Horseradish: varieties, reproduction and planting methods
Read the first part: Biological features of horseradish
Amateur vegetable growers most often use local varieties of horseradish: Rostov, Suzdal and others. In recent years, new breeding varieties with valuable economic traits have appeared.
Two varieties of horseradish are zoned:
Atlant - mid-season, not blooming, long-term. The rhizome is smooth with a small number of tubercles and small roots, weighing up to 400 g, with a pleasant aroma, white pulp. This variety is heat-, drought- and frost-resistant;
Tolpukhovsky - late-ripening variety. The rhizome is completely submerged in the soil, it has white flesh. The variety is suitable for growing in coppice culture.
Growing horseradish in garden plots
A wet area with a deep arable layer is allocated for horseradish, loamy or sandy loam soil, sufficiently permeable subsoil and low-standing groundwater. They should be at least 1.5 m from the soil surface. Good for him old arable land from under cultivated crops, located in the floodplains of rivers, rich in humus. A high yield can be obtained in fertile areas. It can be successfully cultivated on drained peatlands.
Heavy soils are unsuitable for growing this culture, since the rhizomes on them in this case grow branched, curved and woody. In addition, harvesting on heavy clay soils is difficult, a large number of annual shoots remain in the soil, which greatly contaminates the site.
When growing horseradish for two and three years, it is better to allocate separate areas for it. With an annual crop, it can be grown alternating with vegetable plants.
The best precursors for horseradish are well-fertilized row crops (cucumber, tomato, potatoes, table and fodder root crops - with the exception of plants of the cabbage family) and legumes (peas, beans). For a more effective fight against plant residues after horseradish, potatoes or perennial grasses are grown, which inhibit young shoots that have emerged from the remnants of rhizomes.
They are required when growing horseradish, not only on poor, but also on rich soils. The soil is filled with organic fertilizers (humus, compost) in the fall before plowing or digging the soil (8-10 kg / m²) or early in the spring (6-8 kg / m²). On soils rich in humus, the doses are reduced. Simultaneously with organic fertilizers, 10-50 g of double superphosphate and 20-25 g of potassium chloride are applied per square meter.
Joint application organic and mineral fertilizers improves the structure of the soil, thereby increasing the vital activity of microorganisms in the soil, and this in turn contributes to a decrease in acidity and the accumulation of nutrients. Strong acidic soils lime at the rate of 0.4-0.8 kg of lime materials per 1 m². Soil liming best done in autumn.
Features of tillage for horseradish depend on the predecessor, the quality of the soil and its weediness. After early crops, plant residues are removed and deep loosening of the soil is done in order to provoke weed seeds to germination. After the emergence of their seedlings, the soil is dug up to the maximum depth.
To grow benign horseradish rhizomes, soil with a very deep arable layer is needed. The depth of tillage depends on the thickness of the cultivated horizon. It ranges from 20-30 cm in podzolic areas to 40-45 cm in peaty soils.
The task of spring tillage includes: moisture conservation, deep loosening of the arable layer, incorporation of fertilizers and creation of conditions for the accumulation of nutrients in an assimilable form. In the spring, as soon as the soil is ripe, the site is dug up. On light, structural soils, deep loosening can be done to a depth of 15-18 cm.Before this work, a complete mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (nitrophosphate, azofoska, Kemira, etc.) is applied to the soil at the rate of 50- 80 g per 1 m².
In areas with excessive moisture and on loamy soils with a small humus layer, ridges or ridges are made.
Horseradish can be planted throughout the season, but it is best in early spring in warm, moist enough soil. The best planting time for the conditions of the Non-Black Earth Zone is the last decade of April - early May .
Propagate horseradish by root cuttings... For planting, parts of annual underground shoots are used - cuttings obtained from lateral roots or thin annual rhizomes. They are biologically heterogeneous.
Preference should be given to the lower cuttings, since they form fewer flower shoots and give the best quality marketable products. The period of procurement of planting material is of particular importance. Cuttings cut in late autumn or early spring (before the shoots begin to grow) quickly root and sprout earlier, while those harvested during the growth and flowering period of plants root poorly.
Cuttings are usually harvested in the fall when harvesting marketable horseradish. Healthy, mechanically undamaged annual shoots are separated from biennial rhizomes used for food purposes. In the conditions of household plots, cuttings are best taken in the spring from overwintered plants. In farms with large planting areas, this harvesting period is not suitable, since in the spring the soil thaws slowly, products have to be harvested with a delay, delaying planting, which in turn will negatively affect the size and quality of the new crop.
The thickness of the cuttings intended for planting should be 0.5-1 cm. Thinner ones will not allow you to get a marketable crop in the first year, and horseradish cultivation in two seasons without digging strongly contaminates the soil. Practice has shown that the length of the planting cuttings has a great influence on the horseradish yield. It should not exceed 20-25 cm. In this case, during the growth of plants, the thickening of the main rhizome occurs, and a few lateral branches are formed only in the lower part and by the time of harvesting they reach the size of the planting material.
When planting short cuttings 5-7 cm long, strongly developed rhizomes are formed, only a few lateral branches are suitable for planting by autumn. When harvesting, the underground parts of plants grown from long stalks break down badly and clog the soil with the remnants of rhizomes. Taking this into account, it is recommended to plant cuttings 20-25 cm long on light soils, on medium-textured soils, the length of cuttings should be 15-20 cm.On peaty household plots, where horseradish, among other things, is planted and harvested by hand, the best cuttings length will be 30 -40 cm.
When harvesting cuttings, their polarity must be taken into account. In order not to confuse the top-bottom of the cuttings, the upper part is cut perpendicular to the axis during the workpiece, and the lower one is obliquely cut. Cuttings prepared in autumn are tied in bunches and stored at a temperature of + 3 ... + 5 ° С until spring.
Horseradish cuttings intended for planting have a large number of growth buds along their entire length, from which several rosettes of leaves appear at the top, and lateral underground shoots and roots at the bottom. As a result, the rhizomes branch out strongly, their marketability decreases. To obtain less branched rhizomes, the lateral buds are destroyed before planting the cuttings, wiping them with a coarse burlap or mitten, removing excess buds, leaving only 1-1.5 cm intact from the top for the regrowth of leaves and 2-2.5 cm from the bottom for the growth of annual roots.
However, this rubdown is ineffective, since about 70% of dormant buds remain intact and continue to grow after planting. Therefore, before such processing, they must first be awakened, to cause their growth. To do this, before planting, the cuttings are kept in wet sawdust, peat or sand at a temperature of + 15 ... + 18 ° C for two to three weeks, and then the rhizome is wiped with burlap. Swollen buds are easily removed. This method allows you to destroy up to 90% of the lateral buds in the central part of the cuttings.
Removal of lateral buds on the planting material helps to reduce the number of lateral shoots. Growing and wiping cuttings allows you to get smooth, thick horseradish rhizomes in the fall. The yield of biennial rhizomes using this method of preparing planting material is 20-25% higher. On the contrary, there are 20-30% more annual, thin rhizomes if they are planted without any preliminary preparation.
To obtain smooth unbranched rhizomes with high commercial qualities, horseradish cuttings can be placed in a plastic wrap sleeve before planting. When twisting the film around the handle, you need to make sure that the upper end of the handle protrudes 0.5-1 cm from the film sleeve, and the lower end - 2-3 cm.
The film should be wrapped around the cutting so freely that when the cutting is thickened during the growing season, the rhizome can grow 4-5 times. A sleeve made of film isolates the stem from the external environment, prevents the appearance and awakening of dormant buds. The planting material prepared in this way is planted horizontally to a depth of 4-5 cm. 1-2 rosettes of leaves are formed from the morphologically upper part of the cutting, and the root system of plants from the lower part. During the growing season, there is an outflow of nutrients into the rhizome (stalk), as a result of which it gradually thickens and by the time of harvesting fills the entire film sleeve, growing even and smooth.
The formation of horseradish roots at a depth of 7 cm facilitates harvesting. The yield when planting such cuttings in film sleeves is about 1.5 times higher than when using prepared in the usual way. Smooth and smooth rhizomes produce less waste when processed compared to conventional cultivation. Cuttings of the same size should be planted on the site.
Horseradish planting methods
Horseradish cuttings are planted with a row spacing of 60-70 cm and a distance between plants in a row of 25-30 cm. 4-6 cuttings are planted per 1 m2, which is about 60-100 g in weight. There are many ways of planting horseradish: under a stake, under a hiller , on ridges, ridges, on a flat surface; vertically, obliquely or horizontally. This crop grows best when planted at an angle, when the upper end of the cutting is located closer to the soil surface compared to the lower end by about 10 cm.
Cuttings are planted in the furrows obliquely so that their tops are covered from above with a layer of earth of 3-4 cm. To do this, a little soil is poured onto the bottom of the furrow from the edges of the hole under the apical part of the cutting. This is done so that during harvesting, the rhizomes break less and do not clog the site. When planting horizontally, horseradish cuttings are laid out along the bottom of the furrow.
Being in the upper soil layer, they warm up well and germinate 4-5 days earlier than with vertical and inclined plantings. The bulk of the rhizomes are placed closer to the soil surface to make it easier to dig them out. It should be noted that when planted horizontally, dormant buds awaken along the entire length of unpolished cuttings, which give many rosettes of leaves on one plant. This worsens the marketability of products, promotes strong branching of horseradish, reduces the yield, increasing the output of annual rhizomes.
The optimum planting depth is determined by the planting depth of the top and bottom of the horseradish. The upper end should not be excessively buried in the soil, as this delays the emergence of seedlings, and the plant does not develop well. On the other hand, to avoid drying out the cuttings, they should not be placed too close to the soil surface. The planting depth depends on the nature of the soil, the timing, planting method and the quality of the cuttings.
On light soils, the upper part of larger cuttings is buried up to 6 cm, on medium, loamy soils - up to 2-4 cm. Small cuttings are planted smaller than large ones. With excessive deepening, plant growth is inhibited. For faster rooting, it is recommended to compact the soil immediately after planting.
Read the third part: Growing horseradish, harvesting, diseases and pests →
candidate of agricultural sciences
Read all parts of the article "Growing horseradish in garden plots"
- Biological features of ordinary horseradish
- Horseradish: varieties, reproduction and planting methods
- Growing horseradish, harvesting, diseases and pests
- The use of horseradish in medicine
- The use of horseradish in cooking. Horseradish recipes
Eyebrow care at home
At home, such a flower grows like an annual. As a rule, the plants are changed to a new one after it has finished blooming. You can buy it in a store, while you need to buy copies that have recently begun to bloom. And also plants can be grown by hand from seeds or cuttings. Although the life of the eyebrow is relatively short, in order for it to bloom profusely, it needs to be properly cared for.
You need bright lighting and some direct rays of the morning or evening sun. The flower is recommended to be placed on the window sill of an east or west window. When choosing a northern window, it should be borne in mind that flowering will be very scarce. On a south-facing window, the flower will need shading from direct midday sunlight.
Those species and varieties that bloom in the cold season require additional lighting. The duration of daylight hours should be about 12 hours, otherwise the bloom will be scarce or the flowering will be short.
He loves heat very much, but at the same time does not tolerate high temperatures. In summer, it is recommended to provide a plant with a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees, in winter (in the absence of additional lighting) - from 15 to 17 degrees. If the temperature is higher, then the consequence of this will be the stretching of the stems, as a result of which the bush will lose its decorative effect.
How to water
The flowering plant must be provided with abundant watering, while the soil should be slightly damp (not wet) all the time. With a cool wintering, liquid stagnation in the soil should not be allowed, so watering at this time is recommended only after the upper layer of the substrate has dried.
Pour with settled water at room temperature, it should not contain chlorine.
On hot summer days, it is necessary to regularly moisten the bush with a sprayer. To do this, use soft water. During flowering, spraying is usually carried out on the seamy side of the foliage.
To form a spectacular, lush and neat bush, you will need to regularly pinch the tops of young stems.
A suitable soil should be loose and permeable to air and water. For planting, you can buy universal soil for garden or ornamental indoor plants at a flower shop. Simple soil from a vegetable garden or garden is well suited for planting.
Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot, which can prevent liquid stagnation in the substrate.
During intensive growth, it is necessary to feed 2 times a month. For this, fertilizer is used for flowering indoor plants (3 part of the recommended dose is taken).
It is not necessary to transplant the eyebrow, because it should be renewed every year.
Can be easily propagated by seed or cuttings. For cuttings, it is recommended to use ripe apical stems that do not have buds.Cuttings are rooted in loose moist soil in a mini-greenhouse. Can also be rooted in a small container of water.
Seeds are sown all year round. Sow on the surface of the substrate and cover the container with glass. The seedlings will appear in 1-2 weeks. Bushes begin to bloom at the age of 2.5 months.
Diseases and pests
Aphids, spider mites or whiteflies can settle on the bush. If harmful insects are found, it is necessary to carry out treatment with a chemical agent of the appropriate action (Aktellik, Fufanon, etc.). Only the seamy side of the leaves should be sprayed.
A plant can get sick with powdery mildew or chlorosis.
Horseradish: varieties, reproduction and planting methods - garden and vegetable garden
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Vitamins that are either almost absent or are present in small doses in other products are of particular value. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that complicated. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is not suitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but this is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, take care of plants and harvest.
Horseradish: varieties, reproduction and planting methods - garden and vegetable garden
direct sunlight, scattered sunlight
cuttings, seeds, division
Horseradish(Armoracia rustikana Gaertn.) Is a perennial herb of the cruciferous family.
The plant is very frost-resistant: it can withstand frosts down to -45 ° C, and spring frosts are not afraid of young leaves.
Horseradish blooms in the second year. Surprisingly, this rather harsh, one might even say brutal, plant has white fragrant flowers with the smell of delicate levkoy.
Horseradish is propagated by root cuttings 15-20 cm long and a centimeter and a half thick, but you can also use root pruning (5-8 cm).
It is best to plant in early spring, although if you plant it in summer and even autumn, horseradish will still take root. Horseradish does not require special care. Where it is grown in large quantities (industrially), the soil is regularly loosened, weeded, and the plant itself is fed and watered. But in garden plots, horseradish grows for itself somewhere near the fence, in the far corner of the garden, and they remember about it only when they start pickling cucumbers.
The only problem for gardeners associated with this plant is how to prevent it from scattering throughout the garden, because getting rid of it is just as difficult as it is from weeds. Therefore, the planting of horseradish must be controlled. In late spring - early summer, it is good to dig the ground around the root and, exposing it, remove all lateral roots. And then cover it with earth again. By doing this, firstly, you will prevent its inclinations to grow to the sides, and secondly, you will get a straight, even and large root instead of many small ones. This is more convenient to clean and rub.
In addition, although this culture is rather unpretentious, it still prefers loamy soils rich in humus. On heavy dense, the root will be rough and tough. And horseradish is photophilous and does not tolerate excessive dampness, although it is quite picky about moisture.
Horseradish is usually harvested in late autumn, when the leaves die off, or in early spring.
Unpretentious. Demanding on moisture, but does not tolerate excessive moisture.
Due to the endurance and resistance of horseradish to adverse conditions, planting is permissible almost at any time of the year:
- in the second half of April, when the soil warms up to at least + 5 ° C to a depth of 10 cm
- in summer - provided there is no drought and air humidity of at least 70%
- in the fall, 2 weeks before frost - in central Russia it is the 2nd decade of September - mid-October.
Podzimny planting is carried out in late October - early November, after clearing the soil from weeds and plant debris and digging it up. In this case, the cuttings are buried 3-4 cm in order to protect them from frost.
Horseradish is propagated most often in early spring (March-mid-April) or in autumn from mid-September to mid-October. Horseradish propagation is possible throughout the summer, it is produced like a spring and autumn planting.
When the lower leaves of horseradish turn yellow, you can harvest.
The above information will help anyone who wants to multiply horseradish on their site and get a bountiful harvest of this wonderful plant.
After the first inflorescences are formed on the lavender seedlings, it is recommended to cut them off. Thus, young bushes will not waste their energy on the formation of flowers, but will be able to get stronger and form a powerful root system. After planting lavender in the garden, during the first season, it is characterized by extremely slow growth, in this regard, you need to regularly pull out weeds, as they can drown out young shrubs.
In addition, the bushes will need to be systematically cut and fed. At the same time, it is recommended to use potash fertilizers for feeding. The fact is that nitrogen fertilizers and manure contribute to the active growth of green mass, and this negatively affects flowering.
Watering and hilling
In order for lavender to grow and develop well, it needs abundant systematic watering. On hot days, the frequency of watering is significantly increased. Every time after rain or watering, loosen the surface of the soil between the plants and remove all weeds. In order to significantly reduce the number of weeding, loosening and watering immediately after the seedlings are planted in open soil, the surface of the earth between them is covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
Old shrubs in spring and autumn are sure to huddle high. Thanks to this, new shoots can form on the old branches.
Such shrubs need systematic pruning, which is carried out every year. Immediately after the bush fades, the inflorescences that have begun to fade are cut off, and in the autumn, the branches are shortened to give the lavender a neat shape. Make sure that it does not stretch strongly upward, as due to powerful gusts of wind, the bush can lie down, as a result of which it will lose its decorative effect. After the age of the plant is 10 years or more, if necessary, you can carry out anti-aging pruning, for this, all branches are cut off, while leaving only segments about 50 mm long. Such pruning can be arranged for a younger shrub, if it blooms very poorly.