Columnar apple trees grow well in the South, but 5 varieties will take root in the Middle lane
Columnar apple trees are rapidly conquering the world with their high yield, compactness and ease of harvesting. Some varieties will take root in regions with a temperate climate.
Medoc is an early variety of columnar apple trees. It gives a large harvest since the fifth year: up to 9 kg of ripe and juicy fruits can be harvested from one apple tree. Caring for a tree is easy, and with skillful agricultural technology, the yield doubles.
The variety is resistant to frost, even in case of slight freezing, the tree quickly recovers. Therefore, Medoc feels great in the middle lane. In hotter climates, the tree trunk should be moistened regularly.
Cross-pollination can improve the appearance and taste of apples, as well as speed up ripening. Antonovka or another similar crop will be a wonderful neighbor for this variety.
Medka's fruits are medium to large in size, and as the tree matures, the weight of the fruit increases. You can eat apples fresh or process them into compotes, jam and jam.
Vasyugan belongs to semi-dwarf varieties, grows in one trunk. At the age of six, the tree becomes 3 m in height. The crown is compact, with many leaves. After flowering, Vasyugan sets fruit. The weight of each apple is on average 140 g, but there are also 200-gram specimens. Fruits are firm, conical in shape with a thin and dense skin. The color is yellow-green, with a striped blush on most of the apple. Vasyugan's pulp is creamy in color, fine-grained structure.
The harvest season is the end of August. Apples can be stored for about a month or processed by making juices and compotes.
The variety is one of the fastest growing. In the first year after planting annual seedlings on the site, you can collect several apples from each, in the fifth year - about 7 kg of fruits.
Vasyugan resists frost and is undemanding to care for, however, with intensive cultivation, it can significantly increase the yield.
The columnar apple tree of this variety grows up to 2 m in height. It is so compact that you can plant seedlings at a distance of less than a meter from each other. They will begin to bear fruit within a year after planting in a permanent place. After the fifth year, the apple tree begins to produce up to 20 kg of fruit.
Apples weigh about 250 g, green, with a slight blush. The pulp is juicy and white, sweet and sour to the taste. It is easy to prepare any dessert dishes from it.
The president is resistant to diseases and winter hardiness, and fruits harvested in August can be stored for several months. During the flowering period, even in rainy weather and without pollinators, the tree sets fruit without any problems. Thanks to these features, the amazing variety has become a welcome guest in the backyard gardens.
It is better to irrigate the apple tree by drip irrigation, and mulch the soil around so that the moisture does not evaporate. The amount of dressings for columnar forms should be several times less than in other varieties.
Adult plants of the Iksha variety do not exceed 2.5 m in height. The tree has a strong trunk with thick, shortened shoots. It is compact and does not take up much space in the garden. The leaves are large, with jagged edges. After flowering, fruits begin to form. They stick around the slender trunk of the apple tree and look unusually bright and attractive due to the golden color of the thin and aromatic skin. Shiny apples have a slight blush, which intensifies when ripe, and the fruit appears striped. Iksha's flesh is creamy or honey-colored, tender, juicy and dense in consistency, with a noticeable grainy structure and a spicy aroma. The taste will not be inferior to the famous elite varieties. The weight of apples is from 80 to 180 g. Up to 6 kg of fruits can be removed from the tree.
The variety bears fruit for about 15 years. The harvest ripens in mid-August. The fruits are used for preparing blanks or fresh.
An apple tree is brought into the garden as a one-year sapling, and after a year it already begins to yield a crop. In addition, the plant is fairly frost-resistant and is recommended for mid-latitudes.
The site for Iksha is selected based on the characteristics of the variety. The place should be warm and lighted, without strong winds.
Watering is carried out as needed, only in case of strong evaporation of water from the soil. Young trees should be fed with nitrogen fertilizers with great care. With an excess of nitrogen, they tend to give premature lateral shoots.
The height of the trees of this variety is about 2.5 m. The tree is compact, with a dense columnar crown. Shoots are located along the trunk. The apple tree blooms with small white flowers and bears fruit at the end of July. Dialog's apples are of the correct shape, medium in size, with a thin light yellow skin. Their pulp is white, juicy, fine-grained, with a sweet and sour refined taste and pleasant aroma. The tree bears fruit for about 15 years, and you can collect 5-6 kg of fruit from it.
The plant easily tolerates the cold season in temperate latitudes. In addition, the apple tree is drought tolerant and able to resist disease.
The fruits can be stored in a cool room for more than a month, moreover, they are quite transportable. Fruits are eaten fresh, they can be used to make jams, preserves and compotes.
The apple tree cannot pollinate itself, therefore it is necessary to place 2-3 similar varieties in the garden, blooming at the same time.
For planting, one-year and two-year seedlings are used. The place where the apple tree will grow should be lit and closed from cold winds. The plantings are watered abundantly, but in rainy weather this is done less often so that the roots do not suffer. Young trees are fed with nitrogen fertilizers.
Taking care of apple trees of this variety is easy due to their compact crown and short trunk length. The plant is suitable for a small garden due to its portability. It is quite decorative and capable of decorating the backyard landscape.
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Columnar apple trees can be planted in pots by placing them on a terrace or balcony. They have a shallow root system so they don't require a lot of space around them.
A rich nutrient soil with humus is well suited as a soil for columnar apple trees. It should maintain moderate humidity, so such apple trees are not planted in areas that are too dry.
In order to constantly use the fruits of apples, you can grow on your site about 10 varieties with several ripening periods. If you take good care of the plants, you can harvest up to 20 kg of apples from one tree.
Varieties are usually subdivided by type, category, which, in turn, separate and characterize them by:
- Early maturity
- Ripening time
- To taste
- Fruit sizes
- The shelf life of them
- Resistance to various diseases.
- Fruiting from 3 to 5 years old - early-growing
- 5 to 8 - medium
- From 6 and above - late-fruited.
Experienced gardeners have learned to select varietal material so that they provide themselves with fruit. almost all year round. Beginners, before planting apple trees, need to gain experience and understand the difference between removable and consumer maturity:
- At ripeness, the fruit is fully formed. It can be removed from the tree and stored
- Consumer maturity is the final stage of apple pouring. At this stage, it acquires all the flavor characteristics, aroma and color characteristic of this variety.
A special feature of summer varieties is a very short storage period. Whereas in winter, this period is quite long, but they gain consumer maturity after maturation, which also depends on varietal characteristics.
Summer and winter varieties differ in shelf life.
Taste characteristics are also different:
- Summer varieties are almost all sweet and have a sour taste, which is a freshener in the hot season.
- Autumn varieties are more delicious, but require a certain shelf life in order to gain characteristic properties.
- Winter varieties of apple trees require timely collection, long-term storage and have a more astringent taste.
Apple trees more than two tens of thousands of varieties and it is not possible to describe all species for temperate latitudes. Let's dwell on the most common and find out good varieties of apple trees.
The columnar apple tree has many varieties and their number only grows with each goal. Below are the most typical, bright and popular representatives in various regions.
The President is a tree belonging to the semi-dwarf variety, its height does not exceed 2 meters, and the fruits begin to form on the trunk 30 cm from the ground. The variety also has the following features:
- early ripening of apples
- solid, upright trunk with sturdy timber
- shortened internodes and high frequency of rings at the base
- reproductive period of the plant up to 15 years, no more
- the root system is dense, so the apple tree takes root well in new conditions.
Orlik is popular among gardeners due to:
- intensive growth
- early maturity
- long fruiting period
- unpretentious care
- virus resistance
- height is about 5 meters.
The appearance of the variety took place in 1959, in the Oryol region. Breeders have bred a gene mutation of Bessemyanka and the ancestor of the columnar variety - Macintosh. This became another successful experiment, since the resulting variety has a rich taste of summer apples, while the tree tolerates low temperatures, the fruits lie well all winter. Orlik calmly endures even without snowy winters with temperatures below -30˚С.
Prevention of parasitic diseases is important. Processing is carried out in early spring with a chemical composition, karbofos, before the flowers appear, and the trunk is whitened 110 cm in height.
Currency is an incredible miniature and graceful variety. Their height does not exceed 2 meters, and the crown diameter is 20 cm. Apple trees have beautiful decorative, exterior properties and high resistance to diseases. There are no black spots and rot on their fruits, the trunk is smooth with even wood.
- round shape
- yellow with red flank
- weight from 100 to 250 grams
- sweet taste with barely noticeable sourness.
The variety belongs to the winter category, so the harvest is scheduled for the end of October. In terms of resistance to frost, it is comparable to Antonovka, Melba. The peculiarity of the Currency is that the apples do not crumble, but sit tightly on the tree.
5 kg of apples are obtained from one tree, and with fertilization - 7-9 kg. Despite the fact that the columnar apple tree lives for more than 50 years, its yield decreases and comes to zero after 12-15 years.
Before being included in the state register, the Ostankino variety underwent 6 years of testing and improvement. The distinctive characteristics of the columnar apple are as follows:
- refers to autumn varieties
- early maturity
- fruits are tied already at a distance of 30 cm from the ground
- small height, about 2 meters with a compact crown
- bears fruit for approximately 14 years.
- the peduncle is short, firmly attached to the trunk
- the size of apples is medium and the same, weighing 140-160 grams
- color greenish-yellow with a characteristic red-violet tint
- sweet fruits related to dessert.
From 3-4 years of age, the apple tree gives 7-9 kg annually. Experts also note high resistance to diseases.
Maluha is a popular variety in the middle lane. In addition to aesthetic pleasure, the columnar apple tree has a number of characteristics that distinguish it from others:
- short height up to 2 meters
- compactness, allowing you to plant a large garden
- the fruits do not fall
- winter hardiness
- large amount of harvest up to 15 kg per unit.
The weight of the fruit of the Malyukha variety reaches 250 grams, and the apple tree begins to bear fruit as early as 2 years of age. The keeping quality of the fruit is high. Therefore, having harvested in September, you can easily save it until January-February.
Apples taste rich, starchy, with a slight sourness.
In order for the yield not to decrease, it is recommended to gradually update the garden after 10 years by planting young specimens.
Columnar apple trees of this late variety are distinguished by high yields. Up to 10 kg of fruit can be removed from one tree. Apple trees of medium height with a dense crown, fruits are round, dark red, juicy, very sweet. They can be eaten fresh or used for processing: drying, canning, etc.
Autumn variety of columnar apple trees. The wood of these trees is very durable and hard, so the branches can easily withstand a large harvest. The fruits are greenish-yellow, almost completely covered with a violet-red blush. The apples are of the correct rounded shape.
A late variety of columnar apple trees with a rich harvest. The trees are compact with large fruits. The apples are yellow-white, very juicy and sweet. Most often, the fruits of this variety are used for making juices, jams and compotes. Fresh, they will be a great addition to any dessert. Stored well.
Late (winter) varieties of columnar apple trees for the middle lane
In the garden, late varieties of apple trees are definitely needed. They are distinguished by high keeping quality with the preservation of fruit quality until March. The selection of late varieties is quite large. The following is a description of those that, in my opinion, are most suitable for growing in the middle lane.
8. Apple tree "Currency"
Winter variety, ideal for growing in central Russia. The height of the trees is not more than 2.5 m, the crown habit is about 20 cm. A true decoration of the garden plot. Leaves are bright green until late autumn. The narrow trunk is literally intertwined with rather large rounded apples weighing 100-250 g.
The peel of apples is thin, shiny (with gloss), the fruits are yellow, elegant with a red blush on the "cheeks". The taste is sweet with a light slightly sour aftertaste. The pulp is fragrant, juicy, white. Harvesting in technical maturity begins in the last days of September and the first half of October. Apples do not crumble, so harvesting can be extended.
The variety is fast-growing and already in the 2nd year forms the first fruits, a fairly high yield is obtained in the 4th-5th year - 4-5 kg. The yield of trees increases to 10 kg per tree with proper care (watering, feeding).
Possesses excellent qualities: winter hardiness, resistance to scab and other diseases and pests, high keeping quality and transportability. Used fresh and for canning.
Columnar apple tree "Currency".
9. Apple tree "Moscow necklace"
Winter variety, cold-resistant, semi-dwarf. The height of an adult tree is 2-3 m, the crown is very narrow, almost 1 trunk. Needs pollinators, which may be other varieties. Scab resistant. Needs preventive protective measures against other diseases (moniliosis, spotting) and pests (moth, aphid, tick).
A fast-growing variety, already in the first year, you can test the fruits. Fruiting is annual. The fruits are arranged along the central stem. The peak yield occurs in the 4th-5th year. The maximum yield is on average 10 kg per tree. But after 10 years of active fruiting, the yield drops sharply and by the age of 15 it almost completely stops.
Fruits are round, weighing 170-200 g. The skin is thin, rather dense, at first green, gradually turns red and by autumn the apples acquire a dark red elegant color. The pulp is light creamy, fine-grained, very juicy with a pleasant aroma. Dessert taste, clearly sweet with a slightly noticeable sourness. The crop is harvested in late September and early October. Used fresh and for canning.
Column-shaped apple tree "Moscow necklace".
10. Apple tree "Amber necklace"
Winter variety. Semi-dwarf, the height of the trees is 2-2.5 m, the shape, like that of the previous variety, is very small, which allows these varieties to be planted in a row after 40 cm. A distinctive feature of the variety is its high yield - up to 20 kg per tree. Needs a pollinator, which can be the variety "Moscow necklace", "Currency" and others (with simultaneous flowering).
It perfectly tolerates the climatic conditions of the Moscow region and even Siberia. The fruits are harvested at the end of September, they are stored for up to 5 months without loss of quality (until February-March).
In contrast to the Moscow Necklace, the fruits of the Amber Necklace are intensely yellow (reminiscent of amber) with a slight, very light blush. The mass of the apple reaches 150-300 g. The taste of the pulp is sweet, with a slight sour aftertaste (almost imperceptible). The pulp is very white, juicy and crispy.