Pear of the August dew variety - the choice of a gardener
Spring and autumn are a hot season for gardeners. It is during this period that fruit trees are planted. The problem of choosing a variety arises acutely: their modern variety makes it difficult to choose. Knowledge of the characteristics of the August dew pear variety, its advantages and disadvantages makes it possible even for a beginner to understand whether this pear is suitable for growing in a particular region.
Description of the variety
The pear of the Avgustovskaya dew variety was bred by SP Yakovlev, a specialist at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding. He was faced with the task of developing a culture that would combine resistance to winter cold and disease with early maturity, high yield and excellent fruit taste. For this, the breeder used pears of the Tenderness and Triumph Pakgama varieties. The first is distinguished by cold resistance and resistance to adverse environmental factors, and Triumph Pagkama - by high quality fruits.
Low pear August dew is excellent for both large horticultural plantations and small household farms
The variety belongs to the summer category. It is distinguished by early ripening (pear ripening occurs in some regions from mid-July) and a short shelf life of fruits (from several days to two months).
The appearance of the tree
The size of the plant is small, its height is only 2–2.5 m, sometimes 3 m. This is compensated by active growth. Skeletal branches are directed almost at right angles to the trunk. The bark is smooth, grayish-brown. The crown is slightly drooping, medium thickened. The shape of the dark green leaves is oblong, with jagged edges. The leaf blade is of medium size, its outer surface is glossy. Each inflorescence contains up to 10 medium-sized white flowers with long, well-visible pistils.
Each inflorescence contains 7-10 medium-sized white flowers
The fruits of pears are not large, usually 120–150 g. Sometimes they reach 200 g. At the stage of ripeness, they acquire a yellow-green color. Sometimes there are pears with a pink blush on the side. The pulp of the fruit is white, friable, oozing juice, has a fine-grained structure. The taste is dominated by sweetness. This is due to the presence of sugars (up to 8%), but there is also a slight sourness. August dew belongs to table varieties, it is suitable both for fresh consumption and for home canning.
Ripe pears of August dew, yellow-green in color with a barely noticeable blush
Distinctive features of the variety
- Relative short stature, which makes the plant suitable for planting in small areas and facilitates harvesting.
- Fast growth and shoot formation in comparison with other varieties.
- Skeletal branches are located almost perpendicular to the trunk.
- High yield, good cold tolerance, resistance to harmful insects and diseases.
Table: advantages and disadvantages of the variety
|Early maturity and rapid development||The need for pollinators (although the pear is considered self-fertile, without a pollinator, the yield may be low)|
|Abundant harvests (even the first harvest can be up to 15 kg of fruits)||Requires frequent pruning due to the rapid growth of the plant|
|Winter hardiness||Significant differences in fruit weight, which is especially typical with abundant harvests.|
|Drought tolerance||Unevenness of the harvest by seasons (lean years are possible)|
|Good disease resistance|
|Excellent fruit taste, versatility of their application|
Good tree development and abundant yields are directly dependent on proper planting and proper care.
Choosing a landing site
First of all, the choice of a place for planting a future tree is important. It should be remembered that a pear is a thermophilic plant, so it will not grow in the shade. The place should be well lit by sunlight and protected from gusts of cold winds. Thus, the ideal location for planting a pear tree is a sunny, well-lit area with a fence (such as a fence or building) to protect it from drafts.
The amount of sunlight is very important. If there is not enough light, both the level of fruiting and the taste of pears decrease.
Pear grows well in sunny areas
The tree will grow best on loam or sandy loam. If the soil is dominated by sand, the plant will have to be fertilized annually. The high content of clay in the soil is not suitable for this type of pear.
Groundwater should be at a depth of at least 2 m.
A pear seedling is planted in spring or autumn. Autumn planting (early October) is considered the best option. If it was not possible to do this in the fall, you can postpone the event to mid-spring.
To get the right variety, it is better to buy plants from specialized nurseries. A good viable seedling has strong, long, live (not dry) roots and a straight, even trunk without damage. There should be no growths or swellings on the roots. On the cut, their color is white. The age of a seedling suitable for planting is no more than two years old.
Pear seedlings must be bought in specialized nurseries.
Planting a pear seedling step by step
- Dig a planting hole; it should not be small (depth about 0.5 m, diameter - 1 m).
The size of the pit for a pear seedling should not be less than its root system
- In the finished pit, it is necessary to lay a mixture of fertilizers. To one bucket of rotted manure, you need to add 35 g of ammonium nitrate, 70 g of potassium sulfate. This mixture is added to the bottom, mixing with the soil and filling up to 2/3 of the total volume of the dug hole.
- A seedling with straightened roots must be placed in the center of the pit, fixing a peg near it for proper tree formation.
- Sprinkle the roots with earth, making sure that they remain in a straightened state and not allowing the root collar to fall asleep. Tamp the soil well and water the plant.
At the final stage of planting, the earth must be tamped
- Tie a tree to a stake, which will be his support.
Video: instructions for planting pears
Pear August dew is considered self-pollinated. But the presence of a pollinator in the neighborhood (for example, the Pamyati Yakovlev variety) will increase the amount of harvest several times. When planting fruit trees, you need to maintain an interval of 3-4 m.
Caring for pears of the August dew variety
In order for the seedling to quickly take root after planting and develop well in the future, care recommendations must be followed.
Although the pear tree is drought tolerant, it still needs additional watering. This is especially true for the seedling in the first years of life. The amount of watering depends on precipitation and air temperature. It is recommended to water the pear sapling with a full bucket of water once a week.
Watering pears is a mandatory procedure necessary to get a good harvest and prevent diseases.
Active watering of the pear is needed in the summer months, since then future fruit buds are laid. In the future, moisture should be reduced so as not to activate the growth of the tree before the onset of cold weather.
You need to pay attention to spray irrigation - gardeners say that a seedling of this variety with such irrigation takes root faster and better after planting.
Pruning is a procedure that influences further growth, development and fruiting, which is important when cultivating fast-growing pear varieties such as August dew.
Spring pruning - formative and sanitary. Its purpose is to remove branches that thicken the crown, as well as dried out and damaged over the winter. With this pruning, the shoots are shortened by about a quarter of their length (in addition to the damaged and dried ones, which are completely removed).
Stages of shaping pear pruning:
- When planting a seedling, the beginning of the formation of the future crown is its pruning by about a third of its length.
- In the second year of planting, you need to select several of the largest shoots (usually 4), which will be the basis of the crown - the skeletal branches of the first tier. They should be positioned at least 45 degrees to the trunk and in such a way that a “ring” is formed around the center conductor. These branches are cut to a quarter of their length, the rest are cut completely.
- In the third year of life, it is necessary to form the second tier of skeletal branches. The distance between the tiers should be 40 cm. You should also choose 4-5 branches and shorten them by a quarter of the length. The central trunk is also trimmed. In addition, all shoots growing vertically or inside the crown are removed. The branches of the first tier are cut by 25 cm.
- Subsequent pruning is aimed at maintaining the crown in its original state: young shoots, branches thickening the crown and tops, diseased and dried branches are removed.
Formative pruning is aimed at obtaining such a crown in which the largest part of the shoots is in a horizontal or semi-horizontal position
Autumn pruning is aimed at removing diseased and damaged branches during the summer to facilitate the wintering of the tree. Crown formation is not performed in autumn.
After any pruning, branch cuts must be processed to prevent infection and pests, as well as for faster wound healing. Usually used garden var or drying oil on a natural basis.
Video: spring pruning of pears August dew
The frequency of feeding the pear depends on the soil on which the tree grows. Annual fertilization is necessary if the soil is sandy. On loamy and sandy loam soils, it is enough if fertilizing is carried out once every 2 years.
The pear feeding scheme is as follows:
- In the spring, in April-May, depending on the growing region, organic fertilizer (manure, humus) is applied at the rate of 1-2 kg of organic matter per 1 m2 trunk circle.
- When flowering, a 0.1% solution of orthoboric acid should be added in an amount of 10 g per 10 liters of water under one plant.
- In the fall, after the leaves have fallen, it is necessary to support the tree with the help of a complex of mineral fertilizers with a high content of potassium and phosphorus (for 10 liters of water, 1 tablespoon of potassium chloride and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate). Additionally, you can add ash (1 tbsp. Per 1 m2 trunk circle) when digging.
When feeding, you need to remember that not only a lack, but also an excess of fertilizers can be detrimental to the tree.
Preparing pears for wintering
Preparation for wintering is an important activity that determines the ability of a tree to successfully endure unfavorable winter conditions. They consist in pruning, harvesting dried fruits and leaves, whitewashing the trunk and main branches.
Whitewashing is carried out with lime or suitable paints. Such preparation will protect from intense solar radiation and save you from burns in winter and spring.
Whitewashing the bark of a tree is the key to a successful wintering of a pear
Diseases and pests
The pear of the Augustow dew variety is susceptible to some diseases of fruit trees, although with proper care and timely assistance it quickly recovers.
Table: main diseases
|Disease||Signs||Methods of control and prevention|
|Black cancer||Cracks and open wounds form on the bark of the tree, with the further appearance of brown spots around them. Red spots appear on foliage and fruits.|
|Powdery mildew||Mealy-like spots appear on flowers and leaves, which subsequently grow and change color from whitish to brown-violet.|
|Mosaic disease||The leaves are covered with spots of yellow, yellow-green or light green.||Destruction of an infected tree in order to prevent the mosaic virus from entering other trees. Prevention consists in a thorough examination of the seedlings when purchasing.|
|Fruit rot||White and brown spots appear on the fruits, which gradually grow. Pears fall off or mummify.|
|Rust||On the branches and leaves, spots of orange or yellow are formed with black dots in the center.|
Photo gallery: pear diseases and their main symptoms
Table: pear pests August dew
|Pest||Signs||Control and prevention measures|
|Hawthorn||The appearance of bare branches, on which insect moves are noticeable.|
|Pear moth||The fruits fall off before they ripen. They deteriorate quickly.||Treatment with Fitoverm at the rate of 2 ml per 5 liters of water (or similar insecticidal preparations).|
|Medianitsa||The presence of yellow twisted leaves. Mass fall of flower buds and ovaries. Deceleration of plant growth.|
|Pear gall mite||The appearance on the leaf of swelling and vesicular neoplasms of brown color (galls). Leaves dry up and fall off in large quantities|
|Slimy sawfly||Insect eggs are present on the back of damaged leaves.||After harvesting, spraying with a soda solution (for 10 liters of water 40 g of laundry soap and 50 g of soda ash) or Karbofos, repeating the procedure in a week.|
Photo gallery: insects and mites - pear pests
Harvesting and using the crop
August dew is a fast-growing pear variety. This means that the harvest is ripe in mid-August. The first fruiting usually occurs in the third, less often in the fourth year of the plant's life. The shape of the fruit is short-pear-shaped. They are covered with a smooth, dense skin. At the stage of technical maturity, the color of the fruit is green, later turning into yellowish-green with a dull blush (stage of consumer maturity).
Harvesting is important in dry weather. The best option for storing harvested pears will be open wooden boxes or plastic containers.
Pear August dew is great for aromatic jam, natural juice or homemade compote
Long-term storage of pears of this kind is impossible. The maximum period in a cool place is up to three months. The fruits are great for home canning, but they are mostly consumed fresh. Drying them is not worth it, as the August dew is very juicy. It is better to use them for processing and obtaining juices, jams, compotes and preserves.
The variety received an excellent rating from gardeners who have already grown August dew on their backyards. They appreciated the easy care, disease resistance and relative winter hardiness of the pear. And the taste of the fruit makes the August dew a variety that attracts more and more attention of fruit gardening enthusiasts.
Pears are classified into summer, autumn and winter varieties. This is a more thermophilic and capricious tree than an apple tree, so not every amateur gardener has it in the garden.
The summer varieties include the pear variety Avgustovskaya dew, Severyanka red-cheeked, Chizhovskaya, Thumbelina, Petrovskaya and others. Summer species are divided into early (June, mid-July) and medium (August) ripening varieties.
The pear variety Avgustovskaya dew was bred by the Michurin All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding as a summer winter-hardy species by the breeder Yakovlev. To develop a new variety, he crossed the Australian Triumph of Pakgum with Tenderness. The result is a short tree with a crown of medium density and increased yield. The height of the August dew pear is 2–2.5 m and has a somewhat drooping crown.
Branches from the trunk of this variety branch off almost at right angles, have a smooth grayish surface. The tree has an increased bud awakenability. The variety has become widespread and popular since 2002 among summer residents of the Central Black Earth Region.
The distance between trees should be chosen based on what kind of crown they form. For example, the August dew pear, the gardeners' reviews confirm this, has a small crown, so the distance between the seedlings can be made up to 5 m.For varieties with spreading branches, it may take up to 7 meters.
So that the seedling does not disappear, you should immediately think about high-quality watering. If the garden is located in an area with a hot climate and little rain, you can dig a groove around the tree and fill it with water. To prevent the root system from eroding, water must be supplied gradually. Pear August dew (reviews of summer residents say this) is well accepted when spray irrigation is established.
Another important factor in order for the tree to grow faster and gain strength is pruning. For a one year old seedling, spring pruning should be about half a meter off the ground. If he is two years old, then it is necessary to remove excess vertical shoots in the spring. It is also important to constantly loosen the soil.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
August dew has advantages and disadvantages that you should know about in advance, before growing.
- August dew perfectly withstands even the most severe frosts, which means that it can be safely grown in Siberian conditions
resistant to heat, drought, which makes it possible for cultivation in areas with little rainfall
high resistance of the pear to damage by pests and diseases, in connection with which it is enough just to carry out preventive measures
high rate of early maturity: after three years the plant is constantly bearing fruit
excellent pear yield August dew even in bad seasons: you can always get at least 15 kg per tree
simplicity in agricultural technology makes the variety suitable for cultivation and beginners
with imperfect care (and even inattention to care) pear August dew retains its high taste.
- inability to store fruits throughout the winter
in the case of a very high yield level, the fruits may differ in appearance: in shape, size.
- The unevenness of the fruits in the latter case is easily compensated for by a high yield. In addition, when the fruits are grown for sale, they do not stay on the shelves for a long time, and therefore do not have time to spoil.
Planting pear honey
This pear variety belongs to self-fertile plants that need pollinators. For pollination, plants should be selected that bloom and bear fruit at the same time as the honey pear. For this, the cultures of the Chudesnitsa and Tavricheskaya varieties are suitable.
For planting honey pears, the south side of the garden plot is required, protected from wind and draft. The soil should be sandy or sandy loam.
It is recommended to plant seedlings in the fall, while the weather is warm, so that the plants can take root. Young plants can also be planted in the spring when the snow has melted. For planting, it is better to choose annual and biennial seedlings.
Even gardeners with little experience can easily determine the age of a seedling:
The height of annual seedlings does not exceed one meter, they have no side shoots, the buds are located only to the middle of the trunk.
Biennial seedlings reach a height of one and a half meters, the bark at the trunk is smooth, the roots are clean, up to 30 centimeters long,
The pear requires timely watering, since the plant loves a moderate amount of moisture. During the season, the plant is watered 4 times. If the summer is dry, then the amount of watering should be increased. For young plants, more frequent hydration is required.
For proper watering, you should dig grooves up to 15 cm deep around the tree, which are filled with water.
For the growth and development of pears, the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers is required. Pear Honey responds well to the introduction of peat, humus, manure and poultry droppings.
Top dressing does not have to be applied to the soil. You can apply fertilizer by foliar method. It should be done very carefully so as not to burn the leaves. As foliar dressing, nitrogen fertilizer and urea are applied in spring and summer.
To prepare the plant for the winter cold, it is recommended to add potassium sulfate in late August or early September. Foliar dressing is carried out in the morning or in the evening.
Pruning is an essential part of plant care. Pruning increases the illumination of the lower branches, which helps to increase yields. The branches are pruned in spring or fall. Sanitary pruning takes place during the summer.
The crown of the plant does not require additional formation. When pruning, 8-10 skeletal branches are left, directed at an angle of 60 degrees, while the crown width should not exceed three meters, and the height - 4 meters.
If a longline crown is formed, then up to 5 strong formed branches are selected and excess shoots are removed along the ring. In the next season, the next tier should be done in this way. Strong young shoots should be shortened by ¼ part of the length.
During the summer period, the upper parts of the young shoots should be removed from the plant. This will slow down their growth in length. Pinning is carried out throughout the summer once every 10 days.
In the fall, sanitary pruning should be carried out, during which diseased and dried branches are removed. Places of cuts must be treated with garden varnish.
Preparing for winter
The honey variety pear is resistant to winter frosts. No special preparation of the plant for winter is required. It is enough to treat the trunk of the plant with slaked lime or chalk to protect it from rodents and pests. It is also recommended to strap the trunk to provide additional protection from rodents.
Pear "August dew": characteristics and description of the variety, advantages and disadvantages, reviews
Today there is a huge variety of pear varieties, the number of which only grows every year. Every gardener wants to choose a sweet tree that will bear fruit abundantly, and will also be unpretentious and easy to care for.
One of these representatives is the August Dew pear, which was liked by a large number of gardeners, agronomists and farmers. In our article we will talk about the advantages and disadvantages, the peculiarities of the care and cultivation of a seedling, as well as how to choose the right cutting for planting.
Description of the pear variety "August dew"
Pear "August dew" refers to summer varieties. Designed for cultivation in the Central Black Earth region. Was bred as a result of crossing varieties of pears "Tenderness" and "Triumph Pakgam".
It is worth noting that the bred variety has combined all the positive qualities of its parents: from "Tenderness" it got excellent resistance to diseases and frost resistance, and from "Triumph Pakgam" - abundant fruiting and excellent taste of fruits.
The variety was bred thanks to the numerous works of the breeder S.P. Yakovlev. at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding named after Michurin I.V.
Pear height "August Dew" can reach up to three meters in height. Fruiting every year, starting from the fourth year after planting the cuttings. Indicators of the abundance of fruiting are high - up to 200 centners per hectare at the most productive age.
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The first harvest, as a rule, rarely exceeds 15 kilograms per tree. It perfectly tolerates the cold season, which are typical for the region of culture growth.
The plant is resistant to the most common diseases. Excellent ability to the formation of new shoots and the awakening of the buds.
Description of the structure of the tree
- the bark of the tree is light gray in color, the structure is smooth
- the lowered crown is characterized by an average density
- branches are straight. Fruits are located on short and long ringlets and spears
- shoots are colored in light brown tones, wide, with curved shoots. The vast majority of miniature lentils
- the shape of the kidneys is conical and medium in size, slightly bent to the side
- leaves are oblong oval or ovoid with a wedge-shaped base of dark green color. Average value with jagged edges. Miniature saber stipules
- petioles are of medium size and thickness
- white flowers are miniature and bluate-shaped, sepals are oblong and directed towards the peduncle. The pistils are long, significantly higher than the saws. About 7-10 flowers are formed in one inflorescence.
Characteristics of pear fruits "August dew"
- the fruits are of medium size. Each weight varies from 100 to 200 grams. Shape - pear-shaped, not ribbed
- the skin of the fruit is soft and smooth, on which the dots are located. at maturity, the color of the fruit is green or greenish-yellow with a slight "blush" on the part of the fruit that was exposed to the sun
- the flesh is white, fine-grained. Taste qualities sweet and sour with an incredibly delicate texture
- the peduncle is characterized by a curved and long shape, rather wide
- small funnel shape - conical
- cup miniature and closed
- miniature saucer, slightly widened, ribbed shape is characteristic
- the core is rather large and onion-shaped
- closed seeds, medium-sized
- excellent tree hold
- ripening lasts until mid-August - early September
- the duration of storage and use of ripe fruits does not exceed two weeks
- the purpose of the pear is a table
- the most optimal tree pollinator is the pear variety "In Memory of Yakovlev".
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety "August Dew"
Based on the stated descriptions and numerous reviews of farmers, gardeners and agronomists, we can highlight the following list of advantages of this variety:
- Excellent cold resistance
- Unpretentious to growing conditions, including short drought
- High fruiting rate
- Ripening duration is short, early maturing variety
- Excellent presentation, cost-effective
- Good crop resistance to the most common diseases and pests
- The harvested crop is versatile in use: from the fruits you can make jam, jam or make a preparation of dried fruits. Excellent taste.
As for the disadvantages, it should be noted that with an excessive abundance of fruiting, heterogeneity of fruits is formed.
Useful properties and harm
A large number of useful properties are concentrated in pears "August Dew". The fruits are useful not only for children, but also for adults: they do not cause allergic reactions, feelings of discomfort in the intestines and have a beneficial effect on the human body.
Regular intake of fresh fruit helps to boost immunity. One pear a day is a reliable preventative measure for colds and flu.
The pear and all its derivatives are actively used in folk medicine for coughs, fever, inflammation in the organs of the genitourinary system, as well as for stone diseases. Effective assistant in the treatment of fungus and dermatitis.
The composition of the pear includes:
- Cobalt is an element that has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the kidneys and thyroid gland. Accumulates hemoglobin and promotes rapid absorption of iron
- Vitamin C helps to strengthen the immune system and increase the elasticity of the vascular system
- Potassium has a protective function of the heart and promotes rapid cell regeneration. Prevents the formation of edema
- Vitamin K is an excellent source of calcium
- Sulfur has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin, hair and nails
- Vitamin B9 is a direct participant in the processes of hematopoiesis
- Fiber helps to reduce the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood and normalizes the intestinal microflora. Effectively fights constipation and stimulates appetite.
Not recommended introduce pears into your diet to peoplewho have been diagnosed with colitis, gastritis and ulcers. Unripe fruits for children and the elderly can be dangerous in themselves.
How to choose the right stalk?
The quality of the planting material - this is the guarantee of the future harvest. In order to purchase the "correct" seedling, you must familiarize yourself with the following rules:
- The pear variety "August Dew" is intended for growing in the central and southern regions with fertile lands - black soil, so you should wait for the harvest and hope that the culture will take root if all favorable climatic conditions are met
- It is recommended to acquire planting material only in specialized nurseries in order to prevent deception or the acquisition of another variety or even a tree in general
- Particular attention should be paid to the roots of the cuttings - fresh, not dry or frozen. The longer (starting from 0.3 meters) and more spreading rhizome, the more likely the plant will take root
- If the integrity of the root is violated, then inside it should be white. A change in color tone indicates that the plant is withered or frozen.
- The root should be carefully examined for swollen areas that indicate disease (root cancer)
- The barrel must be straight and not damaged
- The seedling should not be more than two years old.
Planting a cuttings
In addition to the choice of planting material, it is necessary to qualitatively prepare the soil for planting it - this is the key to the survival of the culture.
It is necessary to pre-enrich the soil in the pit with the help of complex mineral or organic fertilizers. The August Dew tree has a small crown, so the interval between seedlings is 5 meters.
It is recommended to plant cuttings in autumn or spring. Regardless of the landing season, the seedling planting technology is identical:
- Prepare the pit. The diameter must be at least one meter, and the depth must be 50 cm.The root system should be freely located in it
- Add fertilizers (it is recommended to use humus, potassium or nitrate)
- Spread out the root system
- Sprinkle the seedling with soil so that the root collar disappears under the soil. Then we thoroughly tamp the earth and water it abundantly (at least 3 buckets).
Growing and caring for the August dew pear
- Tillage: Shortly before watering, it is recommended to remove all weeds and loosen the soil thoroughly.
- Watering: about 5 times throughout the summer (1 bucket = 1 tree). Water the tree slowly so that the root collar and the root system itself absorb water. In dry weather, it is recommended to water the crop twice: in the morning and in the evening, half a bucket at a time.
- Pruning: every spring it is necessary to remove vertical shoots at a level of half a meter from the ground. Pruning a plant in the fall can lead to the death of the crop - the cuts may not have time to heal before frost. It is not worth neglecting this manipulation, since the size and concentration of the sugar content of the fruits depend on the circumcision.
- Top dressing: This variety loves organic fertilizers, which include all the ingredients that a tree needs for proper growth and development. Recommended for 1 sq. m. of the near-stem section, apply no more than 2 kilograms of manure.
- Feeding is recommended in the spring, every year. In the autumn, after leaf fall, it is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers or manure to the soil.
- Preparation for wintering: at the end of autumn, it is recommended to treat the tree with a limestone solution. This will keep the bark away from sunlight and pests that like to feast on the bark.
- Harvesting, as a rule, falls in August-September, taking into account the weather and climatic conditions. The older the tree, the more abundant it bears fruit.
- Store fruits for no more than two weeks in a dark and cool place or refrigerator.
Diseases and pests
|Diseases / pests||Signs||Preventive manipulations|
|Black cancer||Formation of open wounds and cracks on the bark with characteristic brown spots around, red marks on fruits and leaves.||- removal of affected fruits and leaves - removal of affected areas of the bark with a knife (it is recommended to capture up to 2 cm of healthy tissue just in case) - treat wounds with copper sulfate at the rate of 35 grams per 1 liter of water - Disinfection of affected areas with a mixture of mullein and clay.|
|Powdery mildew||Formation of powdery formations on leaves and flowers, which then acquire a purple-gray shade.||- destruction of the affected areas of the plant - treat the plant with Tomaz, according to the instructions for use.|
|Fruit rot||Brown spots on fruits, drying out and falling off.||- removal of affected fruits - spraying the plant after flowering with Oxyhom, according to the instructions|
|Insect pests||Drying of shoots and leaves.||- mechanical collection of pests - as a preventive measure, in the spring, spray the plant with Nitrafen (300 grams per bucket of water).|
This year, for the first time, our "August Dew" bore two fruits. According to reviews, the variety is excellent, but the taste of these large and beautiful fruits is not very good. A week later, it's October, and they're still green.
The pear "August Dew" takes root better than the apple tree. It is unpretentious to care for, and bears fruit abundantly. The fruits are very juicy and tasty. We really love jam from this variety, every year we cook with our family.
Despite the declared frost resistance, our seedlings froze out in winter, although we insulated them as best we could. It's a pity, now we don't know what to do.
In early spring, the soil of the trunk circle is loosened to a depth of 15–20 cm, then weeds are removed and weeded every month until autumn. Pear care is as follows:
- regular watering
- sanitary pruning
- preventive treatment of plants against fungal diseases and pests.
The depth of soil irrigation must be at least 80 cm. The pear is watered abundantly (15-30 buckets - depending on the age of the plant), but infrequently (once every two weeks). Maximum irrigation is required in June - July when the fruits are poured.
Fertilizer under a pear is applied in the fall into circular grooves 50 cm deep, made around the projection of the crown, or into furrows. Nitrogen is fed only in the spring when digging during the period of increased shoot growth. Phosphorus and potassium (up to 150 g) together with organic matter (about 20-30 kg) are applied every 3-5 years - it all depends on the state of the soil.
To increase winter hardiness and stimulate growth, the tree is treated twice - in spring and autumn with 1% urea solution. To protect the bark, the branches of the pear and the trunk are whitewashed in spring with lime diluted in water.
Whitewashing pears - protecting the tree from fungal diseases
Pear pruning and shaping
Pear shaping is mainly aimed at creating short shoots, as well as long branches, especially 2-3 years of age. Every spring, they carry out a sanitary pruning of the crown - with a sharp pruner they cut out damaged, dry, rotten shoots.
To reduce the growth rate of young shoots in the first year of life, pinching is done - for this, 1-2 points of growth are left, the remaining branches are removed.
The higher part of the crown always remains slimmer than the lower tier. In the process of forming, too thick branches that thicken the lower part of the crown are cut out. This forms the first tier of the crown, stimulates the growth of other branches. One-year growths with an apical young bud are left on the tree, branches older than 4 years are removed. In the middle of the crown, 2 and 3-year-old branches are left, on which fruits are formed. If the fruit set is too high, some of the ovaries are thinned out, this affects the quality and size of the future harvest.
Pear shaping: sparse-tiered (left) and freely growing (right)
To stimulate the growth of new fruit buds, pear shoots are bent down and left to grow in a horizontal position. Often, undersized pear hybrids are placed on steel trellises.
Strengthening the branches
The thin fragile wood of young pears requires the formation of a support, and with a plentiful harvest, protection of the fruits from being knocked down by the wind. To do this, use thick wooden supports 2–4 meters long, positioning them at an angle to the trunk. Another method of fastening is wire. To the center of the trunk, carefully, without damaging the bark and fruits, bend the branches, securing them with a wire between themselves and the trunk.
Safe strengthening of fruit branches of a pear
If the pear fruits are not picked in time, they can crumble, overripe, the taste will deteriorate, and the shelf life of the fruits will be reduced. The length of the rental period varies from 7 to 14 days.
Distinguish between removable and consumer ripeness of fruits, both in different summer varieties come from July to late August (early September). In the first case, the fruits are ready for use (in terms of time) due to the maximum coloring of the skin and the achievement of the pulp of sweetness and the necessary juiciness and density. Consumer maturity occurs when the characteristic taste and aroma appear, even if the fruits are not ripe and the harvest has not come.
Diseases and pests
Unlike many stone fruits, pears do not require such intense protection from pests and diseases. The main diseases that often affect plants are scab, bacteriosis, and honeydew. The most effective control measures are considered to be prophylactic spraying of the shoots, trunk and trunk circle of pear 2-3 times a season with modern insecticides and fungicides (strictly according to the instructions).
Table: pear diseases
|Name||Causative agent||Signs||Control measures|
|Scab||fungus Fusicladium pirinum||On the leaves, over time and |
on fruits, reddish appear
with a velvety bloom, the fruits are cracking
and lose their taste
|In the spring - 1% Bordeaux liquid, Topaz,|
autumn - Topaz
|Powdery mildew||Podosphaera leucotricha||White fungal plaque on leaves and inflorescences, in which they roll up into a tube and gradually die off||Spraying with Fundazol or soda ash solution (60 g per bucket of water) with the addition of liquid soap (10 g).|
|Moniliosis (fruit rot)||fungus Monilia fructigena||Fruits rot and crumble, especially in wet weather||Spraying with preparations Fufanon, Aktofit|
|Rust||pathogenic fungus Gymnosporangium sabinae.||Orange-brown spots appear on leaves in late spring, in mid-summer - on fruits||In the spring - 1% Bordeaux liquid,|
preparations Kuproksat and Bayleton for irrigation of shoots and leaves
|Sooty fungus||The appearance of a sooty black bloom on leaves and fruits||Processing Fufanon, Fitoverm, Calypso|
|Black cancer||Cracking of the trunk and skeletal branches, followed by infection through the cracks with fungal diseases||The affected area of the bark is cut off, then the cut is treated with copper sulfate and garden varnish|
Scab (left) and moniliosis (right) affect pear fruits
With timely processing, pear leaves and shoots are rehabilitated during the summer season.
Powdery mildew (left) and rust (right) infect shoots and leaves
The most common pear pests are ticks, moths, aphids, and pear gall midge. Some infect foliage and shoots, others destroy the crop.
Pear fruits and leaves are damaged by aphids (left) and moth moths (right)
Most effective for pest control:
- timely clean the area from foliage and dry branches
- spray plants with complex biological (Decis) and contact insecticides (Zolon, Karbofos, Iskra)
On the Russian market, there is a large selection of drugs aimed at controlling pests and eliminating the main sources of infection with pear diseases.
The most fragrant pears for the Moscow region
The pear is unfairly rare in the gardens of Central Russia. But it bears fruit steadily, the yield is higher than the apple tree, you should not even argue about the taste. And the choice of varieties for almost any zone of our country is wide today.
Soberly, assessing the real climatic conditions of your garden, its size and the needs of your family. What do we pay first of all to? That's right, for winter hardiness.
Therefore, we compile a list of varieties recommended for your region in advance. And remember: a variety not resistant to winter is a big headache (protection not only from frost, but also diseases and pests to the maximum) and no harvest.
In the background we have self-fertility.
The problem is not only that many pear varieties are self-fertile and require competent selection of a pollinator variety. Even self-fertile varieties give the maximum yield if there is a variety in the garden that is close in terms of flowering and fruiting. There is no way to plant several varieties of pears, buy multi-variety seedlings, or even better - learn to graft tree species. Today the tree-garden is not a gardener's eccentricity, but a meaningful reality.
In the third plan - the time of entry into fruiting.
Agree, it is very disappointing to wait 5-7 years, when at least a couple of fruits will appear on the pear. Therefore, choose varieties that begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th or 4-5th year after planting in the garden.
The fourth is yield. But this is just not such an important factor for a pear, because it is generally distinguished by its multiplicity. More often, problems in the garden arise with an overload of the crop, when it is necessary to save the tree from breaks.
Of course, the taste of the fruit is very important to us.
There are no comrades for taste and color, but there is less disagreement about the smell when it comes to fruits. It is either there or it is not. But if there is, it is always pleasant. By the way, breeders note the relationship between smell and taste. Many have probably noticed that the odorless variety is much tastier than the one without the aroma.
The pear is considered the most fragrant fruit in our climate. Even the quince is inferior to her. The brighter the aroma, the more the healing properties of the pear are manifested.
We offer you the best pear varieties with a bright aroma and excellent taste.
The 4 most aromatic summer varieties:
Summer Duchess (Williams). The old English variety is still relevant to the south of Russia and the North Caucasus. Reference grade. Fruits are of medium size 170-180 g, fragrant thin skin turns yellow when ripe. The yellowish-white juicy pulp has a bright nutmeg aroma. Great dessert taste.
Rogneda. A popular variety in gardens in the middle zone and especially in the Moscow region. Fruits are medium in size (about 120 g), light yellow with a slight blush. The pulp of this pear is juicy, oily, moderately dense, of good taste with a strong nutmeg aroma.
The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness, disease resistance, early maturity and high yield.
August dew. Recommended for the Central Black Earth Region. Fruits are medium-sized, greenish-yellow with a slight blush. The pulp is white, fine-grained, juicy, sour-sweet taste, tender, with a delicate aroma.
The variety is winter-hardy, disease-resistant, fast-growing, fruitful, but with a low degree of self-fertility.
Lada. Widely distributed in the Central region, especially in the Moscow region. Fruits are medium-sized (100-110 g), light yellow with a blurred red blush. Rustiness is noticeable only at the stalk. The pulp is yellowish-white, moderately juicy and dense, sour-sweet taste, with a delicate aroma.
The variety is winter hardy, early ripening, fruitful, disease resistant. Partially self-fertile.
4 of the most fragrant autumn varieties:
Yakovlev's favorite. One of the best varieties for the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. Fruits have a beautiful golden yellow color with a slight tan. The creamy pulp has a specific quince aroma. The taste is sweet, without astringency.
High-yielding and frost-resistant, Affected by scab.
Simply Maria. Recommended for the Central Region. The fruits are large (180-200 g), beautifully shaped, greenish-yellow in color turning into a golden hue with a slight blurred blush. White pulp is oily, juicy, tender, sweet and sour, with a bright bergamot aroma. It even surpasses southern varieties in taste. The fruits are stored until January.
Winter-hardy, fast-growing, disease-resistant.
Veles. An excellent variety for the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. Fruits are medium-sized, beautiful, greenish-yellow with a slight orange tan. The creamy pulp is moderately dense, semi-oily, juicy, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste with a delicate bergamot aroma.
The variety is frost-resistant, disease-resistant and high-yielding.
Muscovite. Recommended for the Central, Volga-Vyatka and Middle Volga regions. Fruits are medium-sized (120-130 g), greenish-yellow with many small subcutaneous dots. Rust in the form of irregular spots. The pulp is white, firm, very juicy, semi-oily, with granulations near the heart. Very pleasant sweet and sour taste and strong aroma.
The variety is fast-growing, resistant to weather disasters and diseases. Self-fertile, average winter hardiness.
Late autumn and winter varieties are very attractive, but in the conditions of the Central region they are unstable, often the harvest does not have time to ripen. In addition, the farther north, the later the pear harvest ripens. So, the summer pear variety in Memory of Yakovlev in the south of the Moscow region ripens in the third decade of August, and in the north - in the first or second decade of September, in the Leningrad region - at the end of September.