Due to the fact that no one lives in the house at the end of the season, you have to take some precautions to keep the vegetables safe and sound. I will list the mandatory points that we adhere to ...
Determine the water table before building a cellar. They should be no closer than 0.8 meters from the bottom of the storage pit. If the groundwater is below this level, the cellar is buried in the ground, if it is higher, a semi-buried or even above-ground storage is built.
It often happens that the crop is grown, harvested, and there is nowhere to store it. The simplest cellar will help to solve this problem, which is quite within the power of everyone to build.
Improving the safety of summer gifts - how to preserve vegetables, disinfection and ventilation of storages, storing vegetables
Potatoes, carrots, beets, onion sets, cauliflower, white cabbage, apples (Antonovka), radish, pickles, pickles and jam in the cellar.
Everyone understands perfectly well that it is, of course, best to store the grown crop in a specialized cellar. There is a lot of literature describing the construction of such cellars. But the trouble is that, for example, in the Urals it is not possible to make such a cellar without the use of technology everywhere. This is due to the fact that it was customary to allocate so-called inconveniences for garden plots, which are a swamp or dilapidated rocky areas.
We are building a cellar.
On personal plots, traditional cellars are usually built from bricks, concrete, logs and simply earthen, which any gardener can build.
The intensive development of horticultural and horticultural associations in our country has revived interest in the construction of cellars and glaciers, which were successfully used in the recent past for storing agricultural products.
And this attitude towards traditional cellars and glaciers is quite justified, although at one time it seemed that their days were numbered and they were about to be supplanted by convenient, compact electric refrigerators.
Judge for yourself - in cellars with good waterproofing and skillfully selected ventilation, a constant temperature and humidity regime is reliably maintained, that is, favorable conditions are created for storing food, as a result of which they do not deteriorate for a long time, do not dry out and do not lose their inherent taste and smell.
Always skilled craftsmen, who know how to build a good-quality cellar, enjoyed great respect among the people, along with the master-wells and stove-makers.
On household plots, traditional cellars are usually built, permitted by building codes and regulations (SNiP), of brick, concrete, logs and simply earthen, which any gardener can build.
In this section, there are suggestions and recommendations for the arrangement of the main types of cellars, but the main purpose of these suggestions and recommendations is to serve only as a basis for creativity in each specific case.
Types and designs of cellars.
According to their structure, the cellars are divided into three modifications: completely buried, semi-buried and above ground. Basically, the modification of the cellar is determined by the hydrogeological conditions of the site on which the cellar is supposed to be built.
When choosing the design of the cellar, they proceed from the availability of space on the site, the need for a useful storage volume, the availability of certain building materials.
Where to lay the cellar.
It is best to arrange the cellar in an elevated and dry place, since in this case the waterproofing work is greatly simplified, and the waterproofing itself is reliable and durable. It is desirable that the groundwater does not reach the base (bottom) of the cellar by 0.5 m. If the site is low-lying, waterlogged, sand and gravel bedding (cushion) is made under the cellar in order to "tear" it away from the groundwater.
The groundwater level is determined in spring, when it is at its highest, as well as in autumn during the period of prolonged rains by the water level in the nearest wells, pits, exploration wells.
In places where the groundwater is shallow, as a rule, the vegetation is lush, bright, there are marsh and moisture-loving plants: forget-me-nots, horsetails, horse sorrel, coltsfoot, reeds, sedges, mosquitoes and midges swarm.
In the old days, to determine at what depth the groundwater is located, they used this technique. A clump of defatted, washed and dried wool was placed on the ground cleared of turf, and a freshly laid egg was placed on top. All this was covered with an earthen pot or frying pan, and then covered with sod. If in the morning, after sunrise, the wool and egg under the vessel are covered with dew, the water is close. When the egg was dry and the coat was wet, the water was deep enough. If moisture does not appear under the vessel at all, the water is very deep or there is none at all.
Another way to determine the depth of groundwater is that equal parts of sulfur, quicklime (fluff) and copper sulfate (800-900 g total) are mixed and placed in an unglazed pot. The vessel is closed with an unglazed lid (or tied with a cloth in two layers) and buried in the ground to a depth of 0.5–0.7 m. A day later, the pot is torn off and weighed. If the contents are more than 10% heavy, consider that the water in this place is shallow. Naturally, the greater the weight gain, the closer the water is.
When constructing cellars for buried storage facilities, it is important to know the properties of the main types of soil on which they are built. If poor soil conditions are not eliminated at the very beginning of construction, then serious problems may arise after a few years.
Sandy soil - loose unbound rock with a particle size of 0.05-2 mm, between which there are air cavities. It consists of grains of minerals, rocks, contains dusty (0.05-0.005 mm in size) and clay (less than 0.005 mm in size) particles. The filtration coefficient of sandy soil is more than 1 m3 / day.
In the construction of cellars, such soil is used for the construction of foundations, the creation of bedding under the foundations, and also as filters, filtering and anti-heap bedding.
Sandy loam includes from 3 to 10% clay particles. Distinguish sandy loam heavy (6-10% clay particles) and light (3-6%). There are more sand particles in sandy loam than silty ones; grains with a diameter of 0.25 to 2.2 mm prevail among them. Sandy loam - the soil is rather loose. When rolling out a slightly damp sandy loam, a rudimentary cord is formed between the palms.
Loam contains from 10 to 30% clay particles. Depending on the ratio of sand and clay, loams are divided into light and heavy. In the presence of 20-30% of clay particles, loam is called heavy. A ring can be formed from a cord rolled in the palms of moist heavy loam. A cord made of light loam, when rolled into a ring, breaks.
Clay soilcontains more than 50% of physical clay particles with a diameter less than 0.01 mm. Due to its high plasticity, clay swells strongly and weakly passes moisture through itself, therefore it is used to create clay locks and screens. Clay soil is sticky when wet, and hard when dry.
Peat - brown-black soil, which is an accumulation of plant residues of varying degrees of decomposition (in an excessively humid environment, with a lack of oxygen) with an admixture of a significant amount of mineral (sand, clay), lime and other substances.
The thermal conductivity of dry peat is 1.7 times less than that of sand and 1.2 times less than that of clay. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of peat saturated with water is 4 times higher than that of dry peat.
Peat has good bactericidal properties, high moisture holding capacity and gas absorption capacity.
Peat is often used for alternating potatoes and root crops stored in bins, wooden boxes and other containers. Tubers and root crops sprinkled with peat retain their good presentation. Peat is recommended for embankment of cellars and heaps.
Quicksand — water-saturated non-cohesive or poorly cohesive soil (fine-grained sand, sandy loam, less often loam), exhibiting fluid properties when opened.
Many types of soils (wet sandy loam, loam and clay) freeze at negative temperatures, increasing their volume up to 10% (swell), which leads to the appearance in the soil of normal forces applied to the base of the cellar foundation and tangential forces directed along its vertical planes ... Studies show that, as a result of the influence of these forces, lightly loaded pile foundations can rise by 80-90 cm in 5-10 years.
To reduce damage to building structures caused by heaving of soils, such soils are replaced with non-porous (sandy) soils.
To reduce the impact on the foundations of the cellars of the tangential forces arising from the heaving of the soil, the foundations are usually coated with hot bitumen, organosilicon enamels of the KO-198, KO-174, KO-1164 brands. In the absence of enamels, you can use natural or semi-natural drying oil.
How to install a plastic cellar
Let's not be honest and immediately notice that it is better to attract specialists to install a plastic cellar. In most cases, you can cope on your own either if you are a specialist yourself, or if you are seriously interested in the topic of construction and regularly monitor the corresponding video instructions of professionals. In other cases, you should not try to install a plastic cellar yourself.
What does the algorithm for installing a plastic cellar consist of?
- First, it is required to remove the top fertile soil layer from the place where the cellar will be installed.
- Then, using an excavator, you need to dig a pit of the desired size. The perimeter of the pit should be calculated based on the dimensions of the cellar, as well as the concrete slab, which is placed on the bottom of the pit to anchor the structure. The concrete slab in area should exceed the size of the bottom of the plastic structure so that it protrudes 30 cm under it on each side.
- After the hole has been dug, its bottom must be leveled with a level so that the cellar does not stand crooked.
- Strong cables are laid on the flat bottom of the pit, and a flat concrete slab is lowered onto them, on top of which a plastic cellar is installed.
- After that, the cellar is also leveled and securely attached to the slab using cables and fasteners: this will help anchoring the structure, and groundwater will not be able to push the cellar not filled with food from the bottom of the pit.
- Then the cellar is buried, constantly tamping the soil and thereby preventing the formation of holes around the perimeter.
- A heat-insulating material is placed on top of the structure (for example, foamed polyethylene or penoplex) and an exhaust hood is installed from the sewer pipes, which are traditionally attached to a plastic cellar.
- The structure is covered with soil and the surface is leveled. The cellar is ready for use!
If you are seriously thinking about creating a cellar and the problem of a high groundwater level is irrelevant for you, we have already talked about some alternative options earlier.
Fig. No. 1. Earthen cellar: a - section b - plan
1 - potato bin 2 - drainage ditch 3 - roof slope 1 - shelves 5 - adobe floor
At one time, earthen cellars became widespread in the Yaroslavl province, from where they got the name - "Yaroslavl". They are convenient, inexpensive, and constructed from local materials. Earthen cellars provide the most favorable conditions for storing potatoes - in them tubers almost do not dry out.
If the soil on the site is dense, and the place is dry and elevated (ground water should not reach the base of the cellar by 2 m), then it is quite possible to build a simple earthen cellar here.
Pit (excavation) is dug with a slight slope of the walls so that the soil crumbles less (fig. no. 1). Walls pit must be sheathed slabs, boards, strengthen with a wattle if the cellar is dug in sandy soil. The lining increases the life of the cellar and makes the storage conditions for vegetables and potatoes more favorable. It is better to make the casing collapsible so that in the summer the structures can be disassembled and taken out upstairs for drying.
Floor cellars - adobe with the addition of fine sieved brick crushed stone, its thickness is 8-10 cm. At the base of the floor, a 5-cm layer of compacted crushed stone is laid with hot bitumen pouring, which prevents capillary moistening.
Ceiling made from poles or a podtovoy, it is covered with clay-straw grease on top and covered with earth. The thickness of the ceiling insulation filling is 30-40 cm.
Roof above the cellar - gable, lowered to the surface of the earth, overlapping the pit with overhangs of at least 0.5 m on each side. She runs from the oppressed slabs or any other local material such as clay straw, reeds or branches (wattle). It is better to make the ridge of the roof from thick edged boards with lining under it strips of rolled material - roofing roofing felt or roofing material.
The height of the cellar is 1.8 m. If the ground water level does not allow digging the cellar to such a depth, then its height can be reduced. The bins in the cellar are on one side of the aisle, the shelves are on the other side. The bins are provided with a height of about 1 m with a slatted floor for ventilation. The distance between the shelves in height is 0.5-0.6 m.
In order to avoid freezing of the cellar in case of severe frosts, the ceiling is additionally insulated with dry oak leaf, moss, peat, etc.
In the cellar, you need an ordinary thermometer, or even better a psychrometer, to control not only the temperature, but also the relative humidity of the air. A drainage ditch with a depth of 0.5-0.6 m is arranged around the cellar.
The soil substrate used annually for growing plants without proper feeding is gradually depleted. Experienced gardeners recommend fertilizing, ... Fitolavin, reviews of which can be read on thematic resources, is a fungicide used for the treatment of fruit, berry and vegetable crops. The drug has ...
Costs table 2021
|№||Month||Name||Fact, rub.||Plan, rub.||Where did I buy||Note|
|1||September||Lily tubers, daylily||1400||1500||OBI||Planted|
|2||September||Autumn fertilizers, green manure, buckets||3000||3000||Market||Used 50%|
|3||September||Covering material for blackberries, roses||1000||1000||Housing||In stock, I use the old one|
|4||December||Seeds of vegetables, flowers||1100||2000||Garden world||In stock|
|5||January||Seedlings of perennial flowers - dahlias, weigela, azalea||2000||Nursery||Waiting for a parcel|
|6||February||Vegetable and flower seeds, seedlings and perennial bulbs||2982||3000||OBI||In stock|
|7||March||Seeds, clamps, containers for dried fruits||470||500||Dobrocen||In stock|
|8||March||Apple tree pruning||500||Neighbour||Plan|
|9||April||Racks for blackberries, hydrangeas (production + installation)||3000||Neighbour||Plan|
|10||April||Metal shelves in the cellar (manufacturing)||2000||Neighbour||Plan|
|11||April||Tools: spatula, gloves||500||Market||Plan|
|12||April||Spring mineral fertilizers for berries, flowers, shrubs, trees||2000||Market||Plan|
|13||April||Onion sets, seeds to buy: asparagus beans, choose a new one for the experiment||2000||Market||Plan|
|14||April||Poison from ants||1000||Market||Plan|
|15||April||Fence and post paint: for metal, for wood||5000||Market||Plan|
|16||May||Irrigation system - see what is available and make a budget calculation||3000||Market||Plan - if it doesn't rain|
|17||May||Payment for irrigation water||1500||Administration||Plan|
Total: plan 33,500 rubles. - fact 9952 rubles. = RUB 23548
The table will be updated throughout the season.
I will sum up the results in September 2021.
So later, having hardly bought anything, I counted a round figure. At the same time, I do all possible work myself, without the involvement of outside help.Plus, there are no gasoline costs and no pay for my work as an employee - we believe that I work for food. I am sure that during 2021 it will be necessary to supplement the table of expenses for my vegetable garden, garden and flower garden more than once.