approach to growing cabbage
Like pumpkin crops, cabbage, especially medium and late, is very demanding on organic matter. Since it has been observed by experienced gardeners that some vegetables grow best in compost heaps, it makes sense to plant such crops in organic soil. Therefore, modern adherents of organic farming, even in the beds, are trying to plant vegetables in a compost layer.
One of the most famous "organists" N.I. Kurdyumov, who is also an agronomist by profession, recommends raised bed-boxes... They represent “... stationary beds, fenced with boards, slate or other material. The bed height is 15-20 cm. This frame is filled with compost. The bottom layer can be manure or unripe compost, but on top you need to lay a layer of ready-made humus with a thickness of at least 6-7 cm.If the box is wide - 1-1.2 m, then it does not matter how it is located: rows of vegetables can stretch along or across the garden, but they should be located with north to south.
This will give the plants more sun. Watering baskets is much faster if you scoop up buckets of water from a large reservoir and carefully pour it over the mulch. With a hose, with a moderate pressure, water the box for a long time - the area is large. There is no need to dig up the soil in the box: the soil is intensively loosened under it to a great depth: already in the first year - twenty centimeters. In the spring, I only dump 3-4 wheelbarrows of new compost onto the garden bed.
You can sow and plant directly into it. When the plants rise, all that remains is to put between them mulch from grass, husk, straw... Weeds - there are very few of them - are easy to pull out. " Such a method of growing vegetables is offered by an experienced farmer, agronomist N.I. Kurdyumov.
Since you will most likely need several such beds, you will need 2-3 compost heaps. To obtain a sufficient amount of compost, it is advisable to pile kitchen waste, as well as weeds, leaves, sawdust, it also makes sense to mow the grass in the nearest meadow, on wastelands, forest roadsides, or occasionally buy manure.
Growing with EM preparations
Since we are talking about organic farming, we can remind readers that one of its modern areas is EM technology. Like other crops, several varieties are possible on cabbage. Mulch up to 3 cm thick. After 10-15 days, it is advisable to water or sprinkle the beds with a solution of "Baikal EM-1" in a ratio of 1: 1000.
At the beginning of the formation of a head of cabbage, it is necessary to repeat the treatment with the EM solution in the same concentration; if you spray, then the bucket may be enough for a hundred square meters. In wet weather (after rains), the concentration of the solution for irrigation can be increased 2-4 times with the same decrease in the amount of the solution poured out. The fourth treatment should be done after the head of cabbage reaches a size exceeding two fists.
Now let's look at a more intense EM technology. On the site in the direction from north to south, you need to dig trenches. The distance between the center lines of the trenches should be 50 cm. Depth - on a shovel bayonet (25 cm). The removed soil is laid between the trenches along the aisles. Then we fill the trenches 4/5 of the depth (20 cm) with rotted manure, straw, or other organic matter. Pour the solution of the preparation "Baikal EM-1" in a ratio of 1: 1000 (up to 40% humidity).
The soil removed from the trenches must be distributed over the site so that the soil level in the trench is 3-5 cm lower than the soil level between the trenches. This work must be done 3-4 weeks before planting the seedlings. The technology was developed for warmer regions, therefore in our Kirov region it is suitable only for mid-season cabbage varieties. Further care using this technology consists in spraying the seedlings with an EM solution after germination and in covering the soil in the garden with mulch with a layer of up to 3 cm.
After mulching, watering (up to 3 l / m2) with warm water and processing with an EM solution 1: 1000 is necessary. If the aisles are not mulched, then need to water weekly.
At the beginning of the formation of a head of cabbage, it is recommended to sprinkle the plantation with an EM-preparation with a concentration of 1: 100, the solution consumption is a bucket per hundred square meters or pour a solution of 0.1% concentration (1 tbsp. L / 10 l, spending 2-3 l / sq. m). In two weeks, when the head of cabbage reaches the size of a hen's egg, carry out the third treatment with the EM-solution, and at the stage when the head of cabbage is larger than two fists in size - the fourth treatment with the solution of the preparation "Baikal EM-1" (1: 1000).
A fairly high yield of cabbage can be obtained by growing it using the "intermediate" method between conventional and EM technology, which I tried on my site. Its essence is as follows. EM compost is added to the garden bed, mixed with the usual one in an amount of about a bucket per 1 m2 and ash. Then a shallow digging is done, the bed is leveled with a rake, and seedlings are planted on it. After 10-15 days, fertilizing is done with ammonium sulfate or urea in a half dose with the addition of the drug "Baikal EM-1" and jam or syrup, 1 tbsp. l. both for 9 liters of water.
In the phase of the beginning of curling the head of cabbage and after a few weeks, you need to water the plantings with manure infusion with the addition of the same drug, followed by hilling on the same day. During this period, I also tested the option of combining mineral fertilizers with EM technology. It boiled down to the fact that the EM solution with carbohydrate nutrition was introduced after the introduction of a mixture of mineral fertilizers.
The cabbage yield was good, but the keeping quality of the cabbage was rather low. When feeding the plantings with manure infusion with the preparation "Baikal EM-1", the cabbage was stored much longer. I believe that this was obtained due to the improvement of the soil with beneficial microflora, especially since a smaller number of heads of cabbage were affected by mucous bacteriosis.
Alexander Zharavin, agronomist, Kirov
Top dressing of cauliflower during the season
The agricultural technology of growing crops requires feeding the plants throughout the growing season. Initially, additives are added during soil preparation. Then fertilizers are needed for the development of seedlings, the growth of green mass in the open field, and the formation of heads. The scheme suggested below is approximate, you should focus on the external indicators of cauliflower.
The procedure is carried out by watering the plants with a nutrient solution. When a 5 cm head is formed, foliar feeding can be applied, which consists in spraying the leaves with a solution of potassium magnesium (1 tsp), superphosphate (1 tsp), boric acid (1 g), copper sulfate (0.2 g). The procedure should be done in the evening, in dry weather, so that the sun does not scorch the plants.
Garden bed preparation
Preliminary work is carried out in the fall, after harvesting the previous crops. In the case of acidic soil, lime substances are added (200-400 g of fluffy lime per 1 m²). Instead, with fertilizers, you can add ash or dolomite flour (200-800 g per 1 m²).
For digging in the fall, add the following fertilizers per 1 m²:
- rotted manure or compost - 10 kg
- superphosphate - 100 g
- potassium salt - 120 g.
Moreover, if ash is introduced, then mineral fertilizers are not needed. Fresh manure can be applied in the fall, since it will change its composition over the winter, but its use is undesirable.
Spring preparation (in the absence of autumn) involves the introduction of 1 m²:
- dry humus - 3-5 kg
- urea - 100 g
- double superphosphate - 100 g
- potassium salt - 120 g
- magnesium sulfate - 20-30 g
- boric acid - 2 g
- wood ash - 1.5 kg.
Top dressing of seedlings
The procedure must be carried out 2-3 times, depending on the condition of the seedlings. Apply the fertilizer solution for the first time 10-12 days after the dive or the appearance of two true leaves. To do this, dissolve mineral additives per 1 liter - ammonium nitrate 2.5 g, superphosphate 2 g, potassium chloride 1.5 g.
The second procedure is performed after another 10 days. Fertilizer consumption is higher: 3 g, 4 g, 3 g, and the composition is the same. The third will be needed if the seedlings are weak, pale, stretched out. Also, in one of the procedures, it is advisable to use boric acid at the tip of a knife.
Top dressing after planting in open ground
Prepared soil requires 1-2 procedures, unprepared - 2-3. The first half of the crop cultivation is accompanied by the application of a sufficient amount of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. At the same time, you cannot add an excess amount of nitrogen, since it interferes with the absorption of phosphorus, and is also capable of accumulating in the form of nitrates and nitrites.
The first feeding is needed 16-18 days after the transfer of seedlings to open ground. For 1 m², take a solution of 15-20 g of superphosphate, 20-25 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium chloride. Pour 1 liter of the resulting solution under one plant. After 12-15 days, with increased growth of the leaf part and the formation of heads, it is necessary to fertilize a second time.
For 1 m², take the same fertilizers, in the same proportions as during the first fertilization.
In the first half of the cultivation, you can feed it with a solution of chicken manure (1:10) or slurry (1: 5). Add ammonium nitrate (2 tablespoons per bucket) to organic matter, if the cabbage is weak, does not develop well. Boron and molybdenum are needed to form the head. Dilute 2.5-3 g of substances in 10 liters of water, pour over the plant solution.
How to care for cauliflower outdoors
Cauliflower requires more care than white cabbage. Weeds and pests can easily drown out delicate sockets. To form a head, the bush must grow well and consist of 15–20 large leaves. This requires a lot of nutrition with trace elements, the soil must be kept constantly moist and loose. If the heat will stand for 3-4 days without watering, or you do not apply fertilizers containing boron and molybdenum, then you can not count on a good harvest.
Video: the basics of growing cauliflower
One has only to appear on the seedling bed or the first seedlings from seeds, as cruciferous fleas immediately settle on them. These are small insects, but they live in large colonies, so they can turn your cabbage into a sieve in just a day or even destroy it. In the fight against such aggressive pests, ordinary wood ash helps well.
Small black bugs (cruciferous fleas) parasitize radishes and all types of cabbage
On the first day of the appearance of cauliflower in the open field, dust it on wet leaves with ash. When the protective layer is washed off by rain or blown away by the wind, renew it. Do this until the bushes are growing and the lower leaves are not thickened. Such plants are no longer interested in flea beetles.
Use only fresh ash taken from a fire or barbecue that has not been exposed to rain.
Ordinary dry mustard helps with caterpillars. Pour 200 g of powder into 10 liters of water heated in the sun, let it brew for 5-10 minutes and spray over the leaves with caterpillars. You can just collect them by hand.
Caterpillars can be harvested by hand or sprayed with mustard solution
Slugs will not make their way to cabbage if a barrier of coniferous litter, lime, ash, mustard, pepper and other caustic and prickly materials that naked molluscs cannot overcome can be installed around each bush or the entire garden. Of course, after each rain, the barriers of all kinds of powders will have to be renewed.
Instead of needles, you can use crushed eggshells.
Invasion of slugs will prevent barriers around cabbage
It is believed that mulch from needles, cones, pine bark acidifies the soil. But this only happens after a few years. The problem is different: a thick layer of such mulch does not allow light and air to pass through. In addition, coniferous plant residues contain resins, release fungicides, these substances inhibit beneficial bacteria, microorganisms, insects, and also cultivated plants. Therefore, do not overuse needles, do not use them as mulch for cabbage. Pour only a thin layer around each head of cabbage or around the perimeter of the garden bed.
Watering and feeding
Cauliflower needs to be watered so that the ground under it is constantly wet to a depth of 30 cm. It cannot be poured, there is no oxygen in too damp soil, the roots do not breathe, the plant dies. Pour 2-3 liters of water under one bush. Keep the beds under the mulch so the soil will dry out much more slowly. Sprinkle on hot days (above 25 ° C).
Sprinkling on hot days will help reduce the temperature in the cabbage patch to the optimum.
During the growing season, two dressings are enough, but they must contain all macro- and microelements:
- 2 weeks after planting in the ground (if sown with seeds, then in the growth phase of 5–6 leaves), feed with infusion of mullein (1:10), bird droppings (1:20) or weeds (1: 5). Add 1 tbsp to a bucket of such fertilizer. l. superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
- When the heads start to grow, use the same organics, but now add 1 tbsp. l. nitrophosphate for 10 liters of infusion.
Top dressing consumption - 1 liter per bush. Always apply it on damp ground. If you water and feed the cabbage correctly, the weather is favorable, but the plant is still slowly growing its leaves, then you can make additional feeding 10-14 days after the previous one.
Loosening and hilling
Mulch helps to keep the soil on the cabbage bed always loose and free from weeds. Unfortunately, not every farm has a sufficient amount of plant residues (hay, straw, old sawdust, grass cuttings) to cover the ground with a layer that will protect the soil from drying out and germination of weeds.
Mulch protects the soil well from drying out, but it quickly decays and requires regular renewal
I constantly cover the beds with cut grass, collect it behind the fence with armfuls and even break the young, still green, branches of the decorative fieldfare growing there densely. I grow siderates. However, this is not enough for all landings. The mulch dries up quickly and the ground is bare again. And after 3-4 weeks not a trace remains of it, it either rotates in damp weather, or turns into dust in the heat and is carried by the wind. The material for new mulch grows more slowly than the old one is consumed. Therefore, the earth still has to be loosened.
Loosen the cauliflower after each watering or top dressing as soon as you see a crust beginning to form on the soil. Do this carefully, to a depth of no more than 3-5 cm, so as not to damage the surface roots. Along the way, get rid of weeds and poke the bushes with still wet soil. At the same time, it is important not to fall asleep in the hearts of the sockets where the growth point is located.
Spud cabbage only with moist and loose soil
Cauliflowers that are the size of walnuts need protection from the sun. In bright light, they will be loose and bloom quickly.There is no need to cut off the lower leaves and lay them on top of the heads or break the nearest ones and cover them with them. In this case, the leaves will either lay down tightly, the inflorescences will not ventilate and rot, or they will dry out and be blown away by the wind. Better create a lively openwork shadow with air access and diffused light. Lift, without tearing, over the inflorescence 2-3 adjoining leaves and connect their tops with a clothespin, a light clamp, or tie, without tightening, with twine. This will create a natural dome.
To shade the head, connect the leaves above it with light clothespins.
Planting cauliflower outdoors
On average, cauliflower seedlings become suitable for transplanting to the garden after 45 days. By this time, the seedling should have 4-5 leaves and a well-developed root system. It is also necessary to harden the seedlings so that they are ready for life outdoors. To do this, it should be placed in a cold greenhouse for 3-5 days. It can be ventilated only during the daytime, each time increasing the time.
Planting cauliflower seedlings in the garden is best on a cloudy but warm day. Choose a well-lit area for this culture. Cauliflower will grow well in a garden where cucumbers, onions, or legumes have previously grown.
Seedling holes should be spaced 25 cm apart. There should be at least 50 cm between the rows. A little ash mixed with soil should be added to each hole, after which young cauliflower can be planted. Plants need to be buried to the first true leaf. After this planting should be watered and covered with foil for several days.
Harvesting and storage, culinary applications
Collect the cauliflower heads as they ripen, when they are typical for the variety. If you do not plan to immediately use the cabbage for food, then cut the cabbages together with 3-4 adjoining leaves and place them in boxes, baskets or boxes, cut upwards. So the heads of cabbage will appear as if in natural packaging, will not be damaged during transportation, and dirt will not get on them.
For transport, cut the cauliflower with a few leaves to protect the cabbage from dirt and damage
Fresh cauliflower is not stored for long, quickly loses its useful qualities, becomes lethargic, and even turns yellow in the light. In the refrigerator, the inflorescences wrapped in plastic wrap can lie for a week. But before that, they need to be cleaned of leaves and dirt, disassembled into inflorescences, rinsed and dried. For the winter, cauliflower is frozen and canned.
Video: recipe for cauliflower in batter
Salads are prepared from fresh heads of cabbage, and they are used to decorate meat dishes. Cauliflower cooked in mineral water is especially tasty. And soups from young inflorescences and juicy peduncles are not inferior in nutritional value and taste to chicken broth.
The right variety, suitable for growing in a particular region, is the key to a good harvest of cauliflower. At the same time, do not miss out on such an important factor as yield. Growing, although it has features, mainly consists of classic techniques: regular watering, complex feeding and loosening, shading the heads. Be sure to protect cabbage from pests from the first days of planting.
Agrotechnics for growing cauliflower - garden and vegetable garden
Views: 12081 Posted: 14-04-2015, 19:12 Comments: 0 Posted by natanikola
Many homeowners are interested in how to grow cauliflower. We can definitely say that such a cabbage is worthy of being a permanent resident of the garden, and how to do this will be discussed in the article.
Features of cauliflower
What we eat is cabbage flowers. They are usually white in color. True, it is not so rare to find heads of yellow and even green cabbage. There are also large specimens weighing up to two kilograms.
Cauliflower is an early ripening vegetable crop. It is a pity that it is not so common in our gardens. Moreover, it is not difficult to grow it.
Many early-maturing varieties have been created especially for the middle lane. Some of them (for example, Snowball) have a snow-white head. It can be grown throughout the gardening period. If summer and autumn are warm and long, then you can shoot several harvests a year.
By its very nature, culture adapts well to varying day lengths. So, earlier maturation occurs when 45-day-old seedlings are planted in the ground (its maximum age can be two months). For consumption of cabbage in summer and autumn, the seedlings should not be more than 40 days old. The harvest of cabbage is removed as the heads ripen, there are no strict time frames here.
Features of planting seedlings
Cauliflower is a less cold-tolerant crop. It tolerates only the weakest frosts - no more than one degree. This must be taken into account when choosing the date for planting cauliflower seedlings in open soil. As a guideline, you can plant cauliflower a little later than white cabbage.
In order to have a consistent harvest of cauliflower, seedlings can be planted at intervals of 15 days. At the same time, it is enough to plant 5 - 6 new cabbage bushes every fifteen days. This planting technique will allow you to have up to five harvests of cauliflower (the removal of flowers stops only with the onset of severe frosts). And the first harvest of such cabbage can be obtained at the beginning of July.
Plants must be planted in two rows. The distance between these rows is sixty centimeters. In a row between plants, it is necessary to maintain a distance of 30 centimeters. Plants will grow better if a little ash, humus is added to each hole. These fertilizers should not be overused so that the plants do not get burned.
Basically, the plant is not too demanding on the conditions of care, however, some rules are still very important. First of all, cauliflower needs fertilizing with fertilizers containing trace elements. It is especially demanding on the presence of molybdenum and boron compounds in the soil.
Top dressing should also be done with organic fertilizers. Manure is best suited for this. The infusion of mullein is made by diluting it in water (one part mullein to six parts of water). If you are using chicken manure, then one liter can of manure should be diluted in two buckets of water. Stronger solutions can burn plants.
When you have prepared a solution of organic fertilizer, you need to add superphosphate to it, as well as potassium sulfate. One gram of boric acid is also added to the bucket of solution, as well as one gram of ammonium molybdenum. One liter of top dressing must be applied to one plant.
After half a month, feeding should be repeated, but without adding trace elements. During intensive growth, it is necessary to water the plants more often. Also, cauliflower needs intensive watering when it has a head formation. If you want them to be large, it is necessary, as soon as it begins to form, break three to four inner sheets. They cover the forming head. For the formation of a dense head, this technique is required. If this is not done, then the head will not be white, in addition, it will be crumbly.
Instead of inner leaves, the cauliflower head can be covered with tomato tops or tall marigolds. Moreover, the latter option is more suitable, since marigolds scare away pests of cauliflower.
Like all members of this large genus, cauliflower is pest-free. After planting, care must be taken that cruciferous fleas do not attack the plants. They look like small black bugs up to three millimeters in size. To prevent the appearance of such leaves, they must be moistened with a decoction of tobacco.
During intensive growth of cauliflower leaves, cabbage white worm larvae, as well as scoops, like to eat. They can be destroyed with practically harmless biological agents. Approximately grams of the product is enough for ten liters.
Using biologics is much safer than chemically. But you can spray the plant with them no later than five days before harvesting.