Cucumbers - a greenhouse reality
Over the past twenty-odd years, we have become accustomed to the constant availability of fresh vegetables in stores and supermarkets. And yet, your own cucumbers are preferable: they taste better, and you don't need to worry about nitrates, and, of course, always of the first freshness. The ability to have your own greenhouse, to improve it, allows you to grow vegetables: greens, tomatoes, cucumbers, all year round. Let's try to figure out which greenhouses are best suited for this purpose? What varieties of cucumber seeds are preferable to plant in greenhouses?
What are the greenhouses
Let's immediately define what we mean by greenhouses? A greenhouse is a protected ground structure that allows you to artificially create a favorable microclimate for the year-round cultivation of agricultural plants. Distinguish between winter and spring greenhouses, which, however, are used from spring to late autumn. Winter greenhouses are heated and can be used all year round. There are glass, film and polycarbonate greenhouses. The advantage of the latter is greater strength compared to foil greenhouses, flexibility and lightness when compared to glass greenhouses, and at the same time, polycarbonate greenhouses are easy to assemble, provide excellent thermal insulation and ventilation if necessary.
The greenhouse maintains a microclimate and protects plants from stress
What varieties to plant in greenhouse conditions
The ability to grow your favorite vegetables all year round is encouraging, but remember that under artificial conditions, plants are often deprived of the effects of natural pollinators - bees. This leads to a decrease in the yield. Taking these features into account, breeders have long bred varieties that do not need pollination by insects - parthenocarpic varieties with a female or predominantly female type of flowering.
Illumination requirements of varieties
When using greenhouses to obtain a year-round harvest, it must be borne in mind that the length of daylight hours throughout the year is different. In winter, in conditions of a shorter daylight hours, it is preferable to grow shade-tolerant hybrids. These include varieties: Manul F1, Relay F1, Marathon F1, TSKHA 442 F1, Ladoga F1, Northern Lights F1, Olympiada F1. One of the best shade-tolerant hybrids among gardeners is the F1 Athlete. It is so unpretentious to light that it is grown even in urban conditions on a windowsill or a glassed-in balcony.
After we decided to acquire a greenhouse and delight ourselves and loved ones with green fragrant cucumbers, we begin to plan plantings, asking ourselves questions of the level of experts: “What? Where? When?". "What?" - cucumbers, "where?" - in the greenhouse, but "when?" - this is a question that requires careful study. According to seasonality, there are three types of vegetables: winter-spring, spring-summer and summer-autumn. Hybrids of different seasonality differ in resistance to diseases, yield and demand for illumination, therefore, when planting different varieties, it is advisable to take into account their seasonality. Since winter-spring vegetables are not very demanding on lighting, they ripen quickly, are fruitful, but not too resistant to diseases, they can be planted at the end of February, and harvested in a heated greenhouse by the end of May. Here, for example, are some of the winter-spring varieties: Blagovest 1, Moscow greenhouse F1, Relay F1, Manul F1.
Spring-summer varieties in heated greenhouses can be planted in March at a temperature of twenty-five degrees, and if not heated, then in May. Spring-summer varieties of cucumbers are highly resistant to diseases, while maintaining high yields. They are represented by delicious salad varieties Zozulya and Aprelsky.
Hybrids Maryina Roscha and Anyuta are summer-autumn greenhouse varieties. They are planted, as a rule, in July, and the cucumbers are harvested until November.
By branching type cucumbers are climbing and branching. In conditions of a short summer and frequent frosts, for example, in Siberia, it is preferable to plant climbing cucumbers, which, as a rule, ripen quickly and are resistant to low temperatures, these are: F1 Bride and Snack Cucumber. Branched varieties of cucumbers are cultivated in the conditions of central Russia. Basically, these are unpretentious, high-yielding parthenocarpics: Buyan F1 and Chistye Prudy F1, shade-tolerant, with crunchy fruits. Gardeners consider these early-maturing multi-purpose cucumbers to be the best greenhouse varieties.
There are no accidents in the work of an experienced gardener. We plan the harvest at the stage of preparing the greenhouse for planting, choosing varieties according to the ripening period. On the seed packages, the ripening dates of the fruits are indicated: early, medium, late.
- Early and ultra-early varieties (ripen within 40-45 days from the moment the first shoots appear);
- Mid-ripening - ripen within 45-50 days;
- Late ripening - ripen in 50 or more days.
Among greenhouse cucumbers, there are more plants with fruits for salad purposes or for fresh consumption (Athlete, Zozulya, Fruit). But even among the cucumbers grown in greenhouses there are hybrids with excellent pickling properties, such as Masha, Courage, Adam, Bouquet, Finger, and universal varieties Competitor, Magnificent, Amur and Ginga. Based on our needs, we select fruits for their intended purpose.
The table lists the parameters of some varieties of cucumbers intended for cultivation in greenhouses.
|Varieties||Attitude to illumination||Seasonality||Branching type||Ripening period||Appointment||Fruit length|
|T / B||No in||З / В||V / L||L / O||Scourge.||Vet.||Ran.||Wed||Pos.||Sal.||Zas.||Un.||K / P||C / P||D / P|
|Favorite of Confucius F1||+||+||+-||+||+||++|
Cheat sheet for determining the properties of cucumber hybrids.
Designations: Т / В - shade-tolerant; W / W - winter-spring, W / L - spring-summer, L / O - summer-autumn; Scourge. - climbing, Vet. - branched; Ran. - early 45 days, Wed. - average 45-50 days, Pos. - late more than 50 days; Sal.- salad, Zas.- pickling, Un. - universal; K / P - short-fruited, S / P - medium-fruited, D / P - long-fruited.
Double signs ++ mean a particularly pronounced property, signs + - - a weak expression of a sign.
The specified parameters on the packaging are not a guarantee of success. The result in the form of a friendly harvest of tasty fruits is achieved by gardeners who have provided the plants with the necessary care.
The earliest varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses
Today we will not sort cucumbers of all ripening periods, only early ones. Early varieties recognized by gardeners: Masha - ultra early; Goosebump, salad; Delicate is also preferable to eat fresh or in salads. The early ripe Blond F1 also belongs to the salad. The early-ripening cucumbers Pioneer F1, Kostik F1 and Altai, which have proven themselves perfectly due to their exceptional taste and unpretentiousness, belong to universal hybrids.
According to the shape of the fruit, we note the early ripening short-fruited varieties Boy with a finger, the fruits of which reach only 11 cm in length and Mamen's pet F1. But the Pet of Confucius F1 refers to the early long-fruited hybrids. The favorite of Confucius F1 is quite resistant to diseases of cucumbers, it is equally good for growing in open ground and in greenhouses.
The early maturing bee-pollinated hybrids Ira F1 and Zabava are universal, they grow equally well in open ground, and under film shelters, and in greenhouses. The fun is also resistant to real and downy mildew, characterized by high stress resistance.
Early ripe also parthenocarpic hybrid Emerald Placer, Fruity F1, as well as Baron F1 and Athos F1.
Shrub varieties of cucumbers with a short stem and shortened internodes are called. They look great both outdoors and in a greenhouse: a compact, dense bush, “all covered with greenery, absolutely all”, low, about half a meter with numerous ovaries.
Almost all bush cucumbers are early ripening and unpretentious to care for. You can also grow such cucumbers in greenhouses, although they were originally intended for growing in the open field. Common bush varieties include:
- – Kid - bush 30–40 cm high with ellipsoidal dark green large-lumpy and white-thorn fruits of universal purpose 8–9 cm long. The variety is resistant to powdery mildew and mosaic;
- – Bush - a bee-pollinated vegetable with a bush height of 50–70 cm and elongated dark green cucumbers 9–12 cm long with excellent taste, which remain fresh and green for a long time;
- – Shorty - a universal bee-pollinated variety up to 45 cm high with oval or cylindrical light green fruits with a chintz pattern or small stripes. Zelentsy reach a length of 9–10 cm, they have a delicate peel, and they do not turn yellow for a long time;
- – Hector - a compact hybrid vegetable with bundle ovaries and fragrant, crispy, large-tuberous cylindrical greens with white pubescence;
- – Baby - an early ripe variety with dark green cucumbers weighing up to 80–90 g in the form of an egg with white pubescence and large tubercles. http://fb.ru/article/94028/ogurets-kustovoy-osobennosti-i-sorta
And also to the bush varieties that are planted in greenhouses are the varieties of cucumbers: Graceful, Nerosimy 40, Competitor, Vyaznikovsky, Nezhinsky.
Long-fruited cucumbers are very decorative. Zelens of long-fruited varieties are consumed fresh and in salads, and also used for pickling.
Isn't it a Christmas tree decoration ?!
Long-fruited varieties of cucumbers include: Moscow greenhouse F1 (fruit length reaches 40 cm), Zozulya F1 (fruits reach 24 cm in length), April F1 (fruits can reach 25 cm in length), Confucius' favorite F1 (fruit reaches 35– 38 cm). The fruits of an early, cold-resistant cucumber hybrid Emerald Potok F1 reach 30-50 cm.
Our gardeners have long discovered cucumbers bred by Dutch breeders. They give an excellent harvest both outdoors and especially in greenhouses. However, the main advantage of the Dutch varieties of cucumbers is the highest quality of planting material, the resistance of these varieties to diseases and the absence of bitterness.
Of the Dutch fruits, the following varieties are the most favored by our summer residents:
Athena, Bettina, Satina, Delpina and Merengue - it's easy to remember by the first four letters of the Latin alphabet, and at the end - the name of the crispy cake. In addition, the Amur, Hector, Komponist, Puccini hybrids were widespread.
Growing vegetables in winter
If there is a desire and opportunity to grow cucumbers in winter, we plant exclusively parthenocarpic varieties, otherwise, in the absence of natural pollinating insects, we will have to perform this function ourselves. In winter greenhouses, hybrids are most often used for planting: Cupid, Baloven, Hercules, Ginga, Cheetah, Zozulya, Courage and Orpheus.
Shade-tolerant fruits are convenient for planting in winter: Pallas' cat, Moscow evenings, Russian, Home, Northern lights, Olympiada, Marathon, Arina, Danila.
Persistent multidirectional breeding work of domestic and foreign specialists allows us to take into account the slightest nuances of agricultural technology and satisfy our constantly growing appetites.
Greenhouses on modern sites no longer look like an intricate structure assembled from old window frames and bent rusty pipes. Modern greenhouses delight the eye with their form and constructive findings. And how beautiful the lashes of cucumbers with emerald fruits look! Why do we love cucumbers so much? Is it because in the mind the cucumber is steadily associated with freshness? Fragrant lightly salted cucumbers - in the summer, pickles - with a feast ... Ever since institute, I remember that cucumbers contain tartronic acid, which prevents the formation of fats from carbohydrates. It's great to know that your favorite foods are not only tasty, but also healthy!
What cucumbers to plant in the beds in the middle lane and the Moscow region
Cucumber has been grown in the regions of central Russia for a long time. It can be safely called a favorite of gardeners, and every summer resident has his own list of time-tested varieties.
Some remain faithful to traditions and plant cucumbers of Soviet selection in the beds, others experiment, try new products. The review presents the most popular and productive cucumbers for open ground in the middle lane, which have received positive reviews.
The best varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses: TOP-10
In order to get a decent harvest of cucumber crops in a temperate climate with unpredictable weather changes, it is better to use the cultivation of cucumbers in greenhouses or greenhouses. From the variety of seeds, it is quite difficult to choose those that are suitable for certain weather conditions. If the gardener is experienced, then it will not be difficult for him to select seed material for his site, but for beginners it will be quite difficult to do this. This article lists the best varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses, as well as a description of their advantages and disadvantages, which will greatly facilitate the choice for those who have just started their gardening activities.
Photo, video, description, planting, characteristics, yield, reviews of the cucumber hybrid "Lenara F1"
Lenara cucumbers (F1) are a fairly new variety of Dutch vegetables. The parthenocarpic hybrid has gained popularity among many vegetable growers in a short period of time.
Lenara (F1) variety was bred by breeders of the Dutch company Rijk Zwaan. The results of the work of the specialists of this company are also the popular cucumber hybrids of Kibria (F1), Shakti (F1), Kantara (F1).
Cucumbers were included in the State Register for the Russian Federation in 2014. The main purpose is growing in unprotected soil and in various types of greenhouses.
REFERENCE: For better fruiting, you should not thicken the planting of cucumbers.
Lenara (F1) is a self-pollinated hybrid of the first generation of the gherkin type. The variety is characterized by early ripening - the growing season is about 40 days. The plants are vigorous, of medium size, with a well-developed root system. An indeterminate bush has a small number of lateral shoots. Flowers are predominantly female; 2-3 fruits are formed on one node.
The main characteristics of the hybrid fruit:
- Cylindrical shape
- Dark green color with small white stripes
- Dense, juicy and crispy flesh
- Average weight from 80 to 120 grams
- Length up to 13 cm
- Diameter - 3 cm
- Thin skin
- Great taste
- Lack of bitterness.
The main advantages of the Lenara variety (F1):
- Early maturation
- Great cucumber taste
- High yield
- Uniformity of ripe fruits
- Shade tolerance
- Unpretentiousness when growing
- Fruiting without bee pollination
- Ripe cucumbers do not turn yellow
- Resistant to sudden changes in temperature
- Excellent keeping quality
- Possibility of long-term transportation of the harvested crop
- Good resistance to most diseases.
The disadvantages of Lenara cucumbers (F1) include:
- Fruits are eaten mostly fresh.
- Overgrown cucumbers can thicken, barrel and lose flavor.
Agricultural technology or proper cultivation
The Lenar hybrid (F1) is very often grown in seedlings for an early harvest.
Selected seeds are planted in plastic boxes with pre-prepared soil. The soil for growing seedlings should be light and nutritious.
The seeds are placed in the soil mixture to a depth of 2-2.5 cm, sprinkled with peat on top and sprinkled with a small amount of warm water.
IMPORTANT: Because of the thin skin, cucumbers are poorly canned and salted.
The containers with the planting material are covered with a thin layer of plastic wrap and placed in a warm room for germination. After the shoots appear, the film is removed. For the normal development of seedlings, a large amount of sunlight is needed.
The seedlings are moved to a permanent place of growth in the presence of 3-4 true leaves.
After transplanting the seedlings, the first two days in the greenhouse are maintained at a constant temperature between 20-21 degrees Celsius for the correct and most efficient growing season.
The most suitable period for moving seedlings to greenhouses is the end of January. In unprotected soil, cucumbers begin to grow from mid-May.
REFERENCE: Before planting the plants, the soil at the site is moistened and complex mineral fertilizers are applied.
The basic rules for caring for Lenara cucumbers (F1) are as follows:
- Regular watering of plants with warm and settled water
- Harvesting of tops in the area with cucumbers and weeding of weeds
- Loosening the soil in the beds
- Top dressing with organic and liquid mineral fertilizers.
Planting cucumbers is weeded with extreme care in order to avoid damage to the root system. Before flowering, the bushes should be watered every 6-8 days, after the appearance of flowers - every 3-4 days.
IMPORTANT: Insufficient watering entails a loss in the taste of cucumbers - the fruits will taste bitter and dry.
A high yield will be provided by regular feeding with organic fertilizers and mineral complexes. During the season, the plants are fed at least 5-6 times, since they constantly bear fruit.
In which regions is it better to grow?
Due to its shade resistance, good tolerance of unfavorable weather conditions, the Lenara (F1) variety is successfully grown in all regions of Russia. Depending on climatic conditions, the hybrid is planted in open ground, under film shelters or in heated greenhouses.
Variety reviews from those who planted
Review of the gardener:
According to the majority of gardeners and summer residents, the Lenara (F1) variety belongs to promising hybrids and is characterized positively. Plants are distinguished by high regeneration and withstand a significant fruit load throughout the entire growing season. And high yield is another of the indisputable advantages of Lenar cucumbers (F1).
Gardener review of the variety:
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The area for growing cucumbers is prepared in the fall. It is dug up and organic fertilizers are applied. A cucumber Temp F1 is planted on a previously prepared site at the end of May. Reviews of gardeners indicate that it is easy to plant seedlings grown in separate cups. At the same time, the root system of the plant is practically not injured. Saplings grown in tablets and peat pots are placed in the prepared wells with them. The distance between the holes should be thirty or thirty-five centimeters. They are arranged in rows. The row spacing is fifty or sixty centimeters. When planting, seedlings are well watered and mulched with peat.
I do not cheat on my favorite bee-pollinated varieties of cucumbers. Every year I have a Parisian gherkin, Libelle growing on the ridges, just a sea of cucumbers. I cover all summer with lutrasil, if it's hot, they open it, and the bees fly. Cucumbers are tied quickly, just have time to collect. For salting (salt in tubs), only these are suitable, the taste of hybrids is not the same. Hybrids go to jars, for marinades, and there is no better bee-pollinated and aromatic hybrids for salting.
It is not so difficult to grow cucumbers in a vegetable garden in our region, but making them tasty and crispy is already more difficult. Only self-pollinated hybrids were planted about four years ago, and although the harvest was good, the taste did not like it. So we returned to the proven old varieties - Nezhinsky, Phoenix. Fruiting abundantly, when feeding and watering, the shoots bend from cucumbers. They grow well in the beds, without shelter. For an early harvest, I sow a couple of hybrids in greenhouses.
Bee-pollinated cucumbers are distinguished not only by their resistance to diseases and pests, but also by their excellent taste and high yield. Lovers of winter preparations are advised to pay attention to these varieties, which are best suited for pickling and pickling.