Calathea crocata is a perennial flowering herbaceous rhizome plant found in humid tropical coastal climates in South America. The stem is short, large dark green leaves are oval in shape and reach about 30 cm in length. The flowering period of each flower does not last long (approximately 10-12 days), and begins around January-February or early March. The flowers are colored orange-red and are collected in inflorescences that are on long peduncles.
Caring for calathea saffron at home
Calathea as a houseplant is considered quite capricious and requires a lot of attention and patience. In the spring-summer period, the flower grows and develops beautifully, but with the arrival of cold weather and a short daylight hours, it plunges into a depressed state. Insufficient natural light and dry air in the room due to central heating can even kill the plant. It is very important to create comfortable living conditions for calathea, full development and excellent flowering will depend on them.
Location and lighting
The plant, picky about the level of illumination, painfully reacts to the lack and excess of light. The light should be bright, but not in direct sunlight. Diffused lighting on the windowsills on the west and east sides of the room will be ideal for saffron calathea.
The tropical plant Calathea saffron is very fond of moderate heat without cold airing in cold months and without temperature fluctuations in the room. The optimum temperature is from 21 to 24 degrees Celsius. This temperature range must be maintained throughout the year. A drop in temperature below 18 degrees can lead to the death of the plant. When growing calathea on a windowsill, it is strongly not recommended to open the vents in the cold season.
Irrigation water must be necessarily filtered or settled, without lime and chlorine impurities. Abundant watering of saffron calathea is carried out in the spring and summer months. During the growing season, it is necessary to maintain a constant light soil moisture. The frequency of irrigation and the volume of irrigation water decrease in the autumn-winter period. At this time, the soil surface should dry out slightly before the next watering.
The optimum moisture level for saffron calathea is from 65% to 70%. This level should be constant throughout the year. Even regular daily spraying will not be able to accomplish such a task, especially during the heating season, when the air is dried out thanks to central heating or various other heating devices. This problem can be solved by using a pallet with moistened expanded clay and constant spraying, as well as a plastic bag that covers the plant at night. You can choose the wettest room or florarium as a place for growing calathea.
The recommended soil mixture for growing saffron calathea consists of humus, peat soil, coarse river sand (one part of each component) and leaf soil (two parts). For looseness, lightness and good air permeability of the soil, it is necessary to add a small amount of perlite, charcoal and chopped pine bark to the mixture. The plant requires slightly acidic soil. You can purchase a ready-made substrate that is prepared for growing plants from the Marantov family.
Top dressing and fertilizers
A flowering plant especially needs complex feeding intended for ornamental indoor plants during the growing season. Fertilizers are recommended to be applied regularly every 2 weeks.
In the first 3-4 years, the calathea needs an annual transplant, and as it grows up, this procedure is carried out only when necessary, when the root part does not fit in the flower container.
Given the structural features of the root system of the calathea, the transplant container must be purchased wide, but small in depth. First, a drainage layer is laid on the bottom, then a plant is placed, the rhizome of which is covered with sphagnum moss, and then a soil mixture.
Preparing for flowering
Before the beginning of the formation of buds in the period from October to December, you must:
- Maintain adequate lighting for at least 10 hours during the day;
- Use any opaque flower cover at night.
Reproduction of calathea saffron
The main methods of reproduction of calathea are seeds, root suckers, division of the rhizome.
Diseases and pests
The main pests are thrips, spider mites, scale insects. Preventive measures for calathea are a regular warm shower, and when pests appear, chemical treatment.
Violation of the rules of care leads to various diseases and changes in the external data of the flower. For example:
- An excess of moisture in the soil leads to the appearance of rot on the leaf plates;
- Bright sunlight makes the leaves appear pale green;
- Dry indoor air, lack of moisture and low temperature promotes curling and falling of leaves, wilting of stems.
CALATEA "CROWN OF THE INCS" SAFFRANE. TRANSFER. CARE
Please help me save the saffron calathea. We bought it a month ago in excellent condition, a lot of leaves and 8 flowers. We immediately began to dry one by one flowers and leaves. Frequent spraying does not help, there is enough moisture in the soil. The plant stands in partial shade, without drafts. Soil - I think it's called Dutch substrate (loose and very fibrous). What to do? how to save? Maybe she froze on the road?
If, when transporting the heat-loving calathea from the store in winter, it overcooled (the temperature is below 18 degrees), then the plant may begin to develop root rot from this. At the first signs of leaf and petiole rot, they are removed, the plant is treated with foundationol (2 g per liter of water).
Regular spraying of calathea to increase air humidity should be carried out only with warm water. Browning and drying of the tips of the leaves indicates dry air - put the calathea on a pallet with wet expanded clay.
Now urgently transplant Calathea and carry out a cycle of spraying the leaves with "Epin". If there are no leaves left on the plant, spray the remains of the petioles and the surface of the substrate with "Epin".
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10 indoor plants that will bring happiness and love
All kinds of signs and beliefs about indoor plants that speak of flowers that bring family happiness formed the basis of this top 10 indoor Spathiphyllum.
1.plants (people also call it "Women's happiness")
Helps unmarried people find their own. the half who is already thinking about the child - Love. gets pregnant and mutual understanding will always be in the family, where spathiphyllum grows (female happiness).
2. HaveZambarian stillbut (violets call her saintpaulia)
Helps keep the family calm by fighting less. In addition, this indoor plant is a symbol of eternal love.
Expect passionate love in the near future if you have a Chinese rose (hibiscus) in your house, it does not matter what kind it is, but I think that the color red is better.
4. Xoya, or "Wax ivy"
If you put a hoya in your bedroom, it will bring you family happiness.
5. Mirt (also called candle tree, vosovnitsa, wax myrtle)
long ago Even among the people, it is believed that myrtle makes marriage successful, and peace brings happiness to an already established family.
6. Aichrizon (people also call the tree "love" and "the tree of happiness")
The tree of happiness (love) brings love and happiness to his family and the owner.
7. TOalatea(saffron calathea - ornamental from the only calathea grown indoors)
helps Calathea in family life - this is an indoor plant symbol of home happiness.
8. Xlorophytum (folk green: names lily, bride's veil, spiders, family happiness)
People say that if there is a houseplant chlorophytum in the house, your family life will be happy and calm.
9. TOislic (also known as oxalis, hare cabbage)
If you want to find your love or keep your family, then start a sour.
10. BUTnthurium(popularly male "they call happiness", a flamingo flower)
For men, he gives masculine strength. And the family, where there will be, anthurium will accompany success and happiness in love.
So be sure to get yourself one of these indoor plants and it will definitely bring your family and you happiness and love!
Calathea is a perennial plant that can reach a height of about 1.5 meters; at home, calathea, as a rule, grows no more than 80-100 centimeters.
The foliage of plants is large, dense, oval-shaped leaf plate. Every year, about 5-6 young leaves appear on the shoots of the plant.
Even at home, with proper care, you can get beautiful yellow or orange flowers right in the middle of winter.
Types of calathea
Calathea crocata or calathea saffron. It is she who can most often be found at home with flower growers. This is a blooming calathea species.
Flowering begins in late December and continues until early spring with bright yellow flowers. In height, the bushes of the plant reach no more than 40-45 centimeters. The leaves are large, glossy, forming light waves at the edges.
The pattern on the foliage is original, but less pronounced than that of non-flowering representatives of this species. The underside of the leaf has a purple tint. This plant is most attractive for home cultivation, as it is less capricious to care for than other types of calathea.
Calathea Lanzifolia or kaletea is wonderful. It is a large plant with elongated oblong leaves.
Calathea Makoya. It is distinguished by a special decorative foliage, which hypnotizes with its bizarre patterns on the surface.
Calathea Orbifolia is also distinguished by decorative leaves. It grows in height up to 45-60 centimeters.
Calathea Sanderian or decorated calathea.
Calathea Medallion or pink-colored. In natural conditions, it lives in Brazil. This rather compact flower has bright, rich green foliage with spots on the surface of pink or cream color, which gradually fade with age.
Calathea Rufibarba. On the underside of foliage and on cuttings of this species, there is a slight pubescence. For the resemblance to a red beard, it got its funny name.
Calathea Varshevich. This is a blooming calathea species. Differs in white, pink or cream flowers.
Calathea Zerbina or striped calathea. Blooming variety.
Home care for calathea
In organizing the care of calathea, the plant is quite demanding in terms of care, humidity and light. Only experienced growers can cope with her whims.
The soil. For the growth and development of calathea, a well-drained and breathable soil is necessary. For self-preparation of the soil mixture, you need to take 2 parts of leafy soil for one part of peat and sand, add coniferous soil, charcoal (30-40 grams per 1 kilogram of the mixture) and crushed bark. Or use ready-made mixtures for azaleas, arrowroot plants or rhododendrons.
Temperature. The optimum temperature for plant development is from 16 to 25 degrees Celsius. It should also be protected from drafts and winds from windows. In winter, the plant is able to withstand temperatures up to 8-10 degrees, watering during this period should also be reduced.
Illumination. The ideal light level for calathea is partial shade. It will be optimal to place it on the east or west windows, shading it from the direct sun.
If your windows face south, the plant can be placed in the back of the room, or on the windowsill, but providing protection from the sun's rays. If you place the flower on the north side, then it is necessary to provide additional illumination using artificial light.
In any case, wherever you place the flower, in autumn and winter it needs to be illuminated additionally from five to ten o'clock in the evening.
Calathea blooms with constant illumination for at least 8 hours a day. Optimal illumination is not direct sunlight, you can supplement it with fluorescent lamps.
Humidity. Calathea is a moisture-loving plant, and when humidity is less than 60%, it begins to shed foliage. To preserve the decorative qualities of the plant, it is necessary to constantly, regardless of the season, spray it once every 2-3 days and additionally moisten it with a pallet with wet expanded clay or use air humidifiers.
It is important to ensure that the plant is regularly watered once every 2-3 days; in winter, it can be reduced to weekly.
In general, the plant needs watering when the soil in the pot has dried out by 2-3 centimeters in winter, and it is hot time, when the humidity in the pot must be constant.
You need to water with water slightly warmer than room temperature, which has been previously settled. It is not recommended to use tap water. The hardness of the water can be reduced by soaking 2-3 handfuls of peat in water at night.
Top dressing. It is important to feed the plant twice a month with liquid fertilizers for ornamental deciduous plants, previously diluted with water during the period of active growth and development. The rest of the time, top dressing can be applied once every 2 months. Those varieties that bloom (Calathea saffron and Calathea Varshevich) additionally need to be fed with fertilizers for flowering plants.
Adult specimens must be transplanted every 2-3 years, while it is possible and necessary, if necessary, to divide the bush into parts. Up to 4 years old, the plant needs to be replanted annually.
The optimal timing for transplanting calathea is February - March, before the plant begins to actively develop. In a container for planting a plant, it is necessary to create a good drainage layer, which can be up to one fourth of the pot.
It is better to choose a pot wider and less deep, since the plant has a superficial root system.
The easiest way to reproduce is to divide the bush during transplantation. Plants - children are transplanted into pre-prepared soil and require increased attention and milder care conditions for the first year of development.
It is important to maintain a partial shade and a temperature of 20-25 degrees in the place where they grow, constantly spray them, feed them once every three weeks and water them in a timely manner. After a year, the plant can be moved to a larger pot and treated like an adult plant.
Reproduction by seeds. This method is for the most patient and motivated gardeners. Calathea seeds are planted in special soil and the temperature is maintained. Seeds are sown without deepening, watering abundantly.
The container with seeds is cut up with glass or foil and left in bright light. Then the soil is periodically moistened, the mini-greenhouse is ventilated, the emerging seedlings are tempered. When seedlings appear, it is important to provide care for the seedlings according to the principles described above.
Propagation by cuttings. It is necessary to separate the stalk from the mother plant and place it in a mini-greenhouse under a jar or plastic bag. After rooting, the protective film is removed, and the plant is cared for according to the principles described above.
Reproduction by dividing the bush. When dividing a bush, it is important to divide the root system so that each part has a pair of leaves. The survival rate of new plants is low, therefore, tremendous work is required for the plant to acquire its aesthetic appearance. It is important to arrange a warm and humid place for them in a greenhouse or in a wet pallet on central heating radiators.
It happens that, subject to all the rules for caring for a plant, flowering does not occur. In this case, regular liquid feeding with phosphate-potassium fertilizers will help the plant to pick up the buds. They need to be brought into the soil after watering at least once every 2 weeks.
Transplanting into a larger pot can also stimulate the development of peduncles. For the flowering of calathea, it is very important to maintain the optimum air temperature and optimum substrate moisture.
Additional lighting with lamps can also accelerate the onset of flowering if the plant does not have enough sunlight.
Diseases and pests
From insects on calatheas, spider mites, scale insects and thrips can be found. In order to avoid the penetration of these insects on the flower, it is important to organize preventive plant care.
To do this, it is important to follow the rules for caring for the plant - to prevent a decrease in the level of moisture and drying out of the soil, to regularly conduct a visual inspection of the foliage.
The spider mite lives on the inner side of the leaves, leaves thin strips on the surface of the leaf, eating the soft tissues of the calathea.
For prevention, you can place naphthalene balls next to the plant, it will also help in the fight against thrips. If you find harmful insects on the plant, then the plant must be washed with soapy water, the infected parts must be removed and the plant must be treated with an insecticide solution.
Possible growing difficulties:
- The flower wilts, darkens, wrinkles and wilts. Most often this happens when there is a lack of moisture or watering. Increase the humidity of the air and check the area for the flower development for the absence of drafts.
- Leaves curl up and white spots appear on them. This can happen due to direct sunlight hitting the plant.
- Dark spots on foliage appear due to abundant spraying and wet foliage. It is necessary to reduce watering of the plant.
- Yellow spots on foliage appear as a result of exposure to direct sunlight.
- Brown foliage signals the presence of salts in the irrigation water. Water the plant with soft, settled water.
- Sluggish foliage and rotting of the petioles indicate an excess of moisture. In such a situation, it is urgently necessary to disinfect the roots and transplant them into new soil.
- Thin foliage occurs when there is a lack of light.
As you can see, the plants are quite demanding in their care, but the requirements are justified and if they are observed, bright orange flowers framed by strict dark green foliage will delight you for a long time amid winter frosty days.
Reproduction of calathea
Reproduction of this plant can be carried out in several ways, namely:
- Division. Reproduction with a calathea leaf is a common method. The most variant of division is the procedure during the transplant. At the time of the procedure, the air temperature should be about 21-22 degrees. Small leaves should be planted in small pots, where you first need to prepare a mixture of peat, sand and leafy earth in equal proportions. Rooted plants should be transplanted into larger pots after a few days. At the same time, the soil is prepared as for an adult plant.
- Seeds. This is a rather laborious method of reproduction of calathea, therefore flower growers resort to it extremely rarely. To plant seeds, you need to prepare a soil consisting of leafy earth and river sand in a 2: 1 ratio, put seeds there. In this case, the air temperature should be approximately 22-24 degrees. Sprouted seeds must be transplanted into the same soil. The grown shoots need to be transplanted into large pots - about 7-9 centimeters in diameter. Shoot care is the same as for division propagation.
Small sprouts need to be fertilized once every 3 weeks, periodically sprayed, watered, and also avoid direct sunlight.
Caring for calathea at home
Calathea are thermophilic plants, in winter they are kept at a temperature not lower than 16 ° C, but optimally 18-22 ° C, does not tolerate drafts and sudden temperature changes. In summer, the temperature is normal, it is better in the fresh air - on the balcony, veranda. Moreover, calatheas are hardened and adapt to temperature extremes and if there is no draft (glazed balcony), they calmly tolerate night temperatures up to 13 ° C, but they do not tolerate heat well - above 28 ° C. On dry, hot days, it is better to rearrange the pots on the floor - it is cooler there, or place them on wide trays of water.
Good lighting, light partial shade, protected from direct sunlight. With a lack of illumination, the color of the leaves is lost, becoming uniformly green, the spots merge against the general background of the leaf. On the other hand, in intense sunlight, the leaves turn brown-red, burns appear. Calathea is often considered a shade-loving plant, however, with a lack of lighting, the plant will not be dense and large. Most often, they suffer from a lack of illumination in winter, therefore, additional illumination with fluorescent or LED lamps is necessary.
Calathea loves high humidity. Humidity should be 90%. At home, in an apartment, it is difficult to achieve such humidity. Many grow calathea in aquariums, florariums, terrariums. When grown on a windowsill, plants with smooth leaves are often sprayed and wiped with a damp sponge. When spraying calathea, try to moisturize the area around the plant and only a little the plant itself.
Calathea does not like hard water. It is best to water the plant with rain or melt water. Calathea also loves warm water. Water the plant abundantly in summer, and reduce watering a little in winter. It is better to drain the excess water from the pan so that the roots do not rot.
Calathea needs a transplant every two years. It is best to replant the plant in early spring. Drainage is needed for calathea. When buying ready-made soil, a mixture for rhododendrons or azaleas is suitable. You can prepare the soil yourself. Take 1 part humus, 1 part peat, 1 part leafy soil, and 0.5 part sand. Some growers grow calathea hydroponically.
Calatheas are propagated by dividing rhizomes (bush) when transplanting in spring. When dividing a bush, more precisely, cutting the rhizome with a knife, sprinkle the slices of succulent roots with crushed coal. After planting the separated plants, water should be done carefully for the first week. The separated part of the calathea bush must be planted in a pot that is not too spacious, otherwise the plant will grow very slowly.
In addition to dividing the bush, you can separate the root suckers - part of the rhizome with a small sprout. Care for the separated young plants is the same as usual - uniform moistening after drying the top layer of the earth, feeding not earlier than a month and a half after planting, protection from drafts and hot air of the battery, additional lighting if necessary.
Reproduction by seeds is possible, but it is very rarely used at home.
When abutilon is propagated by apical stem cuttings, cuttings from the ends of young shoots or shoots remaining after pruning are used. Cuttings are cut 10-12 cm long with three leaves, the buds are plucked out. Cuttings are rooted in spring, in a moist loose substrate (sand + peat, etc.) or in water at a temperature of 20-22 ° C. It is necessary to maintain humidity and constantly ventilate; a greenhouse is optimal for these purposes. Rooting takes place within 4 weeks. When the seedlings take root, they dive into pots with a diameter of 7 cm.
Calathea is easy to grow, it can be both beginners and experienced growers.
Types and varieties:
• in rooms, preferably at a distance of 1-2 m from the north or east window
• in florariums, in "windows-showcases"
• in winter gardens
in spring and summer, annually or once every two years,
in wide pots, since the root system of Calathea is not deep, almost superficial, there are tubers
leaf land: peat: sand (2: 3: 1)
• with waterlogging of the soil and sharp temperature fluctuations, rotting of the root system, tubers is possible
• possible defeat by a spider mite, scabbard
in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity
dividing the root ball during transplanting, so that each tuber has 2-3 roots and a few leaves
• in bright light, the leaves of Calathea look faded, as the color intensity decreases, the size of the leaf blade decreases
• sensitive to air humidity
• suffers greatly from temperature changes
• does not tolerate tobacco smoke
leaves are oval, up to 40 cm long and 15 cm wide, dark green above, with narrow white-pink paired stripes (fading over time) along the veins, dark purple below
• lifts and folds leaves at night and before the rain
• leaves are able to turn towards the light source
Consider how to transplant calathea at home.
Calathea is transplanted in early spring. Young specimens need to be replanted annually, adults - every 3 years. It is important to know what kind of pot you need for calathea.
For transplanting, you will need a small pot so that the root system of the flower can fit freely in it. In shape, it should be wide enough and shallow.
Drainage from small expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pot. The thickness of the drainage layer should be at least 3 cm. A little fresh soil is poured on top.
Calathea is transplanted by transshipmentso as not to damage the delicate roots. Empty spaces on the sides are filled with earth.
During transplantation, the roots of the plant should be examined. Dry, rotten and damaged roots are cut with a sharp knife and sprinkled with crushed charcoal.
After transplanting, the calathea should be watered abundantly and placed in a cool, shaded place.... This will help her adapt after the transplant. The next watering should be carried out no earlier than 8-10 days after transplantation.
Now you know everything about caring for calathea at home, as well as about plant transplantation and reproduction.
In the gallery, you will see calathea in the home and natural care process.