How to properly plant cherry seedlings in the fall?
Relative winter hardiness, drought resistance and unpretentiousness of cherry make its cultivation accessible to any gardener.
But, relatively recently, fungal diseases coccomycosis and moniliosis made this process somewhat problematic.
You can increase the resistance of cherries to diseases and natural disasters already during planting., but to prevent possible problems with the help of agricultural techniques.
Benefits of planting cherries in autumn
There is no definite opinion on the season for planting cherries. Each option has its own advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of recommendations it is important to focus on the regional climate and varietal characteristics of cherries.
When planting in spring, the seedling can be affected by recurrent frosts, dry winds and sudden changes in day and night air temperatures. In addition, the dormant period required for tree rooting is much shorter in spring than in autumn.
When planting in autumn the impact of unfavorable factors for the rooting of the seedling is minimized.
After planting cherries until mid-October, a period with a stable temperature of + 10 ° С- + 15 ° С will follow and the seedling will have time to acclimatize before the first frost appears.
In addition, a long rest period promotes the healing of wounds sustained during the transplant.
Seedlings of autumn planting outstrip trees planted in spring, for 20 days. This is achieved through the development of the root system in the fall, when the buds of the tree are dormant. And therefore, in the spring, the cherry immediately begins to build up its vegetative mass.
All nurseries dig out seedlings for sale in the fall. Planting material, which is sold in spring, is stored in special conditions throughout the winter.
The storage process, even with the observance of all the rules, is already a violation of the natural development of the seedling. In this case, the roots or internal structures may be damaged, which is difficult to determine by external signs.
In autumn there is an opportunity to purchase a seedling with a fresh root system, by which you can determine the health of the tree. The large volume of seedlings for sale affects the pricing, and therefore the planting material in the fall is cheaper, and the choice of varieties is greater.
Autumn planting is relatively simple and saves the gardener's time. It does not involve additional work except for the correct planting and shelter of the seedling for the winter.
Regular rains will provide the tree with the necessary moisture, and it will develop the root system until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C. This is a significant savings in time in the spring during the peak of gardening work.
There are also disadvantages to the autumn planting of cherries.... This is a possible freezing of the root system and the aboveground part under conditions of a strong drop in air temperature in winter. Damage due to icing, squally winds or heavy snowfall is also possible.
There is a risk of damage to the seedling by rodents... All these factors must be taken into account when planting and to minimize the possibility of each problem.
When to plant cherries in the fall: choosing the right timing and a good seedling
Despite the generally accepted recommendations for the timing of planting cherries, you need to focus on the average temperature of your region.
Approximate landing dates:
- in the middle lane and the Moscow region, cherries are planted after leaf fall until mid-October;
- in the southern regions, planting begins in early October and continues until mid-November;
- in the northern regions and in the Urals, cherries are planted only in spring.
You also need to consider the variety of cherries.if the tree is characterized by weak frost resistance, it is better to postpone planting until spring.
You should not plant seedlings if the optimal dates are missed., they need to be properly stored until spring. For this, a digging trench is formed. Seedlings are placed in it at an angle of 30 °, the roots and root collar are sprinkled with soil, the branches are bent to the ground and fixed with boards.
Most varieties of culture are self-fertile, therefore for the full fruiting of a tree, you need to purchase at least three seedlings of different varieties.
In addition, practice has proven that with a combined planting of self-fertile varieties of cherries, the yield increases several times.
Sapling quality indicators:
- one-year (70-80 cm), two-year (110-120 cm);
- developed fibrous root system of at least 25 cm;
- matured wood without traces of damage.
Too high growth of seedlings indicates overfeeding the plant with nitrogen, which greatly reduces winter hardiness. Planting such plants before winter is likely to kill the tree.
Saplings can be sold grafted or self-rooted... The grafted cherry is distinguished by an earlier entry into fruiting.
Own-rooted trees have better winter hardiness and a wider breeding potential.
Where can I plant a tree: selection and preparation of the site
Mature cherries do not tolerate transplanting very well. Therefore, you need to choose a site for growing a fruit tree, taking into account the life expectancy.
With proper care and favorable conditions bush cherry lives up to 18 years, tree up to 25 years.
The ideal place for cherry blossoms is a well-lit hill or gentle slope facing south or southwest. Obligatory protection of the site from cold winds and drafts.
Cherry grows well on loam and sandy loam with a neutral alkaline reaction. It is important to take into account the occurrence of groundwater, it should not be higher than 1.5 meters.
An acidic peaty soil is not suitable for a fruit tree. Therefore, it will be necessary to replace the top layer by at least 20 cm.
Cherry roots do not compete well with weeds, therefore, you need to dig up the site several times, carefully removing the remains of other plants.
Wherein at the rate of 1 m2 in the ground, you need to make:
- compost or manure 8-10 kg;
- superphosphate 60 g;
- potassium chloride 30 g.
When landing in lowlandswhere stagnation of moisture and cold air is constantly formed, or in areas constantly blown by the wind, the tree develops poorly.
Cherry suffers from bark and root collapse, freezing of flower ovaries, gum flow and desiccation of branches. This creates a favorable environment for the formation of dangerous diseases, therefore, cherries must be looked after.
Planting pit formation, soil preparation
Planting pits are prepared in advanceat least 15 days in advance. The recommended arrangement for bushy varieties is 2x2, for tree varieties 3.5x3.5. The optimal pit size is 50x50x50.
You also need in advance prepare soil mixture for filling the pit... To do this, use the top layer of soil, deposited after digging a hole. It is mixed with nutrients:
- humus 1 bucket;
- potassium sulfate (30 g);
- superphosphate 200 g
The heavy soil is structured by adding 2 buckets of river sand. A drainage layer of expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pit and 1/3 of the pit is covered with prepared soil, well compacted.
When planting fruit trees, the use of nitrogen fertilizers is excluded. The mineral has a bad effect on plant survival.
Also it must be remembered that nitrogen is found in large quantities in chicken manure and pig manure.
A step-by-step guide to planting a seedling
Before boarding, you need once again inspect the seedling, cut off all damaged areas of the roots to healthy tissue. All leaves are removed, which will facilitate the evaporation of moisture.
If the roots are very dry, then they need to be immersed in cold water for 12 hours before the root collar. In some cases, the trunk of the seedlings also dries up, in which case it will need to be immersed in water by 1/3.
Significantly increases the survival rate of seedlings immersion of roots in a solution of heteroauxin - organic growth stimulant.
Step-by-step guidance and planting steps:
- installation of a stake (2 m) on the north side of the pit;
- the formation of a mound from the prepared soil mixture;
- even distribution of cherry roots over the surface of the mound;
- backfilling of roots and compaction of the surface of the trunk circle;
- watering with 2-3 buckets of warm water.
Root collar should remain 3-5 cm above the ground surface. Over time, shrinkage will occur, and it will level with the soil. If, after watering and shrinking, the root collar is still not at the desired level, it needs to be corrected.
This indicator also applies to bushy varieties, despite the name, they are planted in the same way as tree cherries.
Spring and summer care, preparation for winter
If there is no regular precipitation in summer, you need to make a hole around the tree for watering, and fall asleep with the appearance of frost, otherwise water will stagnate there.
Until a steady cold snap the tree trunk circle of the seedling needs to be mulched with peat or sawdust a layer of 10-15 cm and spud the seedling to a height of 30 cm.
The branches of the tree are tied tightly to the stake with soft material. The barrel is tied with warm breathable material, lay a garden net on top and cover with a dense layer of spruce branches.
A mixture of mullein and clay 1: 1, which has a rather pungent and unpleasant odor, will help scare off rodents. To do this, apply a thin layer of the mixture to the cherry stem.
In the spring it is necessary to carry out the unwinding and preventive treatments from bacterial and fungal infections. Before awakening the buds, it is necessary to cut the conductor and each branch by 1/3. This is done to regulate the ratio of roots and aerial parts, which is disturbed when the seedling is excavated.
With this approach to open field planting cherries develop disease resistance in advance, and with regular preventive measures, infections have practically no chance.
Thus, the basis for stable fruiting and an abundant harvest and longevity of the fruit tree is the correct planting in the country and the survival of the seedling.
therefore this event needs to be taken especially carefullyplanning each stage in advance.
How to plant cherries in spring: tips and tricks
It is difficult to imagine an orchard without such a wonderful tree as a cherry. The fruits of this culture are in great demand, because they make jam from cherries, make jam and compotes, squeeze juice, add it to sweets and pies. Let's look at how to plant cherries correctly in spring so that you can get your first harvest next summer.
Choosing a future tree
If you want to provide yourself with fresh healthy cherries and delicious cherry jam, and at the same time admire the flowering in spring, which is not inferior to Japanese sakura, then get ready to go through several mandatory stages on this difficult path. Planting cherries, although not a very laborious process, still need to follow the basic rules, otherwise it will not be possible to succeed in growing it. Keep in mind that in what time frame and how to plant a cherry, its development and fruiting will depend in the future.
From what time frame and how to plant a cherry, its development and fruiting will depend in the future.
The successful planting of cherries is based on the choice of:
- a healthy seedling with a formed root system
- cherry varieties suitable for local climates
- places for planting a seedling, taking into account soil, groundwater, light and winds
- the right timing for planting, whether it's spring or fall.
For growing good cherries with excellent fruiting and frost resistance, ordinary root shoots from a neighbor's plot will not work, even if your neighbor boasts a rich harvest of wonderful berries every year. The fact is that a grafted cherry gives a wild growth, which will not bear fruit in the future, and although the growth of self-rooted cherries bears fruit, their quality is much worse than that of the parent plant.
Having planted a cherry pit in the ground, you are also unlikely to achieve what you want - the result in this case is completely unpredictable, regardless of how large and tasty the cherry was eaten. Therefore, the most preferable option is to plant cherry seedlings, which are sold in a large assortment in specialized markets.
For spring planting, it is better to buy seedlings in the fall, when their choice is especially rich.
Choose seedlings about a meter high. Make sure that the seedling is free of damage or signs of fungal and other diseases. Pay attention to the variety: a bush cherry or a tree will grow, will it be resistant to frost, drought and disease?
Planting material can look different, the best quality seedlings have several branches, and their roots form a good branched system. If you feel sorry for the money for such a beautiful specimen, you can take a simpler tree - with a less luxurious root system and small branches. But still, it is better not to save money, because you are choosing cherries that will bear fruit for fifteen to twenty years. Therefore, give preference to the highest quality seedlings so that they quickly take root and further delight you with cherries that are excellent in all respects.
How to plant cherries in the fall?
Cherry is one of the most common stone fruit trees found in garden plots. This is due to the fact that it makes excellent compotes, preserves, desserts, jams, and it is also an integral part of cherry dumplings and some popular cakes.
If you want to have a well-bearing tree in your garden, then you need to plant a cherry seedling correctly, and we will reveal exactly how to do this in this article.
Cherry planting dates
The first thing that interests those wishing to start growing cherries is when is it better to plant it? After all, this can be done both in spring and autumn. To a large extent, it depends on when you bought the planting material. If this happened at the end of October or in November, then it is better to postpone the planting until spring.
The most optimal period when it is recommended to plant cherries is October. This is due to the fact that the tree is no longer growing (resting), and before the first frosts there is still about a month. During this time, the seedling will have time to take root.
Preparing for the autumn planting of cherries
In this case, it is very important to choose the right seedling, and then properly prepare it and the planting site.
For successful survival, you should choose either a one-year-old seedling with a height of about 80 cm, or a 2-year-old - 110 cm. In any case, it must have a well-developed root system. Immediately before planting, you should cut off damaged roots and branches, leaving only healthy parts, but not less than 25 cm.
For cherries, you should choose a well-lit place, while protected from the winds. It is better to select the soil for it with neutral acidity. On the selected plot of land, we dig a hole about 60 cm wide and 45 cm deep. Its size directly depends on the volume of the plant's root system. It is considered correct that the roots should be well spread in different directions around the perimeter. When digging, it is necessary to separate the upper (more fertile) soil from the lower one. After that, you can proceed to the actual planting.
How to plant cherries correctly in the fall?
- Place a peg in the center of the pit. Pour the top soil around it, mixed with manure. Pour a bucket of water
- We dip the cherry roots in a mixture of clay and manure and place them on the formed hillock on the left side of the support.
- Sprinkle with fertile soil, constantly crushing a new layer. This is necessary so that all the air comes out of there.
- We fill the hole with the remaining lower earth, fill it with water and tamp it too.
- Around the seedling, at a distance of 30 cm, we make an earthen rampart.
- An hour after planting under the seedling, it is necessary to pour out the third bucket of water and tamp the earth again.
- Then we mulch the ground around the trunk of the planted seedling with rotted compost, sawdust or manure. This will help prevent soil cracking and moisture loss.
After the cherry has stood a little and the soil has settled around it, we tie the tree to a peg.
If cherry seedlings are planted in the fall, then they will then need to be hilled, as this will help to avoid freezing of the root system of a young tree in winter.
How to plant pitted cherries?
- Any stone fruit plant can be grown from the seed inside the fruit. This also applies to cherries. Therefore, if you are not in a hurry or do not trust the seedlings sold, then you will need to proceed as follows:
- We clean the bone from the pulp and rinse in warm water.
- We dry and put in a transparent container until July.
- In mid-July, fill the bones with water and leave for a day. We repeat this procedure for a week.
- We place the soaked seeds in wet sand and leave there for one and a half to two months. This will "wake up the bone", that is, bring it out of dormancy and increase the likelihood of its germination.
- After the sprouts appear, cherries can be planted in open ground, deepening them by 5 cm.
Whichever way you plant cherries on your plot, if you do everything right, it will thank you with a good harvest.
How to properly plant cherry seedlings
When it is better to plant cherries, Alexander Fedorov from the Oryol region told us.
“Usually it is advised to plant cherries in the spring, but I think the best time for this is autumn.
Firstly, in autumn, the period for planting cherry seedlings is longer than in spring. The seedlings are at rest, as the growing season is over and they are ready for winter. Secondly, there is enough moisture in the soil in autumn - there is no risk of death of seedlings from drought or untimely watering. Thirdly, during the winter, the cherry seedling manages to take root in a new place, since it does not need to spend energy on the growth of the ground part. Therefore, in the spring, he does not overdo it, but begins to grow and develop normally.
If you plant cherry seedlings in the spring, especially if you miss the planting time, then the start of growth may be delayed, the vegetation rhythm will be interrupted, the plant will overload for a long time, since all its strength will go to rooting, and not to development.
Therefore, when asked when to plant cherry seedlings, I always answer - in the fall.
How to properly plant cherry seedlings in the fall?
It is necessary to plant cherry seedlings in the so-called chatterbox (I make it from fertile soil and humus - 1: 1), right in the planting pit (50x50x50 cm). I add 15-20 g of mineral fertilizers to the chatter box, fill it with water, bringing the mixture to the state of thick sour cream.
Then I carefully dip the roots of the seedling into this chatterbox and, without removing it from the pit, I cover the trunk circle with a thick layer of humus (2-3 buckets). Instead of humus, you can use straw or fallen leaves. This layer, in addition to retaining moisture, prevents the root system of the seedling from freezing during the onset of frost, until snow falls and a normal snow cover forms.
I told you how to plant cherries correctly. Now a few words about the results of the autumn planting. The survival rate of cherry seedlings is 100%. They develop additional roots by the spring, and the seedlings themselves grow shorter and more compact.
When planning the renewal of cherry trees in your garden, do not forget my story on how to properly plant a cherry seedling. "
When the site is selected and prepared, they proceed to the next stage - the preparation of seedlings and holes for planting.
Selection and preparation of a seedling
Cherry varieties are often self-fruitless, therefore, in order for the trees to fully bear fruit, they acquire at least three seedlings of different varieties. A combined planting of self-fertile cherries is also recommended - it increases the yield of trees at times.
Before choosing a seedling, you need to familiarize yourself with the best varieties of cherries. You can read about popular varieties here.
- The seedlings must be healthy, without damaging the bark and root system.
- The best seedlings are one-year-olds with a height of 0.7-0.8 m or two-year-olds with a height of 1.1-1.2 m.
- Developed root system - from 25 cm in length.
- A height of more than 1.2 m indicates an overfeeding of the plant with nitrogen - such seedlings have reduced winter hardiness. It is better not to plant such trees before winter - they will die.
- Own-rooted seedlings are considered more winter-hardy. It is better to plant grafted seedlings in spring.
Before planting a seedling in a pit, its roots are straightened, long ones are cut and dipped in a dung-clay mash. Leaves are torn off to prevent moisture evaporation. The survival rate of seedlings is also increased by soaking in a solution of heteroauxin (organic growth stimulant).
The cherry pit is prepared taking into account the size of the root system. Usually, a 60x60x60 cm recess is dug. Planting holes are prepared in two weeks. The layout of the holes depends on the type of plant.
Prepare the soil mixture in advance. When digging a hole, the topsoil is set aside to mix with fertilizers:
- humus - bucket
- superphosphate - 200 g
- potassium sulfate - 30 g.
If the soils are heavy, add a couple of buckets of river sand. Drainage is made at the bottom of the recess - you can, for example, use expanded clay. The prepared soil mixture is poured into the pit so that it takes up a third of the space. The poured mixture is lightly tamped.
It is forbidden to apply nitrogen fertilizers when planting cherries and other fruit trees - they impair rooting. Chicken manure contains a lot of nitrogen.
We plant cherries in the fall: tips, detailed instructions for planting seedlings. How to care for cherries in the fall after planting
Thinking about how to plant cherries correctly in order to get a good harvest? Take advantage of advice and guidance from experienced gardeners.
How to plant cherries correctly
It is better to grow cherries from a young seedling. It is impossible to get good planting material from a bone. The fact is that the plant will not inherit parental qualities. Planting a seedling must be carried out in accordance with all the rules.
When to plant cherries?
In the northern regions, planting cherries in the fall must be done very carefully so that early frosts do not damage the tree. If possible, it is better to postpone work until spring. In the south of the country, seedlings can be planted in the fall. But all work must be completed before the onset of frost. The seedling needs time to take root. The optimal time for planting is from the beginning to the end of October.
Where to plant cherries?
In order for the tree to develop well and bear fruit, it is important not only to take into account the timing of planting, but also the location of the seedling.
Sweet cherry prefers lighted areas that are protected from the wind by a wall or other structures. In such a place, the young tree will be well sheltered from frost.
It is important to pay attention to the soil composition of the site. The soil must be fertile and moisture-consuming. But the groundwater must be deep.
It is best to set aside a place for cherries on a hill where there is no risk of spring flooding. Various varieties of cherries and cherries will be good neighbors for the plant.
How to choose a good cherry sapling
1. First of all, when buying a seedling, you need to pay attention to the roots. Indeed, the further growth of the tree will depend on the state of the root system.
2. A good seedling is distinguished by the number of fibrous roots. The more, the better for the tree.
3. In addition, it is important to pay attention to the "tops" of the seedling. An annual plant up to 80 cm high, and the height of a two-year tree reaches 1 meter.
4. It is undesirable to acquire seedlings that are too tall. They will take longer to take root, which means that the first harvest will not be soon.
When transporting a seedling to the dacha, wrap the root system with wet burlap, on top of which put a bag.
Instructions for planting cherries in the fall with a photo
All planting work begins with the preparation of the seedling and the hole. First of all, equip the landing pit. This is done in advance, about a month in advance.
The dimensions of the planting pit for cherries must correspond to the root system and standards. The depth of the pit should be about 50 cm, and the width - 70 cm. The bottom of the pit is well drained.
For this, gravel or broken brick is used. Fertile soil mixed with humus is poured on top of this layer. Mineral fertilizers are not used when planting cherries.
An excess of nutrients is harmful to the plant. The winter hardiness of seedlings decreases.
How to plant cherries
Immediately before planting, the seedling must be soaked. To do this, the roots are dipped in a bucket of water for 8 hours. The addition of root, which stimulates root formation, is allowed. Then it is necessary to inspect the seedling and remove all damaged, dry roots. Next, a minor pruning of healthy roots is carried out.
When starting to plant a seedling, adhere to the following rules:
1. The roots are straightened and the plant is placed in the hole.
2. Then stick a wooden peg to which the tree will be attached.
3. The planting hole is covered with earth and tamped.
4. During planting, pay attention to the position of the root collar. It should be 5-7 cm above ground level.
5. A groove is formed along the edge of the trunk circle, into which watering will be carried out.
6. Planting ends with abundant watering, despite the weather.
7. Then carry out the mulching of the trunk circle.
Cherry pruning in the fall after planting is not carried out, so as not to weaken the tree. The seedling is tied to an installed peg, trying not to squeeze the bark of the tree.
How to care for cherries after planting
Young cherry seedlings require special attention. Before planting, the tree is cut off, then in the spring lateral shoots will grow from the dormant buds, on which the crop will form in the future.
Competent tree pruning allows you to form the correct crown. In the second year after planting, an autumn formative pruning is carried out. Up to 3 well-developed shoots are left on the tree, the rest are removed.
The selected branches are shortened by 1/3 of the length, and the central conductor is cut off at a level of 1 meter from the lower tier.
Every year, the pruning is repeated, leaving on the next tier two, and then one strong shoot.
Sweet cherry does not tolerate neighborhood with weeds, therefore it needs regular weeding. From the moment of planting until late autumn, it is necessary to loosen the soil around the tree. Mulching will help solve the problem.
In order for the sweet cherry to withstand the upcoming frosts well, it must be fertilized. The tree is fed with phosphorus fertilizers, per 1 sq. m. up to 50 g of the drug.
How to transplant cherries in the fall
All gardeners know that a place needs to be carefully selected to set up a garden. But beginners may have difficulties: either the terrain is poorly chosen, or insufficient illumination.
Is it possible to replant cherries in the fall or will it destroy the tree? If you strictly follow all the rules, then the tree will painlessly transfer the procedure and quickly adapt to a new place.
1. Only young trees that are no more than 6 years old can be transplanted.
2. Preparation for the forthcoming transplant begins 6 months before the procedure.
3. In the spring, a shallow groove is made around the tree and the roots are cut. Then the groove is filled with humus. During the summer, cherries are well watered. Enough superficial roots should have grown by autumn. This will allow the seedling to take root in a new place faster.
4. The transplant is carried out immediately after the leaf fall, a month before the first frost.
5. When transplanting a formed tree, it is important to maintain its orientation relative to the cardinal points. This will reduce the risk of burns.
How to keep cherry seedlings until spring
If for some reason it was not possible to plant cherries in the fall, then the seedling must be saved until spring. How to do it?
- The seedling is buried in an elevated place, protected from the winds.
- The groove for the planting material is made 60 cm deep.
- The trees are laid obliquely, with gaps of up to 25 cm between them.
- The roots of the seedlings in the groove should face north.
- It is better to sprinkle the planting material with light earth mixed with sawdust.
Juicy and tasty cherries are very useful not only for children, but also for adults.
Every gardener strives to grow it on his site. Taking advantage of all the instructions given, a rich harvest will not keep you waiting.