2 important rules for using sawdust in the garden so that they benefit, not harm
Not all gardeners know about the beneficial properties of sawdust, but this valuable organic fertilizer can be effectively used on a personal plot. The price of wood waste in comparison with manure or ready-made compositions is low, and there are many possibilities for their use.
Use only rotted sawdust
Fresh wood waste does not improve the composition of the earth, moreover, it takes nitrogen from it and oxidizes it, and acidic soils are not suitable for all plants. The best option is rotted, dark brown or semi-rotted light brown. If you still use fresh, deoxidizing substances will need to be added to the soil to reduce the negative effects of fresh sawdust. Deoxidizers can be ash or dolomite flour. When carrying out construction work in the house, the wood remains as waste, but it should not be thrown into a landfill. Such sawdust is no longer fresh, so they can be safely used to obtain humus by placing it in a compost heap. There are several important details of the preparation of fertilizer from sawdust and its correct use, which must be taken into account in order not to harm the soil.In order to get humus from wood waste, it is necessary to influence several factors: heat, humidity, bacteria and oxygen. When these components interact, sawdust turns into a useful substance. This process occurs with the formation of a large amount of carbon dioxide, so it is important to do this process outdoors.
Treat with nitrogen fertilizer before use
To increase the nitrogen content in the soil, you can use a solution of urea in the proportion of 70 grams per bucket of water. Sawdust is spilled with this tool, they will not deplete the soil, reducing the nitrogen content in it. To obtain the most high-quality and effective fertilizer, it is recommended to add other inorganic substances to the compost, for example, calcium or phosphorus. They are found in slaked lime, which neutralizes the acidic environment and also helps bacteria to process acid-reacting materials such as cellulose, sawdust, pine needles and bark.In general, sawdust loosens the soil, retains moisture, inhibits weed growth, it is an excellent mulching agent. , which has long and well proven itself among experienced gardeners. In addition, you can sprinkle them on garden paths, germinate seedlings in them and store root vegetables.
Using sawdust in the garden, vegetable garden and greenhouse
About the benefits of sawdust
The overwhelming majority of gardeners are convinced of the value of such fertilizer as manure, although at current prices very few people buy it, alas, they cannot afford it. But few people know about the benefits of sawdust, although it is a very valuable organic matter, which, if used correctly, can provide very good results.
At the same time, this organic material in considerable quantities regularly appears in everyone who enthusiastically continues to do construction work in their garden. Yes, and buying a sawdust car for many is not a problem, because in comparison with manure, they are much cheaper. Sometimes some enterprises even take them to the landfill.
Meanwhile, there are quite a few options for using sawdust in a garden plot - they are laid in compost, used as a mulching material and when forming ridges, sprinkled with paths, etc. And even used as a substrate for the germination of potatoes and seeds, seedlings are grown on them. However, you should not take these words completely literally and start right away, for example, grow tomatoes on sawdust or cover raspberries with a thick layer of sawdust - nothing good will come of it, since everything is not so simple.
How to use sawdust in the garden and vegetable garden (three uses)
Many are afraid to use sawdust, because many years ago there was a "rumor" in all garden magazines that they "draw nitrogen from the soil."
Even then, 40 years ago, I liked this expression "pull out nitrogen" :)) I just tried to imagine it then ... Like ... There was nitrogen in the soil (at different depths in the fertile layer), and suddenly sawdust got into the soil. Oh, what will happen now ?!
What is sawdust? And this is organic matter, wood, which is very finely "cut". So what? Suppose that Azot (I will write with a capital letter), pushing everything in its path on the sides, rushed towards the sawdust, which somehow attracted him. And ... And disintegrated / dissolved / disappeared / disappeared / disappeared / flew away.
And there is still poor soil on which nothing grows? So what? Are there chemists among my readers? After all, I fully admit that nitrogen is required for the decomposition of sawdust, but not in the same amount in order to refuse them?
And I must honestly admit that all these fears were partially passed on to me. Therefore, I used to mix sawdust with a solution of urea or nitrate. She poured half a bucket of water, poured a tablespoon of saltpeter into it and filled the bucket with sawdust. But it turned out to be such a hassle :)))
Now I make everything much easier.
Firstly, I boldly sprinkle sawdust between the beds so that weeds do not grow. In a thick layer.
Secondly, I scatter sawdust around raspberries every spring and fall. Without any nitrogen. With one "but". Inside the rows of raspberries (between the bushes) I sprinkle a decent amount of compost every fall.
Thirdly, I use sawdust in strawberries and strawberries.
I dig the garden bed, then level it with a rake and cover it with a layer of mown grass.
In the fall, my grass is already dry in places and a little with leaves beginning to fall off under the apple trees and pears. If there is no grass, then a layer of fallen leaves can be used.
And then I sprinkle sawdust on top. There is about a bucket of sawdust for every meter of the bed.
And so I leave the garden until it's time to plant strawberries or strawberries. These berries love slightly acidic soil, so sawdust is quite appropriate here.
If you are interested, read how I then plant berries here: “How to shorten the time for planting strawberries or strawberries?«.
And read about how I use sawdust between the beds: “How to make a track from ... newspapers?«.
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Problems and solutions
So, problem number 1 - soil acidification... If you mulch blueberries, conifers or rhododendrons with sawdust, then there is no problem at all - they love "sour". For most other plants, acidification is detrimental.
Decision. If you remember from the course of chemistry, alkalis and acids neutralize each other by reacting. Remember how long ago you "extinguished" soda with vinegar when making dough? The same can be done in the garden area. Only instead of soda you need to use:
- ash (peat or wood)
- regular lime or special deoxidizing lime (sold in stores)
- dolomite flour
- fertilizers (potassium chloride, potassium or ammonium sulfate, calcium or sodium nitrate, superphosphate)
- crushed chalk.
Alkalis must be added with sawdust
Generally, make alkalis with sawdust... The main thing is to observe the dose and the rules. So, with lime and dolomite flour, fertilizers enriched with boron and manganese must be added to the soil. To find out the acidity of your soil, use special litmus tests. They are also sold in garden shops and are very easy to use (no chemistry knowledge needed).
Problem # 2 - nitrogen pull-back... And with a lack of nitrogen, as we know, plants do not develop well.
Decision: urea (calcium nitrate). In this case, it is imperative to use water so that the fertilizer dissolves and the sawdust is saturated with it.
It is necessary to use water so that the fertilizer dissolves and the sawdust is saturated with it.
Now let's move on directly to the methods of using sawdust in the country.
Features of the use of sawdust in greenhouses and greenhouses
For greenhouses and greenhouses, sawdust is a very valuable material, because they are excellent for indoor ground and mixed with plant residues and manure as compost. You can use sawdust in greenhouses and greenhouses both in spring and autumn. It is better to introduce rotted sawdust, which does not draw nitrogen from the soil. The effect of sawdust in greenhouses is that in combination with manure or other organic material, the soil warms up faster, and the plants absorb nutrients better.
How to use sawdust indoors:
- in the fall, lay the beds with organic residues (leaves, tops, straw)
- in spring, put a layer of manure on top and sprinkle with limestone flour and sawdust
- mix all the material in the garden (you can use a rake)
- put a layer of straw on top, on the straw - a layer of earth with the addition of mineral fertilizers and ash.
Use in the garden and in the garden
It is best to use sawdust as fertilizer in late autumn or spring. The preparatory work may vary depending on the type of fertilized plants:
- Solanaceous plants (peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants) prefer the autumn introduction of fresh sawdust mixed with manure.
- Umbrella also love autumn feeding with fresh organic matter.
Carrots fertilized in spring will respond with the formation of small, gnarled root crops.
- Melon plants favor the spring fertilization. But it is better to feed them with rotted biomaterial.
Their positive effect is difficult to overestimate. Sawdust is introduced into greenhouses both in autumn and spring. And in any form: with plant residues, with any kind of manure, in the form of compost.
So that the sawdust does not pull nitrogenous compounds out of the soil, they are pre-prepared - they are allowed to overheat.
The beauty of such organic raw materials is that, together with manure and other organic matter, it warms up the soil better. Plants begin to consume nutrients faster and more efficiently.
Greenhouse sawdust for the growth of cucumbers
Most gardeners strive for early sowing of cucumbers in greenhouses in order to quickly collect the first crop. However, in early spring the weather is changeable, frosts may occur. Not everyone has the opportunity to put at least the simplest heater in a greenhouse in order to save seedlings from death. A proven method of warming the beds with sawdust will come to the rescue. They do it like this:
- The top layer of soil is removed, rotted sawdust is laid, spilled with slurry.
- Sprinkle with the same soil and form the beds.
In such an environment, cucumbers are not afraid of minor temperature drops, because the culture will have enough heat until the end of the season.
Sawdust does an excellent job with cucumber pests. It is enough just to sprinkle the trunk with a small layer of such organic matter, as insects will rush to leave the plant.
Sawdust for garden beds
Sawdust serves as the main material for the formation of beds and ridding the site of excess moisture. When flooding the garden with showers or flooding during the period of snow melting, proceed as follows:
- a trench is dug around the perimeter (35 cm wide, 25 deep),
- they cover it with sawdust, and send the earth to the beds themselves - excess water will go away.
After a couple of years, the most valuable organic fertilizer will be ready in the trench. It remains only to extract and use it.
Sawdust-based fertilizer is used for:
- vegetables and berries (from potatoes to strawberries)
- garden trees
Many gardeners want to feast on young potatoes in June. In the preparation of this culture for planting sawdust has no equal.
About a couple of weeks before sending the potatoes to the open ground, the sprouted tubers are placed in boxes with sawdust. Sprinkle them on top with a moist substrate. Leave indoors at +20 degrees.
As soon as the sprouts reach 7 cm, they are fed with complex fertilizer and planted in the ground.
The soil must be warm enough, otherwise you will have to cover the plantings with a film.
Such potatoes begin to bear fruit 3-4 weeks earlier than usual.
In this case, fresh sawdust that has undergone comprehensive training will come in handy. It is recommended to take birch, oak, willow, poplar, maple, aspen sawdust for the substrate. It is they who are suitable for creating the ideal mycelium, which will hasten to please the owners with a rich harvest.
Insulation of garden trees
Fruit trees, berry fields require insulation for the winter. Sawdust comes in handy here. They are laid out in bags, tightened well in order to prevent the ingress of water, insects, and rodents. Then they are covered with young trees. This type of insulation has been tested over the years. There is no doubt about its reliability. It is also used to hide clematis and roses.
The grapes are insulated differently. They take a strong wooden frame, cover the plant with it, completely fill it with fresh sawdust, wrap it in polyethylene.
Organic raw materials should not get wet in the rain. Otherwise, the very first frost will turn the box with sawdust into an ice block.
How to use sawdust in the garden and vegetable garden?
In the household, especially during construction work, sawdust accumulates - waste from carpentry work. Some young owners, not understanding what priceless material for gardening fell into their hands, immediately send the waste to the fire, and then scatter the ash as fertilizer around the garden. Indeed, where can you use sawdust, how to use them and is it worth the candle? I hasten to reassure readers. There are many ways to use sawdust in gardening. Only they need to be used correctly. Let's try to figure out where and how sawdust is used.
Sawdust for use in the garden and vegetable garden.
- What is sawdust?
- Table 1. Bulk density of wood sawdust
- Sawdust characteristics
- Types of sawdust and their use
- Ways to use sawdust
- Improving the physical properties of the soil
- Composting with sawdust
- Aerobic compost preparation
- Anaerobic compost preparation
- Mulching the soil with sawdust
- Using sawdust mulch to prepare tall and warm beds
- Sawdust as insulation and covering material
What is sawdust?
Sawdust - waste from sawing wood and other materials (plywood, boards, etc.). The sawdust material is quite lightweight. Bulk density of wood sawdust is 100 kg per 1 m³ and 1 ton contains 9-10 m³. raw materials at a standard moisture content of 8-15% (Table 1). This material is very easy to use.
Table 1. Bulk density of wood sawdust
|Bulk density of wood waste||Liter can, kg||Standard bucket (10 liters), kg||Mass of 1 cube in kg, kg / m³||The number of cubes in a ton (dry sawdust), m³ / t|
|Average data (excluding tree species)||0.1 kg||1.0KG||100 kg / m³||10 m³||9 m³|
The chemical composition of sawdust is characterized by the following content of chemical elements:
- 50% carbon:
- 44% oxygen:
- 6% hydrogen%
- 0.1% nitrogen.
In addition, wood contains about 27% lignin, which gives the trees the density of lignification and at least 70% hemicellulose (practically carbohydrates).
Natural organic material, when decomposed in the soil, is the supplier of the elements needed by plants. 1 m³ of sawdust contains 250 g of calcium, 150-200 g of potassium, 20 g of nitrogen, about 30 g of phosphorus. In some types of sawdust (mostly conifers), the wood contains resinous substances that negatively affect the growth and development of plants.Sawdust is a sterile substrate and when it enters the soil, it immediately becomes populated by microflora. Provided with organic material, the microflora for the decomposition of sawdust uses the nutrients of wood and soil, depleting the latter with essential nutrients (the same nitrogen and phosphorus).
The composition of natural wood sawdust does not cause allergies, and does not emit harmful emissions during combustion. But it must be borne in mind that the above composition characterizes natural wood, the qualities of which are also determined by the composition of sawdust. Sawdust as waste from artificially obtained wood-based panels impregnated with adhesives and varnishes cannot be used in gardening.
Types of sawdust and their use
Sawdust is named according to the main type of tree culture: birch, linden, oak, chestnut, pine, aspen, coniferous, etc.
All types of sawdust (any tree species) can be used on the farm. But first, you need to reduce their negative impact on soil components using various methods.
This is the most accessible and inexpensive raw material that has a wide range of applications in the personal household. Sawdust is used in the construction of outbuildings, for insulation of walls, floors and in other cases of construction.
But the most valuable is the use of sawdust in gardening work:
- To improve the physical condition of the soil for planting garden or horticultural crops.
- As one of the components of compost preparation.
- As use for mulching vegetable, flower and horticultural crops.
- Sawdust has low thermal conductivity and can be used as a heater for heat-loving plants (roses, young southern fruit crops, exotic plants in cold regions).
- Sawdust is an indispensable component in the preparation of warm beds.
- As a covering material for tracks, from overgrowing the latter with weeds.
Ways to use sawdust
Improving the physical properties of the soil
Chernozem soils, clayey and loamy, are dense and heavy. Most garden plants prefer light, loose, breathable and permeable soil. The qualitative composition of such soils can be improved by adding up to 50% of the volume of the soil mass of sawdust when preparing greenhouse substrates or preparing soil mixtures for growing seedlings.
So that sawdust does not reduce fertility, they are mixed with semi-rotted manure before application or mineral fertilizers, urea solution or mullein are added.
Composting with sawdust
Preparation of compost eliminates all the negative properties of sawdust (depletion of soil nutrients, a decrease in the properties of an oxidizing agent, a decrease in the action of resinous substances, etc.).
Compost preparation can be done in two ways:
- get fast or aerobic compost (with air access), which will be ready for use in 1.0-2.0 months
- anaerobic compost (without air access), this preparation process is longer (3-6 months, depending on the components used), but this method preserves the nutritional value of organic matter.
Aerobic compost preparation
With this method, you can prepare sawdust-mineral, sawdust-organic and sawdust-mixed compost.
- For sawdust-mineral compost for 50 kg (0.5 m³) sawdust add 1.25 kg of urea, 0.4 kg of superphosphate (double) and 0.75 kg of potassium sulfate. Fertilizers are dissolved in warm water and sawdust is spilled, constantly stirring them or laying them in layers. Each layer is spilled with a prepared solution. During the composting period, the compost heap is stirred to increase air access, which will accelerate the fermentation of sawdust organic matter.
- To prepare sawdust-organic compost, chicken manure or manure is required. Organic matter is added to sawdust at the rate of 1: 1 (by weight) and mixed with sawdust or laid in layers for fermentation. During fermentation, aerate the heap with a pitchfork (push).
- To prepare the sawdust-mixed compost, the sawdust-mineral compost is first laid, and after a month of fermentation, manure or chicken droppings are added. Manure is added in a 1: 1 ratio, and chicken manure is 2 times less (1: 0.5).
Remember that fast fermentation requires loose styling, no compaction. This compost heap will allow free air flow, which will accelerate the decomposition of the compost components.
If the composts are laid in the spring, then by the fall they will mature and will be ready for digging. Such composts can be applied half-baked after 3-4 weeks. They are not yet fertilizer, but have already lost the property of negative impact on soil and plants.
For digging, 1-2 buckets of ready-made compost are introduced, depending on the condition of the soil.
Anaerobic compost preparation
In the anaerobic method, the compost heap is prepared over time, gradually adding components. Different crushed organic matter (leaves, branches, unseed weeds, sawdust, manure, tops from the garden, food waste, etc.) are laid in a compost pit 50 cm deep in layers of 15-25 cm. Each layer is sprinkled with one or two shovels of soil and spilled with a solution of fertilizers. Up to 100 g of nitrophoska is added to a bucket of solution.
In contrast to the first (aerobic) method, all components are well compacted to reduce air access. In this case, fermentation is carried out by anaerobic microflora. After completing the laying of the compost heap, it is covered with foil or a layer of grass. Fermentation lasts 4-6 months. Anaerobic compost is more "nutritious" and all types of waste (including rough branches) are used for its preparation.
When preparing composts, the optimum moisture content of the compost heap should be 50-60%, temperature + 25 ... + 30 * C.
Mulching shrubs with sawdust.
Mulching the soil with sawdust
Mulching in translation into Russian means covering, shelter.
Benefits of using sawdust mulch:
- Sawdust mulch - a cheap natural material to improve the physical properties of the soil
- it keeps the top layer from overheating in the heat
- good insulation. Protects the soil from freezing and at the same time allows air to pass freely, preventing the development of putrefactive fungal and bacterial infections
- coniferous sawdust mulch promotes easy soil oxidation, which is important for a number of crops, especially flower crops: begonias, pelargoniums, ivy, ficus, cyclamen, citrus and others
protects ripening berries in contact with the soil from rotting and pests (slugs).
Disadvantages of sawdust mulch
The negative properties of sawdust are manifested when they are misused:
- in its pure form, this raw material is re-heated for 8-10 years, using soil nutrients for fermentation
- when using sawdust for composting, the temperature rises very quickly
- raw materials with constant application increases the acidity of the soil.
Ways to use sawdust mulch
Clean sawdust is used to cover only paths and other surfaces free of crops. For example: aisles, paths, tree trunks in the garden.
The light colored mulch reflects the sun's rays, which reduces the heating of the topsoil.
As it shrinks, clean mulch is added to the aisles and paths. 6-8 cm layer of untreated mulch, constantly renewed, prevents weeds from growing.
Mulch retains moisture well in the soil and on the surface. Keeps the top layer moist for a long time, protecting it from drying out and cracking.
Mulch is used as a bedding for berries, whose harvest spreads along the ground (for example: under strawberries, strawberries).
The soil is mulched along the perimeter of the crown of horticultural crops. Can be clean (untreated) sawdust - against increased weed growth and compost as organic fertilizer.
You need to mulch the soil under the plants only with treated sawdust.
In rows with plants, under fruit bushes, only processed mulch (mature or half-baked compost) is always added.
During the growing season, the plants are fed on top of sawdust. The applied fertilizers contribute to their faster roasting.
After harvesting, autumn work is carried out directly on the mulch: they dig up the soil with preliminary application of mineral fertilizers and organic matter.
Mulching the beds with sawdust.
Using sawdust mulch to prepare tall and warm beds
High warm beds are prepared in any area (stony, gravel, with a high standing of groundwater).
Warm beds (low, near-ground) are located on cold soils, as well as for obtaining earlier heat-loving vegetables, growing seedlings.
In such beds, vegetable crops ripen faster, they are less sick with fungal rot and are affected by pests.
The preparation of the beds is carried out in the usual way:
- a "drainage" layer of thick branches and other waste is laid under the base
- the second layer is covered with sawdust, spilled with a solution of urea
- sprinkle with any soil, literally a few shovels
- the next layer is laid out from any other organic matter - straw, manure, chopped weeds, leaf litter
- each layer has a thickness of 10-15 cm, and the total height of the garden is at the discretion of the owner
- usually a thermal pad made of organic waste is laid with a height of 50-60 cm
- all layers are spilled with hot water, preferably with a solution of urea or any organic matter (manure, bird droppings)
- covered with black film, heating usually lasts a week
- after lowering the temperature of active fermentation, remove the film and spread a layer of soil.
A high bed is allocated with a fence so that it does not crumble. Ordinary warm beds are buried 25-30 cm into the soil or prepared directly on the soil, removing the topmost fertile layer (10-15 cm).
If it is necessary to quickly warm up the bed, use sawdust mixed with a small amount of lime and ash, spilled with a hot solution of urea. You can prepare a mixture of sawdust and manure. Gardeners also use others, their own methods of heating the soil of a warm bed.
Mulching garden paths with sawdust.
Sawdust as insulation and covering material
Sawdust is a good insulation material for young seedlings and heat-loving crops.
- When planting heat-loving crops in cold regions (grapes, various vines), large sawdust mixed with small chips (as drainage) are poured at the bottom of the planting pit. They will serve as a heat insulator against deep cold.
- Sawdust can be stuffed (lightly tamped) into plastic bags or sacks and overlaid on all sides with the roots and shoots of young plants before the onset of a stable cold snap.
- Vines of grapes, clematis, raspberries and other plants, which are bent to the ground, can be covered with sawdust along the entire length. Cover the top with a film and press or dig in from gusts of wind. Such a shelter is prepared just before the frosts so that mice, other rodents and pests do not arrange warm winter "apartments" in the sawdust.
The article provides only an insignificant list of the use of sawdust in the garden and in the garden. Write about your use of sawdust. Your experience will be gratefully used by our readers, especially novice gardeners and gardeners.