Cavalli del Bisbino - Video about their history

Cavalli del Bisbino - Video about their history

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Lalchemist blog

Here is the new idea of ​​a floating farm. Will it be the future of farming?

Construction of the first "animal friendly" floating farm has begun in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. When completed, by the end of the year, it will host 40 cows that will be able to produce around 1200 liters of milk per day. Production will be circular: it will include cycles of nutrients, water and energy. The project, explain the creators al Guardian, will be an example to follow and to scale to feed cities in an increasingly urbanized and populated world, especially in densely populated centers that gravitate around river deltas.

A 2 and a half million euro project

The farm is the result of the collaboration of three parties: Courage, the Dutch agricultural institute, Uit Je Eigen Stad which manages urban farms in Rotterdam, and Beladon, which specializes in floating structures. A 2 and a half million euro project, the "floating farm" will be self-sufficient: it will generate products necessary for self-maintenance every day. The cows' urine will be purified and used to grow alfalfa and other forage, while the manure will be used as compost or transported to nearby farms that need it. Rainwater will also be collected and filtered to water the animals.

The facility will be powered by green energies

The energy needed for operation will be produced through the use of solar panels and turbines. Its location in the port of Rotterdam, in the center, will minimize transport distances. In addition, the farm will also house a hi-tech laboratory where research on food production and waste and water treatment will be conducted. Production for consumers - citizens or shops - will not be limited to milk, but this will also be transformed into butter, yogurt and cheese. The farm will then have an educational purpose and will be open to tours and school groups. The inauguration is scheduled for January 2017.

History. Father Jalics died. He felt on his skin the brutality of the Argentine regime

Father Franz Jalics died in Budapest at the age of 93

«My hope and my joy, my strength, my light Christ my certainty, in you I trust and I don't fear». Thus, the volunteers of the house for retreats Gries Hous they took leave of Father Franz Jalics last December 3, the day of the priest's name day. In greeting him, they had respected the tradition of singing together the words of a sacred hymn dear to the 93-year-old Jesuit. It would be their last conversation. On Saturday night, Franz Jalics, theologian and author of numerous books on spirituality, died in Budapest just as he was returning from the clinic to the home for the elderly where he had resided since 2017. Before that he had lived in Wilhelmsthal in Bavaria, in the Gries Hous. There he had found peace after the long and painful Argentine season, in which Father Jalics experienced the brutality of the dictatorship on his own flesh. On May 23, 1976, two months after the coup, the priest was arrested together with his brother, Orlando Yorio, in the slum of Bajo Flores, where he had chosen to stay to accompany the poor.. A commitment that, at the time, was viewed at least with suspicion by the military who kept the two religious for five months in the dungeons of Escuela mecanica de la armada (Esma), an illegal detention and torture center. To make the story even more tragic, the suspicion, artfully circulated, that the two had been betrayed and denounced as pro-guerrillas by someone close to them. None other than the then provincial, father Jorge Mario Bergoglio. The latter, now archbishop of Buenos Aires, was even called to testify at the trial against the executioners of Esma, on November 8, 2010. On that occasion, the then cardinal reiterated that he had worked hard for the liberation of the brothers, what actually happened, on October 23, 1976. The doubt, however, of an alleged "obscure role" of Bergoglio in the affair continued to be spread. Only after the election as Pontiff, the truth was able to emerge with force. Thanks to Father Jalics and his two press releases, released on March 15 and 20, 2013, as he well reconstructs Iacopo Scaramuzzi in Vatican Tango (donkey editions). "In the past, I too tended to think that we had been the victim of a complaint. But in the late 1990s, after numerous interviews, it became clear to me that this assumption was unfounded. It is therefore false to suppose that our arrest was due to Father Bergoglio»Writes the Jesuit. A conclusion that Father Jalics had had the opportunity to share with the interested party years before: on that occasion they celebrated Mass together and exchanged a fraternal embrace. The last meeting with the now Pope Francis took place on 5 October 2013 in Santa Marta and remained confidential. In the meantime, the authentic role of the current Pontiff during the dictatorship has emerged, as demonstrated by Nello Scavo in Bergoglio's list (Emi): the provincial, putting himself at risk, gave refuge to dozens and dozens of persecuted, opening the doors of the Colegio Máximo to them. And, even, accompanying them to the border. All in absolute silence. A reserve maintained even when many accused him. Faithful to the principle that, in times of tribulation - as Father Diego Fares has repeatedly illustrated on La Civiltà Cattolica - the radical attitude to take is not one's defense but "the accusation and humiliation of oneself".

The wild horses of Como "Nobody can catch them"

The Haflinger horse owes its name to Avelengo, (Bolzano). Chestnut coat, tail and mane thick and clear, it has a height of 1.50 meters at the withers. In the photo, two specimens of the herd on the Bisbino (Cavicchi)
ROVENNA (Como) - Free horse in a free state.
After seven years spent growing and multiplying in the meadows above Lake Como, perhaps the free ride is over for about thirty specimens of the Haflinger breed: their destiny could be that of being captured and ending up in some stables or farm. But in defense of the horses, environmentalists, animal rights activists and inhabitants of the villages around which the quadrupeds are used to wander are lining up.

For two days, volunteers have been guarding the roads that go up to Mount Bisbino, peak that separates Lombardy and Canton Ticino: they want to prevent the capture of animals, they want - romantically - that wild life has the best of reins and reins. And the story takes on a taste, depending on your point of view, a little western and a little Disney. The situation worsened following two episodes. The first: at the end of a complicated hereditary dispute, a responsible owner of the horses, which originally belonged to a farm, was identified. The second: Puppy, the gentlest specimen that had been stationed around the small town of Rovenna for months and that, in exchange for an apple, was caressed by children, has disappeared since Sunday. Witnesses swear they saw him loaded into a van for an unknown destination. It is feared that Puppy's fate will soon be the same as that of all his "relatives".

"What is happening is an abuse - Massimo Bianchi, head of the animal rights association Aurora, gets excited - we ask that the horse return to Rovenna and that all the others are left free because Il Bisbino is now their home". It is necessary to agree on animal rights, protection of public health and also the rights of those who in the meantime have found the thick Haflinger family on their shoulders: clock hands back to 2002 when Roberto Della Torre, owner of a farm, dies sul Bisbino which houses a dozen horses. His will is the subject of an appeal, what remains of the company languishes but the "orphan" animals of their master, already accustomed to living in a semi - wild state, are not affected: they begin to live without man, they feed on what the pastures offer, they make foals, they roam the slopes of the Bisbino according to the seasons. At the beginning of August the court of Como establishes that Della Torre's assets go to one of his sisters-in-law, including horses.

Protests in the village (Cavicchi)
And this fact is probably linked to the disappearance of Puppy. We say "probably" because up to now those directly involved have not wanted to make any statements. "One thing we can exclude from now on: the horses will not end up in the slaughterhouse as some fear, because the law prevents it" assures Oscar Gandola, until a month ago president of the Mountain Community of Lario. Will they be able to stay free on the mountain? "It is possible - he continues - but here we are in the context of a private negotiation". However, the new owners may have some headaches. "As long as the hereditary cause remained standing - explains Guido Gridavilla, veterinary manager of the Como ASL - the horses were without a master. Now the owner is liable before the law in terms of health but also for the damage that could be caused ». Damage had been complained by some farmers on the Swiss side, so much so that the issue mobilized David Vogelsanger, Swiss consul in Milan: "I asked that the animals be adopted by the artillery on horseback from Milan, with whom we are on excellent terms" . But Rovenna does not like this solution at all. For them horses are born without a master and they must remain so.

Claudio Del Frate

Here are 7 must-see horse movies

WAR HORSE (2011)

Based on Michael Morpurgo's 1982 novel, Steven Spielberg directed War Horse which has as its protagonist a thoroughbred horse named Joey. The story begins with the birth of Joey and his training by a boy named Albert. When Albert's father, to cope with economic problems, is forced to sell Joey, to Albert's great pain the horse ends up serving in the war. Enlisted, Albert will be reunited with Joey and will live with him the horrors of war.

Tom Hiddleston, Benedict Cumberbatch and Eddie Marsan lead the cast with Jeremy Irvine as Albert. The film received six Oscar nominations.

Horse Movies: Seabisquit


Seabiscuit is a film that tells the adventures of a thoroughbred champion who was the best racehorse until the 1940s. Seabisquit, considered small and unsuitable for racing, became a symbol of hope for Americans during the era of the Great Depression. The 2003 film was not the first to tell the story of Seabiscuit's life, there is also a film with Shirley Temple from 1949, also based on the book by Laura Hillenbrand. Gary Ross directed the film, which garnered seven Academy Award nominations, starring Tobey Maguire and Jeff Bridges.

Horse Movies: Spirit


Produced in 2002 by DreamWorks Animation, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron is an animated film. Instead of making horses talk like any other animated animal film would, Spirit's horses communicate through sound and body language, just like real horses would. Which impressed critics and earned him an Oscar nomination. The story is about a young foal who becomes a proud stallion and leader of his herd. However, he is captured and man tries to tame him with truly cruel methods. Spirit will meet a Native American child and the two will develop a friendship that will save their lives.

Horse Movies: Hidalgo

HIDALGO (2004)

Joe Johnston (The Rocketeer) brought the film Hildago to the big screen in 2004, a biographical western about Frank Hopkins and his horse Hidalgo. Hopkins, in real life, was a professional knight who won numerous competitions and was also a circus performer. The film follows a horse race in Arabia in 1891, where Hopkins competed with his mustang against thoroughbred Arabian horses. Viggo Mortensen played Hopkins between fascinating and wonderful scenarios.

Horse Movies: Secretariat


Secretariat is known as one of the most successful thoroughbred racehorses of all time. It has won five Eclipse Awards and is second only to Man o 'War on the list of the greatest racehorses of the 20th century. In 2010, the film that tells the story of this fantastic horse was brought to the big screen by Disney. Diane Lane she is the human star of this film, the owner of Secretariat, while John Malkovich plays the horse trainer. The film was not as successful as other horse films, but received great praise from Roger Ebert, who called it "authentic".

Horse movie: National velvet


The novel National Velvet, now a great movie classic, was produced in 1935 and tells the story of a girl named Velvet who trained and rode her horse, Pie, in the Grand National Steeplechase. Although fictional, the book from which it is based speaks of ordinary people and, in this case, of a woman in the 1920s launched into a fabulous enterprise.
National Velvet has had enormous critical acclaim, with a 12-year-old Elizabeth Taylor who plays Velvet Brown and Mickey Rooney as a tramp who helps her. The film received five Oscar nominations, winning two, and was added to the National Film Registry in 2003 for its cultural value.

Horse Movies: Dreamer


Dakota Fanning plays Cale, the precocious daughter of horse trainer Ben (Kurt Russell). When Ben and Cale witness a racehorse, Sonador, who breaks a leg, Cale convinces his father to buy and care for it. Initially skeptical, an astonished Ben realizes that the horse still has great potential, but there will be many obstacles both personal and professional to overcome before Sonador can return to winning a race. This film is based on a true story, that of the filly Mariah's Storm, winner of the 1995 Turfway Breeders' Cup.

Horse Movies: The horse whisperer


When teenage Grace (Scarlett Johanssen) is horribly injured in a riding accident, her mother, Annie, refuses to give up on her daughter or her equally traumatized horse, Pilgrim. So he hires Tom Booker "a horse whisperer", who uses natural techniques to rehabilitate the two. The film drew some criticism for some of the not very realistic training techniques, but it remains a fascinating and compelling story.

Horse Movies: Buck

BUCK (2011)

We put Buck on this list even if it is actually a documentary and not really a film.

Released in 2011, Buck is a documentary about a real horse whisperer, Buck Brannaman. He is the man who worked on Robert Redford's film The Horse Whisperer as principal consultant. His method of horse training makes use of authority and sensitivity and rejects any form of punishment or violence. This documentary is sure to fascinate horse lovers and won the Audience Award at Sundance. He follows Buck as he travels around the country helping people in difficulty in training their horse and tells the difficult and fascinating story.

The history of Savelli fritters

Horse breeders from March to January, creators of the best sweet street food during the holiday period: we got the whole story told by Francis Savelli.

Who started the business?

My maternal great-grandmother a century ago, an extraordinary cook who, as was often the custom in those days, decided to start selling pancakes on the street. But it was my grandfather Mario, after World War II, to make a change with his family.

What kind of breakthrough?

He rebuilt the kiosk for good, took over the management and above all raised the quality of the product. My grandfather is a true lover of taste, very attentive to raw materials: he is the one who selects the ingredients and who has tried his hand at cooking since he was 12 years old.

A family tradition, therefore. How many are you on the team today?

Almost all of them, to tell the truth. Me, my brother, my mom and sister and then my three cousins: we have all been infected by the passion of a grandfather.

When can you find your pancakes?

For some years now we have been present from the last Saturday in January until the Sunday following the day of St. Joseph (in this case, March 24). In fact, the dessert is also a symbol of Father's Day.

And what do you do in the rest of the year?

Each of us has a different job, but all together we take care of the horses: my family has always raised for the palio.

We come to pancakes: how are they made?

Very simple, with a light and tasty taste. No fillings, although many prepare them with chocolate or cream. They turn out to be rather light.

What are they special about?

Being empty inside, they are thrown all together in boiling oil, thus forming what in dialect is called "piccia", a sort of wheel from which they are then manually detached one by one by the customer.

What ingredients do you use?

Rice boiled in water, orange peel put in cooking, a pinch of salt and 00 flour.

The trick to having a compact and soft dough like yours?

The rest. Once cooked and flavored, the rice is left to rest for at least five days in the cold, making it easier to shape for frying. echoua

What do you use for frying?

Extra virgin olive oil from a local producer. Years ago we used mixed seed oil, but over time my grandfather realized that extra virgin olive oil can't be beaten. Of course, it costs a little more, but the quality is much better and the frying is much lighter and more digestible. And then, it affects our health.

How many pancakes do you prepare per day?

I don't know ... lots of them! It is difficult to establish a precise number: there are those who buy four (the total number of the pike), those who take a lot of them to take away.

Do you ever think about opening another office or expanding the offer?

We had evaluated the idea of ​​opening a real shop, a sort of fried temple, my grandparents' workhorse. We have, however, decided to give up: this has never been our full-time job, we all have other commitments. And then there are always horses, another great family passion.

The greatest satisfaction?

See customers leaving with their pancake bag and after a while they back off and come back to buy more ...

It happens? It almost always happens!

From Saturday 30 January 2021, Savelli's pancakes will return to Piazza del Campo on time, in compliance with the health regulations in force: "We can't wait to go back to that square, undoubtedly the most beautiful in the world for us, to carry on a Sienese and familiar tradition like the fritters of San Giuseppe!

The history of torture

They made me kneel. They wanted me to say who the leaders were. When I replied that I did not know anything, after handcuffing me, they tried to drown me, to strangle me, they kicked me in the belly. They took off my clothes and threatened to rape me. Then they made me kneel in front of a mound of hot cow dung. They brought a knife to my neck and made me eat half a kilo of dung ».

Valdecir Bordignon, a Brazilian farmer, received this treatment in 1999 from the police squads of Paranà, Brazil, on the hunt for the leaders of the landless movement.

Today we see similar scenes in different countries of the world, even evolved ones. A modern aberration? Far from it. Today torture has ingenious tools, but it is still the use of violent and humiliating methods in the name of a higher interest: to track down criminals, to punish or confess guilty of crimes, to intimidate enemies. A necessary evil? History (and science) say no. Yet man is far from having understood it. Also because the roots of this behavior are much older than you think.

Millennial roots. The first traces of torture date back to the ancient Egyptians, who since the twentieth century a. C. used cruel methods (especially beatings and whipping) to intimidate, punish or make criminals or enemies confess.

But it was with the Greeks, and especially with the Romans that torture took hold: it is no coincidence that the word torture derives from the Latin torquere (twist the body). Initially applied to slaves (for the free the credibility was validated by the oath) then extended with imperial absolutism: it was used on offenders of lese majesty, on magicians and liars.

Torture became a perfectly legal judicial tool: confession was indispensable, in Roman law, to formulate a sentence. Scourging, with the whip formed by long ox-skin straps that cut like a knife, was the most used. But there were also other methods: the slaves who had tried to escape were branded on the forehead under the Emperor Constantine, the slave guilty of seducing a free man or woman was poured molten lead down his throat. The same crucifixion of Jesus (cruciare it meant “to torment”) was one of the terrible tortures reserved for evildoers.

The saw provided for the sectioning of the condemned along the longitudinal axis. The victim was hung upside down so that the blood rushing to his head kept him alive for as long as possible. Horrifying as they are, these tools are not the result of legends or fantasies, and they are not hoaxes.

Reserved for adulterers and women who had abortions, the breast rip was a bristling pincer that was used to do what the name suggests. Probably also used on witches.

The table is one of the most famous torture instruments of the Renaissance: the victim was attached hands and feet to four ropes mounted on rollers and then was stretched until the complete dislocation of the joints and beyond.

Particularly appreciated by the Spanish Inquisition (very different from the Roman one), the knee-breaker was the sadistic variant of a carpenter's vice. Bristling with spikes, it was applied to the knee of the heretic on duty and progressively tightened with a screw. At the discretion of the torturer, it could be effectively used on other parts of the body.

Together with the table, the wheel entered the collective imagination as one of the instruments of torture par excellence. The victim was tied to a wagon wheel, arms and legs were broken with hammer blows by the executioner and the body, so tortured, was exposed to the public waiting for death to come.

A variant on the theme "crushes / tears / splits" was the head pulp, a sort of helmet mounted on a press that was painfully applied to the skull of the victim, leading to a painful and gruesome death for the spectators.

The Spanish donkey is probably one of the most painful and diabolical instruments of torture ever invented. It is a wooden post with a triangular section with smooth sides and particularly sharp vertices. The condemned man was made to sit astride the trunk so that his weight rested on the edge. It is easy to imagine the effect, made even worse by the weights hung by the torturers from the victim's ankles.

A variant of the Spanish donkey was the horse of Judas, a wooden pyramid on which the condemned man was slowly seated and hung by the arms and legs.

The "iron pear": through the screw mechanism the mouth was opened up to dislocate it.

A tortured man hung by his arms and tormented with burning embers. In ancient Rome, the grill was used: the prisoner was lying on an iron bed suspended over hot coals.

In an illustration of the '600 the representation of various tortures made to the Italian slaves captured by the Saracens: impaled, quartered by 2 ships, burned alive, crucified, burned with candles, walled up alive, torn to pieces, dragged by horses.

The torture of stamping the feet in vogue in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. That of the executioner was a recognized profession.

Waterboarding. This is the modern name of water torture, already in vogue in the Renaissance, which consists in pouring water in liters into the throat of the tortured, causing a feeling of imminent death. Cynically defined today as an interrogation technique, waterboarding leaves no visible marks. It was used in the Guantanamo prison (Cuba) by the United States to interrogate suspects of belonging to Al Qaeda.
Read also the history of torture, from the Egyptians to the present day.

Psychology Torture is never light

Psychology Does torture work?

History Where did the Nazis who escaped from Nuremberg ended up?

Psychology Does torture work?

Medieval barbarism. Despite their name, the barbarians did not practice torture. However, they had a bloody way of proving the guilt of an accused:ordeal. In case of doubt, only those who could hold a hot iron in the palm of their hand or immerse their arm in a cauldron of boiling water proved their innocence.

The revival of Roman law at the end of the 12th century brought torture back into vogue as a judicial tool (both punitive and to obtain confessions). There were various techniques: the most common was that of the "rope", that is to lift the suspect from the ground with a rope tied to the wrists, then causing the victim to fall from various heights, disarticulating the upper limbs, or the "temple", with which compressed the ankle between two metal pieces "the cannette" inserted between the fingers of the hands and then tightened with cords the hot pincers with which they tore the meat or water made to ingest, by force, in liters. But not all courts applied these systems routinely. At least until 1252, when Pope Innocent IV officially authorized its use in trials against heretics, when there were strong doubts and contradictions about the accused's confessions.

But torture was used only in exceptional cases: the threat of torture alone was often sufficient in any case, the manuals of the time recommended that it be done in a limited manner, without permanently maiming the victim, and that each torture session should not last more than 10 minutes. In the end, if the heretic confessed, he had to repent before the community with an "act of faith" (auto da fé, in Portuguese) wearing a black habit with a high headdress. Otherwise, there was life in prison or the stake, for recidivist or serious heretics: the victim's body was burned so that he could no longer rise again after the Last Judgment.

Route change. The practice of torture continued for a long time. The Roman Inquisition, between 1542 and 1761, sent 97 people to the stake, including the philosopher Giordano Bruno who did not want to deny his ideas. Galileo Galilei, on the other hand, was saved because he abjured.

The cultural picture began to change with the Enlightenment. Cesare Beccaria in the treatise Of crimes and punishments (1764) condemned torture as an unnecessarily cruel practice: "If a crime is certain, torments are useless, because the confession of the offender is useless if he is uncertain, one should not torture an innocent person because such is according to the law a man whose crimes they are not proven ". The first country to repudiate torture was Prussia in 1740 at the end of the century the French Revolution reaffirmed the rights of man even if he was suspected of being a criminal. But the "reason of state" also prevailed over egalitarianism: in 1800 the French police began to use - in secret - various drugs in interrogations to make criminals confess.

Modern horrors. The last century was one of the darkest in history for the use of torture. In World War I (1914-1918) the Turks carried out brutal acts in Armenian villages: after being raped by 40 soldiers, the eyebrows and nails were torn off, the breasts of men were cut off and their feet were amputated and in the stumps horse shoe nails were inserted.

In the nascent Soviet Union (1919-1950), many priests, including bishops, were burned alive, while officers who opposed the regime were cut off their testicles, scarred their faces, gouged out their eyes and cut out their tongues. This fate also affected many German prisoners of war during World War II. Often in the gulags the victims were pierced with a bayonet in the same place, slowly, even 15 or 20 times. Some victims were injected with glass powder into the rectum.

The Nazis, from 1933 to 1945, transformed torture into a mass fact: they deported Jews, gypsies, homosexuals and political dissidents to extermination camps in order to systematically exterminate them. They beat them (up to 800 times) with heavy sticks, put out cigarettes on the genitals, tore out their nails. The prisoners were also used as human guinea pigs for atrocious experiments: reduction of oxygen and atmospheric pressure, prolonged freezing and cooling, sterilization and castration tests. And even before destroying their bodies, the Nazis annihilated the souls of the prisoners: they replaced their names with numbers, forced them into exhausting and useless jobs, starved them. Up to erasing its dignity.

Instructions for abuse. But peace hasn't changed things. During the Cold War the USA, obsessed with spies and presumed such, developed in 1963 a real manual on counterintelligence interrogation, the "Kubark", based on the 3D model: dependency, debility, dread (addiction, debilitation, terror). Per far confessare i prigionieri si manipolavano le funzioni vitali con privazioni sensoriali (niente luce o luce artificiale continua nessun suono o suoni ossessivi) indebolimento fisico droghe tormenti vari (stare in piedi per ore o in posizioni scomode). Il tutto con l'ulteriore vantaggio di non lasciare tracce riscontrabili a un esame medico. Il manuale fece scuola in tutti i conflitti successivi: già nel 1973 Amnesty denunciava che la tortura era diventata "un fenomeno internazionale: esperti stranieri girano da un Paese all'altro, scuole di tortura illustrano e dimostrano i vari sistemi, e il moderno armamentario della tortura viene esportato da un Paese all'altro".

La parola d’ordine? Non solo far soffrire, ma soprattutto annullare la volontà dei prigionieri.

Inferno globale. Così la tortura è diventato un metodo globale. Fu usata nella guerra del Vietnam (anni '60) dai militari Usa, nella Grecia dei Colonnelli (anni '60), nella Gran Bretagna impegnata contro i separatisti dell'Ira (anni '70) fino ad arrivare alla Cambogia: durante il regime di Pol Pot (1976- 1979), gli oppositori erano torturati con schegge di vetro o puntine di grammofono infilate sotto le unghie. Le vittime erano picchiate con il guanto di ferro, la cui superficie esterna era ricoperta di chiodi. Un altro metodo era far stendere il prigioniero a terra con la faccia in su: 4 uomini gli tenevano ferme le spalle e la testa, e il collo gli veniva tirato, mentre un quinto uomo lo colpiva, sul collo, col calcio di una rivoltella o con una mazza fino a fargli uscire il sangue dalla bocca e dalle narici. Molti erano ustionati con acqua bollente o con candele accese.

Gli ultimi orrori, in ordine di tempo, sono le camere della tortura argentine (1976-1983) e cilene (1973-1990) nelle quali si utilizzava molto l’elettricità: gli aguzzini collegavano la batteria di un’auto ai genitali o ai capezzoli delle vittime, costrette a continue docce gelate e minacciati di morte. I cadaveri (o i prigionieri agonizzanti) venivano fatti sparire gettandoli nell’oceano dagli aerei.

Dopo il 2000. Quantificare le torture oggi? Impossibile. Ma siamo nell'ordine di migliaia di casi secondo Amnesty International. I più noti sono venuti a galla dall'inferno del carcere di Abu Ghraib (Iraq): scosse elettriche, pestaggi, umiliazioni sessuali… Per non parlare del carcere Usa a Guantanamo, dove 460 persone sono recluse senza processo né accuse in condizioni inumane, con suicidi sempre più frequenti. Eppure questa è solo la punta di un iceberg: in 104 Paesi (su 190, 1 su 2) si tortura per estorcere confessioni, punire criminali, imporre la disciplina. E la lotta contro il terrorismo non è la motivazione più frequente: in molti Stati (Cina, Russia, Paesi islamici) i diritti umani sono un optional.

Ma anche i Paesi democratici hanno un lato oscuro. Nel dossier di Amnesty figurano infatti molte nazioni europee. Compresa l’Italia, dove l’episodio più grave riguarda 59 poliziotti accusati di violenze contro i manifestanti di Napoli (marzo 2001) e Genova (luglio 2001: quasi 100 feriti, di cui 3 in coma). Ancora più preoccupanti le situazioni strutturali: le carceri e i centri di permanenza temporanea e assistenza (Cpta) per immigrati. Nelle prigioni italiane, oltre a episodi di maltrattamento da parte di agenti, il sovraffollamento e l’assistenza sanitaria inadeguata sono equiparati a torture, tanto da aver causato diversi suicidi. E nei Cpta, oltre a casi di abuso, si segnalano sovraffollamento, scarsa igiene e assistenza sanitaria insufficiente, e in alcuni casi l’uso illegale di sedativi.

Criptopolizie al buio. «Non c'è Paese al mondo» diceva lo scrittore Leonardo Sciascia negli anni '80 «che ormai ammetta nelle proprie leggi la tortura, ma di fatto sono pochi quelli in cui polizie, sotto polizie e criptopolizie non la pratichino. Nei Paesi scarsamente sensibili al diritto – anche quando se ne proclamano antesignani e custodi – il fatto che la tortura non appartenga più alla legge ha conferito al praticarla occultamente uno sconfinato arbitrio».

Che può essere sconfitto solo facendolo venire alla luce.

Video: Gemma - Cavalli del Bisbino