Creating a lawn in peat soils
Creating a lawn on peat soils, how to deal with drying out of a lawn in a peat bog and with weeds on it
"Dear editors! I read Vladimir Stepanov's articles on lawns with great interest. I would really like to ask him as a specialist a few questions that are caused by the condition of the lawn in our country house. I think that the answers to them will be of interest to other readers of the magazine who have lawns."
"1. The lawn is three years old and plays a very important positive role in the structure of our garden. But his condition worries him. The sod is very dense, about 7 cm thick. A fertile, artificially created layer of about 20 cm. Below is peat, sloshing from moisture, with an unpleasant odor, the depth of which is more than a meter. Why does the turf dry out quickly? Maybe over-compaction is to blame? Wouldn't cutting the lawn with a compaction-fighting cultivator cutter hurt your lawn? Or is it better to take some other action?
2. On the lawn, in addition to thin-leaved grasses, there are many grasses with powerful stems, which lie to the sides of the center of tillering. This manifested itself in the second year of the life of the lawn. After cutting the grass in a day or two, these grasses rise above the rest of the lawn, strongly standing out in the height and width of the leaves. How can this be explained? Where did the seeds of these cereals come from? And what to do with them? Weed out or accept their presence? "
"V. Ogorodnikova, gardener
The editors forwarded the reader's questions to Vladimir Borisovich Stepanov and asked for comment on them. Here's what he replied:
Dear Valentina Anatolyevna! I must say right away that you are faced with the general problem of peat soils, which are characterized by high moisture capacity, but very low water-carrying capacity, approaching sandy soils. Therefore, the turf dries out quickly. You write that "... deeper, peat sloshing with moisture, with an unpleasant odor, the depth of which is more than a meter." I can assume that clay lies below the layer of undecomposed peat, which is the reason for waterlogging. Usually gardeners do not take into account the impact of the general structure of the soil mass. It is believed that it is enough to create a fertile layer of twenty centimeters from above - and all problems will be solved. Perhaps, in the case of mineral soils, this sometimes justifies itself. It is more difficult with peat soils.
"Under the top layer of peat lies clayey, then there are usually sands. To avoid the" squelching layer ", they destroy the clayey layer to ensure the outflow of water into deeper horizons, then the water is diverted through special channels, etc. The thickness of the clay layer can reach 100 cm All these measures to improve peatlands were once carried out on a large scale, powerful equipment was used, but even then the results from vigorous activity were very modest, and in many cases even harmful.
"Chernozems are located somewhere in Rostov regions, in our almost tundra, they cannot exist. Another thing is some local improvement of the soil at a particular summer cottage. If we turn to the recommendations of pre-revolutionary agronomists, then usually a deep pond was dug on such lands, where stagnant squelching water flowed down. And it doesn't have to be big. A small decorative pond will bring you many benefits for improving the subsoil.
"After covering the soil with lawn grasses, it is slightly cultivated, since it is not cultivated and taken out of circulation, all hope is for the sod to" work ", which must be closely monitored. With a long and warm autumn, the growing season is longer, therefore, in your case, before the onset of cold weather and the appearance of a stable snow cover, mowing should be carried out to prevent the grass stand from drying out.
Of particular importance is the permeability of the soil for the absorption of melt water. If in autumn it froze in a highly moist state, then usually its water permeability is extremely insignificant. You also need to be careful about various mechanical treatments of the turf. It is better to pierce it more often with a conventional pitchfork, combining this operation with top dressing and watering. If, when laying the lawn, you did not manage to drain, then if the sod dries out in the summer, this can only be corrected by watering. What can you do, there is a problem with capillary moisture capacity in peatlands. And you should pay attention to excess water, especially in the early spring period, because it causes damping of the grass.
In areas with excessive moisture without water runoff, plants often die from dampness, and the amount of weeds increases. So you, obviously, begins to appear on the lawn sedge. It could have got on your lawn when you were forming a fertile layer, now there is a gradual process of acidification. It is imperative to get rid of the settler weed, many types of weeds not only spoil the general appearance of the lawn, but are also foci of various diseases.
I must say right away that I am not a supporter of the use of herbicides in personal plots. The fact is that many modern selective herbicides require careful selection in terms of both concentration and processing time. Which is not always possible at the amateur level. In your case, you can try Launtrel herbicide, but first try it on a small piece of lawn. And from the "therapeutic" methods, you can try mowing the lawn with a low cut, but it is important not to overdo it, I do not know the varietal composition of the initial lawn mixture, whether it can withstand a low cut.
The method of introducing dolomite flour is effective. Do not exclude mechanical weeding, it can be combined with chemical, local application of Roundup, if you have the patience to apply it to unwanted vegetation with a brush.
In my publications, I recommended overseeding of seeds of some varieties of red fescue. In your case, you can dwell on the initial composition of the mixture, if good varieties of bluegrass and red fescue prevail there, excluding pasture ryegrass from it and increasing the percentage of hard red fescue by 30 percent, they develop well on peat soils. Just do not sow a ready-made mixture for the restoration of lawns, its purpose is somewhat different.
This technique reduces weeds to a minimum, restores the color of the lawn, the species composition of the grass stand, the sod becomes more elastic. The fact is that young grass during a drought period - and this is a frequent occurrence in your area due to the structure of the subsoil - has a different root system, in contrast to the old sod.
How to overseed? It is best done in spring or autumn. First, the grass should be cut low, to the very base. It is advisable to choose a time so that there is no rain, so that you can work well with the surface of the lawn, remove debris, old grass, carry out mechanical weeding, add dolomite flour, etc. It is good if the farm has a spring rake and a special cultivator.
"You can do everything with ordinary pitchforks (punctures to a depth of 15 cm), this is longer, but not worse. If you are planning to do cultivation, then be sure to carry out it with over-sowing of grasses, then it will be useful. The rate of such over-sowing in your version is 1.5-2 kg of seeds per hundred square meters. It is good to carry out overseeding itself after a decent rain, you can also do preliminary watering, combining it with fertilizer according to the season: more nitrogen in spring, potassium and phosphorus in autumn. with dry fine sand in such an amount that the mixture (sand + seeds) lay on the surface with a layer of 2 mm.This sandy seed mixture must be evenly scattered over the surface: first along, then across the lawn. rolling up the lawn - the main thing is that fresh seeds have access to moisture.
"When the new grass reaches a height of 5-8 cm, cut it down to 3-3.5 cm. Try to keep this mowing height mode constantly, sedge and many weeds will not withstand it for a long time.
How often should you overseed? In nature, in natural meadows, seed reproduction of grasses occurs every year in the fall. On the football field, overseeding is done after each match. And further. It has been established that with the correct application of mineral fertilizers, the plant consumes less water; with the help of fertilizers, it is possible to reduce the unproductive consumption of moisture by plants. With sufficient saturation of the sod with a balanced mineral nutrition, the content of sedges in the herbage sharply decreases. The regulation of the water regime on lawns is carried out by the sod - it maintains a sufficient amount of productive moisture in the root layer throughout the growing season. In this case, it is very important that part of the soil pores remain occupied with air, which is necessary for plant life and the normal activity of microorganisms.
"The mobility and availability of moisture for plants depend on the connection with solid soil particles, the size and structure of soil pores, the degree and nature of their filling with water. Distinguish between bound water, held by sorption forces, and free water located in the soil pores outside the influence of sorption forces. water overlies the zone of the capillary border, the moisture of which easily moves under the combined influence of capillary forces and gravity; this moisture is readily available to plants. The moisture content in the zone corresponds to the capillary moisture capacity of the soil. Therefore, not only the upper fertile layer determines the quality of the soil, but the entire set of the horizon as a whole. As I understood from the questions you asked, you were able to create a lawn in difficult soil conditions, and I hope that my recommendations will help to extend its life.
V. Stepanov, doctor of biological sciences, head of the farm "Elita"
Natural stimulants of root formation!
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When plants propagate by cuttings, sometimes there is a problem with root formation. To speed up the process, you can resort to stimulants Show in full. industrial production, the most popular of them are root and heteroauxin. But there are several time-tested folk methods.
1 .Med. A teaspoon of honey is dissolved in 1.5 liters of water, the stalk is placed in the solution by one third and kept in it for 12 hours.
2. Potatoes. A large potato is suitable for rooting. All eyes are carefully removed from it, an incision is made and a stalk is inserted into it. With sufficient watering, it will quickly root. Even poorly cuttings can be rooted in this way, because cuttings get a lot of nutrients from potatoes.
3.Aloe juice. Add 3-7 drops of fresh aloe juice to the water with the handle. It not only accelerates the emergence of roots, but also stimulates the immune system of the cuttings.
4. Willow water. Put a few willow branches (poplar, wild rosemary, willow are also suitable) in the water and wait for the roots to appear. When the roots appear, the willow twigs can be removed and the cutting can be placed in this water. The resulting water is not changed, only topped up if necessary.
5. Yeast. A yeast solution is prepared (100 mg per 1 l) and cuttings are placed in it for a day, after which they are washed and transferred into a container filled to half with water.
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Secrets of a Good Tomato Harvest
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Secret 1: spraying beneficially
To increase the yield of tomato bushes, it is very good to Show completely during the flowering of the second and third flower clusters. spray the plants with a weak solution of boric acid. Boron "will help" germination of pollen, fruit setting and growth. Along with this, it also stimulates the formation of new growth points, and contributes to an increase in sugar in fruits. Just imagine: using this advice, you can increase the yield of your tomatoes by 20%!
Dilute 10 grams of boric acid powder in 10 liters of water. It is enough to spray 1-2 times.
Secret 2: a little shake-up
Tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, and in natural conditions they are pollinated by wind and insects without any special complications. But the tomatoes that are grown in greenhouses are less fortunate: natural factors - the wind and flying helpers - are absent, and it will not be superfluous to help pollination of the bushes "living under the roof". Moreover, this process is not complicated at all. It is enough to shake the flower brushes a little once every few days. Experienced summer residents advise immediately after shaking all the bushes to spray the flowers or water the soil, and after 1.5-2 hours to ventilate the greenhouse.
Secret 3: tricky geography
If you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, then the ideal option would be to arrange the planting "in latitude" - from east to west. This orientation will provide more uniform sunlight for all the bushes, they will be well warmed up by the sun in the morning and minimally shaded by adjacent rows at noon. As a result, an increase in the length of daylight hours and an increase in productivity)
No one will even argue: the stronger and stronger the root, the more fruits it can provide with nutrition, and the larger these fruits can be. What can we do to "strengthen" the root system of a tomato bush?
Hilling, it turns out, also has its secrets. It is necessary to huddle at the time of root growth ... but the roots of tomatoes do not grow continuously, but in periods. It happens something like this: first, the roots grow vigorously, then they slow down their growth, and the vegetative mass begins to actively grow. Then the growth of the roots is activated again - until the moment when flowering and fruit setting begins. As soon as this process has started, the roots slow down their growth again.
The time when it is time to huddle will be prompted by the plants themselves. Watch the stem: if at the very ground on it there are small bulges, similar to pimples, then you can spud it for the first time (always with damp earth, not dry!). And when the stem near the ground has changed color from green to bluish, it tells you that the time has come for the second hilling. If you follow this, and do everything in a timely manner, the tomato will be able to grow the root system as much as possible, thereby providing more strength for the harvest!
For a long time no one doubts the benefits of mulching. Under the protective layer of mulch, a soil crust does not form, moisture is retained, the structure of the soil is not disturbed, weeds do not germinate and the roots do not bare when watering. That's the whole secret: there is only one mulch - but there are many benefits! Summer residents testify: competent mulching can increase the yield of a bush ... by 25-30%!
How can you mulch tomatoes? Hay, straw, compost, sawdust, newsprint, fallen leaves, cut grass, tree bark, needles, peat and even your own leaves. The main thing is to choose the right mulch for your conditions and apply it correctly.
Some experienced summer residents have noticed that tomatoes are very fond of growing ... on their tops! If in the fall all healthy tops are collected, crushed and embedded in the soil, then next spring it will be the best place for young tomato seedlings. And if you dare to put one small fresh fish at the roots of the seedlings on the advice of our summer residents, the harvest is already 50% secure))
Grasshopping is the removal of excess shoots. (Everything is according to a fabulous plot: the stepdaughter goes to the forest so that the daughter gets more good). In the tomato business, this just works: the plant stops spending energy and nutrients on excess greens and concentrates only on "useful activity" - the fulfillment of the harvest plan.
Pinching also has its own secrets: not the entire stepson is removed to the stem, they do not do it at any time, and not all bushes are equally pinned:
so that the stepsons do not grow back, they are not removed completely, to the stem, but leave a "stump" of 0.5-1 cm
pinching tomatoes in the open field can be done once for the entire season, or you can do it regularly - as the stepsons appear.
Secret 7: removing leaves
In addition to pinching, leaves are cut off from tomato bushes during the fruiting period. This is done so that the plant gives all the strength to the flowers and fruits. In addition, the lower leaves, in contact with the ground, can become a conduit for infection.
Experienced summer residents are advised to cut off from the middle (end) of June to 1-3 lower leaves every week until the first inflorescence. Then the tomatoes will be "ventilated" and the extra load is removed from the bushes. How many leaves to remove from the bush - each summer resident decides for himself. There is one rule that will help you navigate: until all the fruits are tied in the brush, all the leaves should be "in place" on top (above the brush). It is recommended to remove the leaves in dry warm weather, in the morning hours, so that the wound has time to heal and does not become a gateway for infection.
Secret 8: foliar feeding
If you think foliar feeding is not a particularly important procedure - in vain. A simple sprinkling of the green part of the tomatoes with solutions of trace elements will help you get an earlier harvest, and the plant - "additional nutritional ration" and protection from diseases! It is best to carry out foliar dressing every 7-9 days in calm weather in the evenings.
What to use for foliar feeding
urea (10 l - 1 tsp)
potassium nitrate or potassium monophosphate (10 l - 1 tsp)
calcium nitrate (10 l - 1 tsp)
1 liter of whey + 20 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water
Foliar dressing delivers nutrients to the plant's body much faster than root dressing. By alternating the proposed formulations, or stopping at 1-2 of your choice, you will contribute to increasing the yield.
Secret 9: dessert for fruits
Some inexperienced summer residents during the fruiting period begin to intensively feed the tomato bushes with organic matter and all kinds of fertilizers - "so that they have enough strength!" This is exactly what you shouldn't do. Reinforced top dressing was needed for active vegetation, but during the period when the plants enter the season of fruiting, you can recommend the following nutrition:
Recipe 1: ash
on wet soil, scatter dry ash under tomato bushes at the rate of 3-4 tablespoons per 1 sq. m. Such dressing will also add sweetness to the fruits of tomatoes. It is possible to "regale" tomatoes with ash until the end of fruiting at intervals of 2 weeks.
Recipe 2: mineral cocktail
Pour 2 liter cans of ash with 5 liters of boiling water, after cooling, bring the volume to 10 liters + 10 g of boric acid powder + 10 ml of iodine (bottle). Insist the solution for 1 day. Dilute the resulting infusion 10 times. The feeding rate is 1 liter for each bush.
Put 100 g of live yeast + 0.5 cups of sugar in a 3-liter glass jar. Add almost to the top with settled warm water, put in a warm place for fermentation. Shake occasionally until the end of fermentation. Use the resulting "mash" for feeding at the rate of 1 glass per 10 liters of water. Feed this fertilizer once at the rate of 1 liter under a bush.
Category: Top dressing
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Step-by-step instructions for growing gladioli
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Especially for beginners and experienced florists.
This is almost a step-by-step instruction for growing gladioli. Show in full. By following the suggested techniques, you are guaranteed to be able to get gorgeous gladiolus flowers!
✿ Pick-up location:
Sunny, sheltered from cold northerly winds. Do not use wet areas for planting in low relief with a high standing of groundwater.
structural with slightly acidic reaction, without water stagnation. It is better to prepare the soil in the fall: if the soil has an increased level of acidity, then we add dolomite flour in the fall, we apply fertilizers - 100 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potassium sulfate per 1 sq. M. In the spring we add 40 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 g of urea, 50 g of wood ash, 40 g of simple or 20 g of double superphosphate per 1 m2
✿ Preparing gladioli for planting:
20-25 days before planting, we clean the corms from the covering scales and lay them in 1-2 layers with sprouts up, in a warm room on diffused light so that direct sunlight does not fall on the corms.
In no case should gladioli be laid out on a damp cloth, as some novice florists do.
If there are small signs of scab disease on the corm, we cut out the affected area to healthy tissue, process the cut with green stuff.
Before planting, for disinfection from fungal spores, microparasites or thrips, corms can be treated with chemicals or extracts from phytoncidal plants, for example, garlic.
From chemical preparations, we use foundationol 0.3% solution for 30-50 minutes, potassium permanganate 0.3% solution for 1-2 hours. If during storage the corms were damaged by thrips, then a very good effect is obtained when processing an extract from garlic - we dilute the juice squeezed from 100 g of garlic in 1 liter of water. In this solution for 2-3 hours we place the corms damaged by thrips. After such treatment, as a rule, corms successfully grow sprouts and roots, although the flowering of such gladioli is delayed by about 7-10 days.
You can also apply treatment with growth stimulants. For example, 0.2% sodium humate solution. Soak the corms in this solution for 2-3 hours. You can use Epin - 2-2.5 ml per 5 liters of water for 5-10 hours.
A good result is obtained by processing corms in a solution of copper sulfate (5 g per 1 liter of warm water) with potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 liter of water). Soak the peeled onions for 9 hours. Immediately before planting, you can disinfect the corms in a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) - 0.5 g per 1 liter of water for half an hour with sprouts and, without rinsing, immediately plant them in the ground. We treat the baby as well as corms, but we make the concentration of the solution two times weaker.
✿ Planting gladioli:
When the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up by about 10 °, we begin planting gladioli.
The distance between the bulbs in a row is 10-15 cm between the rows of 25-30 cm. The distance between the children in a row is 3-5 cm between the rows of 20-25 cm. The planting depth depends on the structure of the soil and the size of the corm. On light structural and sandy soils, the planting depth of corms with a diameter of more than 3 cm can be increased to 15 cm, children - by 5 cm.
On heavy and clayey soils, the planting depth decreases to 8-10 cm for corms with a diameter of more than 3 cm and up to 2-2 cm for children. It is better then, during the growing season, to mulch the plantings with a layer of humus of 3-5 cm. Mulching gives an excellent result - the soil does not float during watering, frequent loosening is not required, weeds grow less, humus feeds gladioli during watering.
In order to prevent diseases, we water the planting grooves or pits with a dark solution of potassium permanganate or phytosporin. Then we pour a small layer of sand and lay the corms and children on it. We fall asleep them again with a small layer of sand, and then with earth. (more about planting corms and children)
✿ Caring for plantings of gladioli:
➤ Watering - abundant 10-15 liters per 1 square meter once a week. If the weather is hot, water it 2-3 times a week. If the planting is not mulched, then we loosen it after each watering.
➤ Timely removal of weeds.
➤ We begin to fertilize after the appearance of the second leaf. The interval between dressings should be at least 10 days.
✿ Protection against diseases and pests:
For fungal diseases, prophylactic treatment of corms is carried out immediately before planting with foundationol, oxychom, copper sulfate, phytosporin, using these drugs according to the instructions.
If sick specimens are found in the plantings, they are immediately removed along with a lump of earth, the place of excavation is watered with a solution of copper sulfate. During the growing season, spraying with solutions of copper and potassium permanganate (as indicated in the table with trace elements) The main method of combating diseases is the prevention and removal of diseased plants.
For thrips and other pests, we use spraying with Actellik, Iskra (bio), Fitoverm, Decis, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, etc., alternating drugs so that there is no addiction. More about diseases and pests
✿ Cleaning and storage:
Ripening of corms in early and medium flowering varieties occurs within 30-40 days after flowering or cutting of inflorescences, in late varieties within 45-50 days. Therefore, the early and middle varieties are removed first, and then the late varieties of gladioli. In addition, one more important nuance is taken into account. Among those equal in terms of harvesting, the first to try to dig up are dark-colored varieties (cherry-red, purple) and lavender-blue, since they lose their natural immunity to fungal diseases earlier. The last to be harvested are the plants grown from cubes (children)!
We have been digging gladioli corms since September, preferably in dry weather. The stems of gladioli are cut, leaving a small stump (0.5 - 1.0 cm) near the corms. I advise you to leave just such a small stump, since by autumn the widespread pest of gladioli thrips gathers closer to the base of the stem. By pruning shorter, we reduce the possibility of thrips damaging gladioli during winter storage. Periodically, after cutting, we disinfect the instrument in a strong solution of potassium permanganate or a solution of alcohol and iodine.
The roots and old corms are removed immediately. This reduces the drying time of the planting material.
In juvenile bulbs grown from babies, the roots are only shortened well. And they will be removed the next year in preparation for spring planting. After trimming the stem and roots, the corms are washed from the soil and treated in a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) 5-10 g per 10 liters of water for 20-25 minutes.
Drying starts as early as possible. The corms are laid out by varieties in bags and dried at a temperature of 25-30 degrees for 15 days. And then, it is dried at a temperature of 20-22 degrees for 30-35 days.
The ideal storage temperature for gladioli is + 5 ° + 10 °. Can be stored in a dry cellar, on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, under a window, near the coldest wall in the house, etc. More about cleaning and storage
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Potassium starvation of plants - characteristic signs of a lack of an element
Without potassium, the effectiveness of nitrogen and phosphorus is greatly reduced. Vegetable plants react especially painfully to a lack of this element in conditions of high acidity of the soil and when too large doses of magnesium and calcium are applied. Consider potassium starvation of plants, and also why potassium is needed for plants.
Potassium starvation of plants. Vegetable
First, the leaves turn pale, as in starvation from nitrogen deficiency, the leaves of cabbage turn brown, later purple-brown stripes appear along the edges of the leaf blades, followed by the complete withering away of the entire leaf, but affected cabbage leaves do not fall off, but remain on plants until the end of the growing season. Have beets crimson leaves appear.
Potassium starvation of plants. Fruit crops
On a note: With a deficiency of potassium, the leaves of apple, cherry, plum, red currant, gooseberry have a bluish-green color, a pear has a dark brown tint and a black currant has a purple hue. In spring, wrinkles appear on the leaves. Apple, red currant, cherry and plum have signs of interveinal chlorosis.
The most characteristic sign of a lack of potassium is the appearance of a rim of drying tissue at the edges of the leaf blade, the so-called. leaf burn, for an apple tree - gray, brown or brown, for a pear - black. This part of the sheet is twisted. With a very strong lack of potassium, the shoots die off by the end of summer. Apples ripen unevenly, very immature in appearance, poorly colored. Autumn leaf fall is delayed.
Important: Lack of potassium causes the formation of defective fruit buds, from which small, underdeveloped fruits develop.
New shoots are getting too thin. Sometimes along the edges of the leaves, a watery tissue that stands out among healthy plants is formed, it is especially clearly visible from the lower side of the leaf blade.
Control measures: Requires complex application of macronutrients after soil analyzes. To avoid chlorosis, it is not recommended to add chlorine-containing elements. The best effect is achieved when using sulfur compounds of potassium in complex mineral fertilizers. On light sandy soils, peat-manure composts and other types of organic fertilizers are simultaneously applied.
Potassium starvation of plants. Lawn
Potassium is necessary for lawn grasses throughout the growing season for intensive shoot formation. It contributes to the creation of good, disease-resistant and low-temperature lawns. Potassium is usually introduced in the fall in a mixture with superphosphate and in a small amount (10 g / m 2).
Potassium starvation of plants. Roses
Have roses with a lack of potassium on mature leaves, dried brown edges are noticeable, veins are green, young leaves with a red tint and brown edges. Gradually, the leaves turn yellow completely and acquire a reddish-purple color. Yellowing begins at the top of the leaves. The flowers are small. Usually, roses lack potassium on sandy and peaty soils.
On a note: With excess, there is a delay in the development of plants.
Control measures: With a lack of potassium, roses must be fed with potassium sulfate (1 tbsp. L. - 10 l of water).
Material prepared by: gardening specialist Buinovskiy O.I.
Creation and maintenance of a Moorish lawn
Doing something from scratch is always easier than redoing it. This rule also works with a Moorish lawn. However, if the soil on the site is very poor and stunted and narrow-leaved grasses already grow on it, it is quite possible to use this natural harvest. However, we will look at how to create a lawn with meadow grasses and flowers in an unoccupied area.
Preparing the soil for a Moorish lawn is carried out in much the same way as for a regular lawn. The only difference is not too high requirements for the fertility of the land, or rather, their almost complete absence. It is much more important to completely clear the area of weeds. It is also desirable that the area under the flower-grass carpet be well lit by the sun. Otherwise, it will be difficult to achieve a good density of ornamental vegetation.
Sowing time depends a lot on which flowers are included in the lawn mix. It is recommended to sow fast-growing cereals and annuals in spring. And if you want to decorate the plant carpet with bulbs and perennials, start planting them in the fall.
By the way, there are two options for creating a Moorish lawn.
- Mix flower and grass seeds and sow the area evenlyj. With this method of planting, not all flowers will bloom on the lawn for the first year, but only some annuals. Perennials will take time to develop the root system and gain vegetative mass.
- Plant a lawn of their meadow grasses, and then sow annuals - along the perimeter of the site, by islands or in any other way. If you want to decorate the lawn with perennials or bulbs, it is better to plant them, on the contrary, in the fall, and in the spring to sow the area with herbs.
One of the advantages of a Moorish lawn is ease of maintenance. However, mowing such a lawn will have its own characteristics, because your flower carpet includes both perennials and annuals at the same time, and they have different growth and development rates.Let's explain the main points and rules.
- Mow the Moorish lawn of perennials twice a season. In the first year after planting, mow your lawn as soon as the grasses rise. Since cereals grow quickly, the first cut will create a level playing field for both grasses and flowering plants. In the second year after planting, cutting is traditionally carried out in May-June, and then, after ripening and spreading the seeds, in September-October. If the grasses grow very quickly, a second mowing is allowed in August. The cutting height of the Moorish lawn is at least 8 cm.
- The first mowing for a lawn on which bulbs grow is carried out after the leaves of these plants are completely dry. This is necessary so that the bulbs can store the required amount of nutrients for successful wintering.
- The Moorish lawn, which includes annuals, is cut for the first time while the flowers have not yet risen, and the second time after scattering the seeds.
The timing of cutting depends on the plant species. To find the optimal time for mowing, you need to monitor the condition of the lawn.
Leave the grass on the lawn for a few days after mowing. This is necessary so that all the seeds wake up to the ground. After the plant, it must be removed.
Be sure to remove weeds during the warm season. This must be done manually (without using a hoe or herbicides), otherwise the cultivated plants can be damaged.
For the first few weeks after sowing, soil moisture is of great importance. When it dries out, the seeds that have grown may die. Watering can be reduced after the emergence of friendly seedlings. Depending on the size of your lawn, you can use a regular fine-strainer watering can, sprinklers, or drip irrigation systems.
Moorish lawns are undemanding to fertilizing. But even if unpretentious plants are withering away on this piece of land, apply fertilizer along with the next watering. These can be special complex formulations for a flowering lawn (they are brought in according to the instructions) or ammonium nitrate, as well as nitroammophoska at the rate of 10-20 g per 1 sq. M.
The Moorish lawn is good because it can be organized both on a large lawn and in very small areas - islets, paths framing the house, etc. Therefore, if you are not sure if you will like this solution, try sowing a small decorative area with herbs. Well, if you like such a lawn, next year you will already have a full walk!
This is a low-density, loose-growing cereal. The tillering node is shallow, while the roots penetrate to a great depth. Stems up to 70 cm long are smooth, prone to lodging. Leaves are shiny, tongue with a solid edge, narrow. The inflorescence is a complex ear, the seeds are greenish-gray without awns, their length is 5 mm.
In the first year, the plant forms an abundant aboveground mass, and after overwintering it is ready to give seeds. The best time for sowing seeds is the summer period - August.
Perennial ryegrass grows without problems in one place for 3-5 years. The plant is moisture-loving, it is reluctant to endure dry periods - it falls out. He does not like paradise grae acidic, poorly cultivated soils, he is picky about mineral nutrition. When weakened, it is affected by diseases. Winter hardiness of ryegrass leaves much to be desired.
When choosing this cereal for your lawn, remember about its exactingness. Also note: ryegrass has many "pseudonyms": it can be called pasture, multi-cut, English, as well as perennial chaff.
Plot on a peat bog
Peat soils, unlike other types of soils, are of organic rather than mineral origin, therefore they require more mineral fertilizers than organic ones.
Peat soils are divided into lowland, upland and transitional. The richest peat bogs are lowland ones, as they were fed for a long period by waste waters rich in various nutrients. In terms of acidity, these peats are slightly acidic or neutral. High peat bogs are poor in nutrients and have an acidic reaction. Transitional peatlands, according to these indicators, occupy an intermediate position.
Peat soils contain a lot of nitrogen, but it is in a form inaccessible to plants and becomes assimilable only as the soil is cultivated. There is a small amount of phosphorus in peats, and it, like nitrogen, is difficult to assimilate. There is little potassium in peats. Peat soils (like a sponge) are saturated with a lot of water. This water is consumed slowly by cultivated plants. Overdried peat soil loses its original moisture content and, consequently, its value. That is why peat soils must be irrigated when drought occurs.
Depending on the layer of peat, peat soils are cultivated in different ways. If the peat layer is more than 40 cm and it is underlain by a heavy gley horizon, then in this case the entire area is drained, since otherwise the water will stagnate and the roots of cultivated plants will die. With a peat layer of less than 10 cm, sand is poured over it, which is introduced into the peat bog in vertical strips. To do this, a long ditch is dug one width of a shovel blade and sand is introduced into it. Peat is evenly distributed over the entire area of the site. If the peat layer is significant, then sand is added to its surface, mixed and used for planting plants.
On peat soils, annual vegetable crops grow best. From berry bushes, you can plant black currants (more plants), red and white currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, chokeberry. For these crops, the water table must be at least 75 cm from the surface. If the water is closer, then the plants should be planted on high ridges, ridges, hills.
Peat soils are dug up when the peat is wet. After digging, all weeds should be at the bottom of the furrow. To prevent peat from drying out and weathering, it is rolled or compacted with a wooden rammer. The peat soil does not form a crust during the spring, summer and autumn, so there is no need to loosen the soil, but weeds have to be weeded here often. The area with peat soil should be developed as soon as possible. It is undesirable for peat to be exposed to the sun and wind. If there is nothing to plant, then it is very good (even necessary) to occupy the site with a grass mixture. Late in autumn, the grass is mowed, crushed and dug up. It is a source of organic matter and replaces manure.
After the gardener has prepared the site for planting cultivated plants, it is necessary to make an agrochemical analysis of the soil and get specific recommendations for liming peat and the introduction of certain nutrients for the corresponding crop.
Humus and its role in creating and maintaining soil fertility
Humus and its role in creating and maintaining soil fertility
Humus is an extremely important soil component. It is formed in the soil when a variety of organic materials decompose by microorganisms.
The humus content in the soil is an indicator of the level of fertility. The special role of humus is explained by its multifaceted effect on all agronomically important soil properties. Almost all soil properties are directly dependent on the content of organic matter, 90% of which is humus. What is the manifestation of such a great importance of humus?
Humus has a triple function in the soil:
• Humus is the main accumulator of nutrients in the soil. It contains 95–99% of all reserves of soil nitrogen, 60% of phosphorus, up to 80% of sulfur, a significant part of trace elements. The nutrients in humus are in a form inaccessible to plants. Only after its decomposition by microorganisms, nutrients pass into an accessible form
The humus contains humic acid - a physiologically active substance that stimulates the development of the root system. The humus of the soil, interacting with its mineral part, contributes to the transfer of nutrients into a form accessible to plants
When humus decomposes, carbon dioxide is released from the soil, which is a source of air nutrition for plants.
• Humus contributes to the creation of a water-resistant structure of soils (sticking together small dusty particles into water-resistant lumps). The more humus in the soil, the stronger its structure. Structurality is a valuable property of the soil. A good structure provides a sufficient content of water, air in the soil, a favorable temperature regime, thereby creating the necessary conditions for good growth and development of roots and the plant as a whole
• The most important property of the soil - its absorption capacity - depends on the humus content. The higher it is, the more fertile the soil and better retains nutrients. The highest absorbing capacity is possessed by humus soils with a high content of organic matter.
• Humus creates favorable conditions in the soil for the development and activity of beneficial microorganisms, which contribute to the transfer of nutrients into a form accessible to plants.
Different types of soil contain different amounts of humus. The richest in them are chernozems, which are distinguished by the greatest natural fertility. The humus content in them ranges from 5 to 10%.
Natural mineral soils of our zone (podzolic, sod-podzolic) are poor in humus. But especially - light sandy and sandy loam - the humus content in them ranges from 0.5% to 1.5%. The humus content in heavy soils is higher - it ranges from 2.0 to 2.5%. As a rule, waterlogged soils are richer in humus. A weak supply of oxygen to them (due to excess moisture) inhibits the decomposition of organic matter, which contributes to the accumulation of humus.
Special mention should be made of peat soils, which are 90% or more composed of organic residues of varying degrees of decomposition and humic substances.
The accumulation of humus depends on the amount of plant residues entering the soil and applied organic fertilizers. On garden plots, when cultivated plants are grown, their ground part is almost completely removed, and the amount of root residues is insignificant. Therefore, they are not a source of soil replenishment with organic matter (humus). In this regard, the introduction of organic fertilizers on garden plots is of particular importance.
Given the great role of humus in creating soil fertility, each summer resident on his site should strive to enrich the soil with humus and take care of its preservation.
Organic fertilizers are the main source of humus replenishment
Organic fertilizers include: manure, humus, sapropel, human waste products, various composts, bird droppings, leaf and sod land, vermicompost, etc. They contain all the nutrients necessary for plants.
Organic fertilizers can either enrich the soil with humus, or serve as top dressing without enriching it. Regular application of large doses of organic fertilizers is carried out primarily to obtain the optimal humus content in the soil. For most garden plants, a humus content of 5–6% is optimal. It is quite enough to create a good structure, looseness and water-holding capacity of the soil. The main application of organic fertilizers creates a large supply of nutrients in the soil for a long time.
It is very important to apply organic fertilizers when creating the root layer (they are laid to its entire depth). In this case, the entire thickness of the layer is enriched with organic matter.
Slowly decomposing organic fertilizers are used as the main fertilizer: manure, various composts, sapropel, straw, etc. Peat-based composts are especially preferred. Only slowly decomposing organic fertilizers enrich the soil with humus: 20–30% of their mass remains in the soil in the form of humus.
The humus content in the soil increases slowly. So, when applying manure or compost at a dose of 6 kg / m2 annually, it will take 5 years to increase the humus content by 1%. The humus content grows faster on heavy soils, slower on light soils, since the decomposition of organic matter is faster due to good aeration in them. It is with this that the need to apply organic fertilizers to light soils more often and to a shallower depth is connected than to heavy soils (less often and to greater depths).
Rapidly decomposing organic fertilizers (mullein, slurry, infusion of green mass of plants, human waste products, bird droppings, biohumus, etc.) should be used exclusively as top dressing, they either do not enrich the soil with humus, or enrich very little (only 1–3 % of their total mass remains in the soil as humus). However, feeding with rapidly decomposing organic fertilizers should not be abandoned. They are very effective, as they maintain the optimal level of nutrients, provide plants with the necessary microelements, and activate the work of soil microorganisms. Unlike the main application of organic fertilizers, organic fertilizing is always carried out only in the upper layers of the soil. Liquid organic fertilizing is used during the period of intensive plant growth (from late May to late June) in case of slow and impaired plant growth.
The humus content in the soil does not remain constant: it is regularly created and lost. The formation of yields of vegetable, berry, fruit crops is accompanied by a large consumption of soil nutrients, the decay of humus. On vegetable and flower beds, the soil is dug up, loosened, watered during the growing season. These activities contribute to the decomposition of humus - 2–5% is lost annually. Therefore, only regular application of organic fertilizers can maintain the optimal level of humus in the soil. The process of decomposition of organic matter to the formation of humus can be regulated by watering and loosening the soil. The alternation of moisture and dryness accelerates the formation of humus. Low-quality acidic humus is improved by liming.
Experience shows that the balance of humus in the soil on vegetable and flower beds can be maintained if organic fertilizers (composts) are applied to the beds once every 2-3 years.
This text is an introductory fragment.