Iberis: planting and care in the open field, growing from seeds, photo
Iberis is a perennial garden plant. In nature, it is most common in Spain, which is why it got this name: Iberia was once the name of the peninsula on which Spain and Portugal are located.
Iberis is in great demand in landscape design, because it has beauty and unpretentiousness.
In our article you will find recommendations for growing Iberis from seeds and you can find out:
- which plant varieties are most popular;
- when and how to sow Iberis for seedlings;
- when to transplant seedlings into open ground;
- how to care for iberis;
- how to collect plant seeds;
- how to prepare Iberis for wintering.
Planting and caring for Iberis
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in April or before winter; sowing seeds for seedlings - in early March, transplanting seedlings into the garden - in the second half of May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, diffused light, light partial shade.
- The soil: light loam, sandy loam and rocky soils, in which water will not stagnate.
- Watering: moderate and only in drought.
- Top dressing: solution of complex mineral fertilizer 1-2 times before flowering, but this is not necessary.
- Cropping: after flowering, the shoots are shortened by a third of the length.
- Reproduction: seeds and dividing the bush.
- Pests: fleas, aphids and mealybugs.
- Diseases: fungal, most often root rot.
Read more about growing Iberis below.
Plant Iberis (Latin Iberis), or candytuft, is a genus of herbs of the Cabbage family, or Cruciferous. Iberis is sometimes called stennik, variegated or peppercorn. The distribution area of Iberis is the mountainous areas of Asia Minor and Southern Europe, southern Ukraine, Crimea, the Caucasus and the lower reaches of the Don. In total, about forty representatives of this genus are known, among which there are both annual and perennial species, both thermophilic and winter-hardy, both herbaceous and semi-shrub varieties.
Iberis in the garden is used for edging flower beds and lawns, for decorating alpine slides and masonry. In addition, the Iberis flower is suitable for cutting and is in demand as an element of a wedding bouquet.
The root system of Iberis is pivotal, so it is highly undesirable to transplant it. The stems of Iberis, depending on the type, are creeping or erect, the leaves are small, simple, most often dark green with a tint. Small flowers with a diameter of about one centimeter make up umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Iberis blooms so abundantly that sometimes, due to the mass of flowers, leaves are not visible. The color of the inflorescences can be white, pink, lilac, purple or red.
Iberis blooms in May or August, flowering lasts about two months, and annual species bloom, as a rule, longer than perennial ones. Flowers of almost all types of Iberis exude a pleasant aroma. Iberis fruit is a bivalve pod, round or oval, somewhat flattened, with a notch at the top. Iberis seeds remain viable for two to four years.
Growing Iberis from seeds
How to sow seeds
Iberis is grown both by seed and vegetative methods. But since it is not difficult to collect or buy Iberis seeds, Iberis is most often grown from seeds. Many species of Iberis are sown shallow directly into the open ground in April, and if you want to admire the bloom of Iberis before the end of September, sow the seeds in two turns with an interval of two to three weeks. The seeds sprout in a week or two, after they appear, they are thinned so that the distance between the specimens is 12-15 cm. Iberis is grown in the open ground and sown before winter.
For seedlings, seeds of Iberis are sown in early spring in loose soil to a depth of one millimeter, from above the seeds are "added" with river sand. The container with crops is covered with glass so that the air and soil remain in a moderately moist state all the time. Keep crops in a bright, warm place. Watering the soil is carried out exclusively by spraying and only as needed. Due to the peculiarity of the root system of Iberis, picking of seedlings is not performed.
When to plant
Iberis is planted in open ground in May, when the last night frosts are left behind. Most of all, a sunny area with sandy, loamy or rocky soil is suitable for the Iberis, since stagnation of moisture in the roots is dangerous for the plant.
How to plant
Carefully, so as not to damage the fragile roots of Iberis seedlings, they, together with a lump of earth, are removed from the seedling container and planted in open ground at a distance of 12-15 cm from each other. The land around the seedlings is compacted and watered. If you are planting different types of plants, then maintain considerable distances between the varieties so that there is no cross-pollination of the plants.
Iberis propagation is also carried out by cuttings and dividing the bush.
Planting and caring for Iberis is within the power of even a novice florist. It is necessary to water the Iberis only in very dry weather, there is no need to feed the plant, but if you add complex fertilizers to the soil in the area with Iberis once or twice over the summer, its flowering will become even more abundant.
Actually, caring for Iberis consists in the timely removal of wilted flowers and in pruning the stems one third of the length after flowering, so that the overgrown bushes look compact and neat. In addition, perennial Iberis, upon reaching the age of five, requires seating, since its flowers begin to shrink and the plant loses its decorative effect.
Pests and diseases
Of insects, mealybugs, cabbage aphids and an earthen flea bother Iberis. It is easy to get rid of the flea that leaves round holes on the leaves by moistening the soil around the Iberis. Cabbage aphids are destroyed by treating the plant with a solution of liquid potash soap at the rate of 300-400 g per 10 liters of water. If after the first spraying not all aphids die, the treatment can be repeated after a week.
Mealybugs are fought by spraying Iberis with drugs such as Aktara, Mospilan or Fitoverm, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to cope with the mealybugs at one time, therefore, after a week or two, the treatment must be repeated.
As for diseases, due to the vulnerability of the root system of Iberis, it is susceptible to fungal diseases. To prevent this from happening, before planting the Iberis, spill the area with a fungicide, but if the rot does start in the roots, immediately destroy the diseased plant, and disinfect the soil under it. In general, Iberis is a very resistant plant, and with proper watering it is not afraid of even fungal diseases.
Iberis after flowering
How and when to collect seeds
Iberis seeds are formed in place of flowers. Iberis blooms all summer, the seeds ripen constantly, so there is no point in waiting for autumn, it is better to collect the seeds as they form. Collect the pods, dry them in a warm room, remove the seeds from them and store them in a cool dry place until planting. You can not collect seeds in the fall, but trust self-sowing, as a result of which you will only have to thin out the friendly shoots of Iberis in the last year's plot in the spring.
Perennial Iberis in winter
Iberis is a cold-resistant plant, however, for the sake of your own peace of mind and in case of a snowless frosty winter, cover the bushes cut after flowering for the winter with spruce branches.
Types and varieties
Annual Iberis is represented in our gardens in two species:
Iberis bitter (Iberis amara)
An annual plant up to 30 cm high with pubescent stems branched from the root collar. The leaves of this species are obverse-lanceolate, dentate along the edge, obtuse, alternate. White or slightly lilac flowers with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm make up racemose inflorescences of a columnar shape. This species was introduced into culture in the 16th century. Varieties:
- Tom Tumb - Iberis white, bush height 12-15 cm;
- Hyacintenblutige Riesen - lilac flowers on bushes up to 35 cm high;
- Weiss Riesen - bushes up to 30 cm tall with white flowers.
Iberis umbellata (Iberis umbellata)
Annual with smooth naked branched stems up to 40 cm high. Leaves are lanceolate, alternate. Fragrant flowers of different shades from white to purple, collected in corymbose inflorescences, bloom 2-2.5 months after sowing and bloom within two months. In culture since the 16th century. Varieties:
- Fairy Mixtche - the height of the bush is 20-25 cm, a mixture of seeds of Umbelliferous Iberis of different shades;
- Red Rash - carmine-red flowers on bushes up to 30 cm high.
Cultural species of perennial Iberis:
Iberis evergreen (Iberis sempervirens)
It is a perennial semi-shrub plant with a height of 30 to 40 cm. The leaves of this species are oblong, entire, shiny, dark green, up to 7 cm long. Umbellate inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter consist of white flowers up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Abundant bloom for three weeks, sometimes blooms again at the end of summer. In culture since the 17th century. Varieties:
- Miniature flock - bush height 15 cm, often used in rocky gardens;
- Findall - the height of the bush is 20 cm, the variety forms curtains up to 80 cm in diameter;
- Dana - a lush-flowering variety up to 15 cm high.
Semi-evergreen species with a mass of small pink flowers. The height of the bush is 25 cm, diameter is 40 cm. The most popular variety is Gibraltar Candytaft, a bush with beautiful lilac flowers that turn white over time.
Iberis Crimean (Iberis simplex)
Perennial only 5-10 cm tall with gray-green pubescent spatulate leaves and flowers, purple in buds and white after opening.
Iberis rocky (Iberis saxatilis)
Evergreen shrub 10-15 cm high, forming dense round clumps. During flowering, this Iberis in a flower bed looks like it is powdered with snow.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Information about Herbaceous plants
- Information on Annual Plants
- Shrub Information
- Information about the Shrub
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Flowering Annuals Shrubs Semi-shrubs Plants on I
Levkoy care in the garden
The most important thing when growing matthiola should be remembered that it reacts extremely negatively to both prolonged drought and too much watering. In this regard, watering should be moderate and always systematic. Also, while caring for such a plant, it is necessary to weed it in time and systematically loosen the soil surface on the site, and this should be done every time after the plant is watered. Of organic matter, only wood ash should be used for feeding, but it is preferable to use a complex mineral fertilizer. So, in the springtime, full mineral fertilizer should be applied to the soil in the area where matthiola grows, and during flowering, phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is used for feeding. If you are planting perennial matthiola, remember that in the year it is planted it should not be mulched.
Reproduction of Levkoy
You can grow matthiola from seeds at the same time, if you want such plants to bloom on your site throughout the season, they need to be sown every 1.5–2 weeks. Terry mattiola is sterile, however, it has been observed that double flowers grow from those seeds that were collected from underdeveloped bushes with simple flowers, while they should have short pods with a blunt end pressed against the shoot. From seeds collected from such bushes, plants can grow with both simple and double flowers in a 1: 1 ratio. When growing seedlings, you can try to select a plant with double flowers, if necessary. For this, seedlings should be kept at an air temperature of 12 to 15 degrees. After that, they are moved to a room for several days where the air temperature is 6-8 degrees, at this stage you can see the differences. For plants with double flowers, the cotyledons will be larger and not so bright. If necessary, it will be possible to select bushes with double flowers, while removing the rest of the seedlings.
Diseases and pests
The cruciferous flea is capable of causing the greatest harm to such a plant. To get rid of a small amount of insects, an ash solution should be used. Treatment of the affected bushes with such a remedy should be carried out 1 time in 4–5 days, while it should be repeated 3 times. During processing, it is very important that the solution falls on both the front and the wrong side of the leaves. In the event that there are a lot of fleas, for their destruction it will be necessary to use insecticidal agents, for example: Decis, Aktara, Aktellik, Bankol and Intavir.
Mattiola most often gets sick with black leg. In an infected bush, the lower part of the shoot first turns brown, and after a while it turns black. It is impossible to cure such specimens, but infection can be prevented, for this, before planting seedlings, the soil should be treated with Hom. In this case, even if the land was infected by the carrier of the black leg, the plants will not get sick with this disease anyway.