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Fight against diseases and pests of watermelon

 Fight against diseases and pests of watermelon


It is difficult to find a person who would not like watermelons. Therefore, more and more gardeners are trying to grow these tasty and juicy berries in their backyards. But getting a bountiful harvest depends not only on competent agricultural technology. Watermelon is susceptible to attacks by disease-causing fungi, bacteria and viruses. Pests also do not bypass the plant. Some diseases can deprive the gardener of the harvest already at the seedling stage. Therefore, you need to regularly examine the plants and know what to do if certain suspicious symptoms are found.

Growing watermelons

Watermelons have been cultivated for several thousand years. Their homeland is the territory of modern South Africa. From there they ended up in Ancient Egypt. Europe learned what watermelons are, after the campaigns of the crusaders, they came to Russia in the 17th century during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.

Breeders are developing new varieties of watermelons, so their cultivation in greenhouses and in the open field is available not only in the southern regions of Russia.

The plant belongs to the Pumpkin family, therefore, from the point of view of botany, its fruit is pumpkin, and not at all a berry, as is commonly believed.

Growing watermelons is popular with modern hobby gardeners.

Due to weather conditions in most of Russia, watermelons are grown in greenhouses. The moist, stale air under the shelter is an ideal environment for the development of many pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and insect pests. In the absence of competent care, a bountiful harvest can be avoided. And you should also pay attention to preventive measures, because it is easier to prevent the development of the disease than to eliminate the consequences later.

General preventive measures

When cultivating watermelons in a greenhouse, prevention consists in regular ventilation. Open doors and windows make it easier for insects to pollinate the plants. In their absence, artificial pollination is carried out.

The greenhouse creates ideal conditions for the growth of watermelons, while the humid environment promotes the active reproduction of pathogenic microflora and insect pests

Don't forget about disinfection. Every year after harvesting, the greenhouse is fumigated with smoke, burning a sulfur stick in it. Glasses and frames are wiped with a 1% solution of slaked lime. The soil is carefully dug up and watered with hot water, a 3% solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate.

Sulfur block is an effective disinfectant

Fungal spores, insect eggs and the pests themselves successfully winter in the decaying tops of plants and in the soil itself, often retaining their viability for up to 3 years. Therefore, after the end of fruiting, the site must be cleaned of weeds, dry grass and other debris and dug up.

Before being sent for storage, the fruits are carefully examined. Watermelons, even with very minor damage or surface stains, should be kept away from healthy fruits. Seeds when propagated in a generative way exclusively from fruits without any signs of damage.

Only absolutely healthy watermelons are suitable for long-term storage.

Prevention when growing watermelons consists in performing the following measures:

  1. Mandatory disinfection of the soil before planting seeds. This also applies to purchased soil. The substrate can be steamed, calcined in the oven, kept in the freezer.
  2. Careful selection of the landing site. It should be open, well ventilated and warmed up by the sun.
  3. Compliance with the recommended landing pattern. Free placement of plants prevents the rapid spread of diseases and insects. If the problem does not respond to treatment, it is worth destroying the affected bush, thus eliminating the source of the infection.
  4. Compliance with crop rotation. Watermelons and other pumpkin seeds (zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkins, melons) are susceptible to similar diseases and are attacked by insect pests. When growing watermelons for several seasons in one place in the soil, spores of fungi, larvae and eggs of pests accumulate, the substrate is greatly depleted. Therefore, after 2-3 years of cultivation in a certain area, it is advisable to change the planting site. Good precursors for watermelons are any legumes, herbs, onions, garlic, all types of cabbage, carrots, radishes.
  5. Regular loosening of the soil. Ideally, this should be done every time after rain or watering, but very carefully. The root system of a watermelon is superficial. This contributes to better aeration of the roots.
  6. Timely introduction of the necessary dressings. Ripening fruits takes a lot of their strength, so they must be provided with all the necessary macro- and microelements. Strong plants are much less likely to suffer from diseases and pests.
  7. Correct watering. It is carried out so that drops do not fall on the leaves. The water should be warmed to room temperature.

Loosening the soil is an effective preventive measure, after which spores of the fungus, eggs and larvae of pests appear on the surface and die

Daily inspection of plantings is essential for early detection of pests. The sooner a problem is noticed, the easier it is to deal with it without resorting to harsh chemicals and insecticides.

Any tool for processing plants must be sharply sharpened and disinfected. Even minor damage to the plant is a gateway for all kinds of infections.

Video: prevention of typical watermelon diseases

Seedling diseases

Most often, seedling diseases develop as a result of improper care. With proper agricultural technology, the problem disappears. But there are exceptions, for example, black leg. This disease is dangerous for any seedlings, it can destroy seedlings.

The most typical symptoms indicating that the seedlings of watermelons are sick or attacked by pests:

  1. Yellowing leaves. Most often, seedlings in this case do not get sick. The plant signals that it does not have enough space in the container, the room temperature is low for normal growth (+ 17 ° C or less), or the seedlings do not have enough light. A similar symptom is observed with a deficiency of nutrients in the soil or with an excess of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. If normalization of conditions does not help, weakened plants can be affected by fusarium, powdery mildew or spider mites.
  2. Elongated stems, shrinking leaves. This is due to the lack of light in combination with the very high temperature of the seedlings. The reason may lie in watering with too cold water.
  3. Leaves drying around the edges. The reason is improper watering, both very poor and excessively abundant. This may indicate a lack of light or insufficient feeding.
  4. Withering plants. In this case, root rot may develop. This is facilitated by the low temperature in the room or its frequent drops in combination with abundant watering. Spores of pathogenic fungi can be contained in manure and other organic fertilizers, so it is undesirable to use them for feeding seedlings.
  5. White spots on the leaves. This symptom is typical for many diseases. This is true and downy mildew, white rot or spotting caused by pathogenic bacteria.
  6. Blackening and thinning stem base. Black leg is one of the most dangerous diseases. Abundant watering provokes its development. For prophylaxis, seeds are etched before planting in a solution of Planriz, Agata-25K for several hours. If characteristic symptoms are found, the seedlings are treated with Baktofit, Fitolavin, Fitosporin. It will take 2-3 procedures at intervals of a week.

In order to eliminate the problem in time, you need to inspect young shoots as often as possible, observe agricultural techniques when growing seedlings and properly feed the plants.

Video: diseases of watermelon seedlings

Diseases specific to watermelon

Watermelon is susceptible to various diseases. If it is still possible to fight against fungal infections, then there are no effective drugs for the destruction of viruses and bacteria. Prevention is a necessary measure to grow a healthy plant.

Fusarium

This disease is caused by a fungus. It can affect both watermelon seedlings and adult plants. It is difficult to notice him in time. First of all, it affects the roots. Small spots of a brick shade appear on them, gradually tightening with a pale pink bloom. As the disease develops, the roots darken, the bases of the stems rot, the leaves turn yellow, dry and fall off, the plant wilts. The watermelon stops growing.

Fusarium infection affects watermelon seedlings, adult plants and fruits during storage

When digging, dolomite flour (250–400 g / m²) is introduced into the soil. The fungus prefers an acidic substrate. Before planting, the seeds are poured with a solution of Fitosporin, Glyokladin for several hours. The grown seedlings are treated with Previkur every 12-15 days. In the first decade of June, watermelons are watered with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and boric acid (1 g / l).

Potassium permanganate is one of the most popular disinfectants used by gardeners

Noticing the typical signs at the beginning of the development of the disease, the substrate and the watermelons themselves are abundantly watered with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate or powdered with a mixture of wood ash and colloidal sulfur, taken in equal proportions.

If the process has gone far, fungicides are used. The best choice is drugs of biological origin. They do not adversely affect the soil and the plants themselves. Otherwise, their use ceases at least 3–3.5 weeks before fruiting and at the time of flowering. For the treatment of fusarium, Vitaros, Fitosporin, Trichodermin are used. Plants are watered 3-4 times in 6-8 days with a solution of the drug.

Anthracnose

A disease that affects not only watermelons. In the south of Russia, it is not widely distributed, but in the middle lane it is found everywhere. Leaves and stems have yellowish-brown blurred spots. They gradually increase in size, become covered with pinkish-yellow warts, and turn into black ulcers. The leaves dry, the stems become brittle, the fruits are deformed, stunted and rotted.

Anthracnose is a disease common in central Russia

High humidity and heat, lack of light, thickening of plantings provoke the appearance of anthracnose. The pathogenic fungus remains on seeds obtained from infected fruits, in the ground, and is spread by insects.

It is not recommended to eat watermelons affected by anthracnose.

For prophylaxis, plants are treated with Cuproxat three times (during the formation of lashes, fruit ovaries and 1.5–2 weeks after 2 procedures). The seeds are soaked in Abiga-Pike, Skora, Ridomil Gold, Tiram.

If symptoms of the disease are detected, watermelons are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid or Kuprozan, Benlat, Tsineb. If the pathology is not detected in time, the plant can only be pulled out and burned. The soil is disinfected with a 2% solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate.

Bordeaux liquid is a popular fungicide and you can make it yourself

Root rot

On the visible part of the plant, the fungus manifests itself as weeping black-brown spots at the very bottom of the stems and on the petioles. The roots themselves unnaturally thicken and crack, disintegrating into fibers. Gradually, the leaves turn yellow and numb, the watermelon dies. Often, with the development of rot, mold forms on the surface of the soil, and an unpleasant odor comes from it. The development of rot is facilitated by the low temperature of the air and soil, its frequent fluctuations, especially together with watering with cold water.

Root rot can destroy seedlings

To prevent the development of rot, the seeds are soaked in a 0.025% solution of ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate or boric acid, or in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. The root collar (it must be located above the surface of the earth) is powdered every week with crushed chalk, activated carbon, and colloidal sulfur. Watermelons are sprayed with a 0.1% Fundazole solution at the same frequency.

Suffering from root rot and watermelon fruit

You should not use fertilizers containing chlorine, because they greatly weaken the root system of the plant. Soil salinization is dangerous. Of organic fertilizers, only those that have been composted for at least 6 months are safe.

It is not recommended to feed watermelons with potassium chloride

Root rot treatment is possible only at the initial stage of development. If the process has gone far, the plant is destroyed. Watering is sharply reduced, the water is replaced with a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate. The roots are freed from the substrate and watered with copper sulfate (7-8 g) and wood ash (15-25 g), dissolved in 0.5 liters of water. After 2-3 days, watermelons are sprayed with any preparation containing metalaxyl or mefenoxam. It will take 3-4 procedures, the frequency is 9-14 days.

White rot (sclerotinia)

The disease develops from the lower leaves. They turn into translucent, watery, covered with a whitish bloom resembling cotton wool. Then this plaque becomes denser and blackens, the top of the plant wilts, the stems soften, become slimy to the touch, and rot.

White rot on watermelons is easy to recognize, but difficult to fight.

To prevent the development of sclerotinia, monthly foliar feeding is used. Watermelons are sprayed with a solution of zinc sulfate (1 g), copper sulfate (2 g) and urea (10 g) in a bucket of water. A folk remedy for white rot is yogurt, kefir, diluted with water in a ratio of 3: 7. The fungus does not tolerate an acidic environment.

Kefir creates an acidic environment in which the fungus dies

When white rot is found, all the affected parts of the plant are cut out with a sharply sharpened disinfected knife, while capturing some healthy tissue. Wounds are sprinkled with colloidal sulfur, activated carbon powder or covered with a paste of water, crushed chalk, potassium permanganate. Watermelons 2-3 times with a break a week are sprayed with Topaz, Oxyhom, Rovral, Acrobat MC. If a large part of the plant is affected by rot, it is destroyed.

Gray rot

The fungus remains viable for several years, living in plant debris and soil, but the disease begins to develop exclusively under favorable conditions (cool damp weather). All parts of the plant are covered with wet spots of a chocolate shade, covered with a fluffy silvery-gray bloom with small black blotches. The fungus affects young leaves, flower buds, fruit ovaries.

Gray rot affects all parts of the plant, it often begins to spread from the tops of shoots and young leaves

For prophylaxis, 1.5–2 weeks after planting in the ground, the seedlings are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid. The seeds are pickled in a sulfur-based fungicide.

Folk remedy - planting around a garden bed with marigolds, calendula, nasturtium, mustard leaves. They secrete phytoncides that destroy the fungus. The plants themselves can be sprayed with infusion of garlic, mustard powder, wood ash or iodine solution (10 drops per 10 liters of water).

Marigolds are not only beautiful, but also useful flowers

In the early stages, the plant is treated using Teldor, Sumileks, Maxim, Skor, Topaz. The concentration of the solution and the frequency of processing are determined based on the manufacturer's instructions given in the instructions.

Olive spot

The fruits are covered with fleecy, depressed spots of a grayish-olive color, from which a cloudy, viscous liquid, reminiscent of jelly, oozes.If the watermelons are already large, the lesions may heal by overgrowing with a whitish skin. The disease spreads to leaves and stems, they become brittle, break easily. It develops very quickly, the plant dies in 6-9 days.

Olive spot develops very quickly, affecting the entire plant

For prophylaxis, 1.5–2 weeks after transplanting to a garden bed, watermelons are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid. The processing is repeated if typical signs are present. Hand for a week it is necessary to give up watering, ensure good aeration and a temperature of +20 ... + 22 ° C. If the development of the disease has gone far, 2-3 times with a frequency of 7-10 days, Oxyhom, Kartotsid, Abiga-Peak are used.

Oxyhom is a popular and effective fungicide

Bacterial spot

Small watery patches with a yellowish-green border appear on the leaves along the veins. Gradually they increase, merge, the leaf turns black, the plant dies. The fruits are marked with shiny black round growths. The disease develops in heat (above + 30 ° C) and when the air humidity is more than 70%.

There is no cure for bacterial spotting, the plant must be destroyed

For prophylaxis, seeds are etched in a solution of Fitolavin, Fitosporin. Before planting seedlings, the substrate is treated with Trichopolum (tablet for 2 liters of water). In summer, watermelons are sprayed with Gamair and Polycarbacin every 15–20 days.

Small spots that appear on the fruit of a watermelon due to the development of bacterial spotting quickly grow, animating the entire surface of the fruit

There are no drugs that can cure this disease yet. In the very early stages of its development, you can try to save the plant by cutting off all the leaves on which the slightest damage is noticeable. It is necessary grasp 4–5 mm of healthy tissue and rinse the instrument in alcohol after each incision. If there is no effect, the plant is destroyed, the soil in this place is disinfected.

Mosaic disease

A viral disease characterized by the appearance on the leaves of areas of a lighter shade (from salad to almost white), of various sizes and shapes. The leaves are deformed, dry, the growth of the watermelon is greatly slowed down.

The yield of watermelons affected by mosaic disease is reduced by 50%

The virus is transmitted through seeds, dirty equipment, water droplets, it is carried by aphids and thrips. There are currently no remedies for it, special attention needs to be paid to prevention. If a problem is detected at an early stage, double spraying with Karbofos (8-10 g / l) with a break of 5-7 days will help. In the absence of a result, proceed in the same way as when detecting bacterial spotting.

Powdery mildew

Leaves, tops of shoots, fruit ovaries are covered with a whitish coating, reminiscent of scattered flour. Gradually, it thickens, turns brown, a cloudy liquid begins to ooze from the spots. The damaged parts of the plant turn yellow, but do not fall off. The fungus is carried by the wind, transmitted by direct contact of plants and through water droplets.

Powdery mildew is one of the most common diseases in the garden.

The main prevention is proper feeding. Excess nitrogen negatively affects the immunity of the plant, potassium-phosphorus preparations increase its resistance to the causative agent of the disease.

For prophylaxis, the seeds are soaked in Epin, Immunocytophyte for 20-24 hours before planting. Plants are sprinkled with colloidal sulfur, crushed chalk every 5-7 days, or sprayed with a solution of soda ash, fresh cow dung, nettle or dandelion leaves. To make it all better fixed, add soap shavings or liquid soap. Folk remedies can help if the problem is detected in time. In other cases, drugs Bayleton, Topaz, Tiovit Jet, Planriz are used.

Epin is a biostimulant that has a positive effect on the immunity of the future plant

In the United States, from where the disease came to Europe, it is recommended to spray the plant plant with any antibacterial mouthwash to combat powdery mildew. But the ethanol contained in the composition can damage young leaves and fruit ovaries.

Video: powdery mildew on watermelon and measures to combat it

Downy mildew (peronosporiosis)

On the obverse of the leaves, there are almost round lime-colored spots that are oily to the touch. On the inside, there is a continuous layer of lilac-gray bloom. Leaves wrinkle, dry, watermelons stop growing, lose their taste, flesh becomes discolored.

The development of downy mildew negatively affects the quality of the fruit

Before planting, the seeds are soaked for 15 minutes in hot water +45 ... + 50 ° C or in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. For prophylaxis, every 5 weeks the garden bed is watered with Fitosporin, Alirin-B, Planriz, reducing the concentration of the drug by half in relation to the instructions in the instructions, or an infusion of onion peels, iodine solution (10 drops per bucket of water).

Having found alarming symptoms, watermelons are sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (60–80 g per bucket of water). They also spill soil with it. If there is no effect, use Strobi, Quadris, Acrobat MC, Polycarbacin.

Dangerous pests

Watermelons are susceptible not only to disease, but also to attacks of insect pests. Many of them are carriers of pathogens. This is another reason to fight them.

Melon aphid

Aphids are insects that settle in whole colonies on plants, clinging to the inside of a leaf, unblown flowers, and formed fruits. At the same time, a black bloom similar to soot and droplets of a sticky transparent liquid appear on the leaves. Affected leaf tissues are deformed and dry, leading to the death of the plant.

It is impossible not to notice aphids on a watermelon, the plant can be covered with insects

To scare away aphids, folk remedies are enough. Insects are effectively chased away by sharp-smelling infusions of onion, garlic, wormwood, mustard powder, hot pepper, tobacco crumbs, citrus peel, horseradish root. The treatment is repeated every 3-5 days. The same means help, while there are not too many aphids, but the frequency of spraying is increased up to 2-3 times per day. You can plant a garden with watermelons around the perimeter with spicy herbs. Many of them are good honey plants, and this helps to attract the natural enemies of aphids - ladybirds.

Tobacco grown on the site has an excellent effect against aphids.

With a large number of aphids, any universal insecticides are used - Commander, Iskra-Bio, Mospilan, Fury, Inta-Vir. Watermelons are processed up to 5 times with a break of 4-6 days, using different means so that pests do not develop immunity.

Video: fighting aphids on watermelon

Sprout fly (larvae)

The main harm to watermelons is brought by the larvae of the sprout fly. They gnaw out the roots and stems from the inside, the plants quickly rot. The first generation damages the seedlings just planted in the ground, the next ones damage the adult plants.

The main damage to plants is caused by the larvae of the sprout fly, but this does not mean that there is no need to fight with adults.

To destroy the eggs wintering in the soil, it is necessary to dig up the soil in the fall and loosen it in the spring. Seeds are soaked in Fentiuram solution before planting. The planted plants are sprayed with Spark Bio in a few days. Having noted the suspicious signs, they use the same insecticides as for the fight against aphids. The solution is poured over the soil, the leaves are treated.

The sprout fly larvae eat the seeds from the inside, destroying the seedlings

Spider mite

On the leaf blades, multiple brownish dots appear on the underside, gradually increasing in diameter. Unblown flowers, ovaries, tops of shoots are tightened with thin translucent threads, resembling a cobweb. The pests themselves are difficult to distinguish. The affected parts of the plant turn yellow, dry up, it dies.

First of all, the spider mite begins to suck out the juice from the young parts of the plant.

Folk remedies (infusion of onion and garlic gruel, decoction of cyclamen tubers) are good only as a prophylaxis. Plants need to be processed up to 2 times a week. If suspicious symptoms are found, special drugs are used - acaricides. This pest is not an insect, therefore, conventional insecticides will not work on it. It will take 3-4 procedures with a break of 5-12 days. They use different drugs (pests quickly produce immunity) - Apollo, Neoron, Agravertin, Omite, Aktofit, Aktellik. They are toxic, so do not forget about personal protective equipment.

To combat spider mites, you need to use special preparations - acaricides

Wireworm

Some gardeners believe that the wireworm (aka the click beetle larva) attacks only potatoes. But melons and gourds are quite satisfied with it. Through holes appear in the fruits, watermelons rot, their shelf life is sharply reduced.

There is hardly a gardener who does not know what a wireworm looks like.

The wireworm prefers acidic soil, therefore, when preparing the beds, dolomite flour, sifted wood ash, and eggshell powder must be added to the soil. Regular weeding is required.

Traps are placed on the bed itself - banks dug into the ground, filled with pieces of potatoes, beets, carrots. 2-3 times a week they need to be replaced with fresh ones, and the larvae trapped in the trap should be destroyed, and not thrown away somewhere far from the garden.

Mustard leaves, beans, and other legumes are grown in the aisles. By driving away the wireworm, they simultaneously improve the quality of the substrate.. When planting, the wells are spilled with a 2% solution of potassium permanganate, a handful of onion peels are thrown into them or granules of Bazudin, Pochin are added.

Wireworms are scared off by many green manure plants, including mustard leaves, with the exception of rye.

If the pest has multiplied strongly, apply Provotox, Diazonin, Zemlin, Thunder-2. But this is an extreme measure. It is advisable to avoid using these chemicals because they have a negative impact on the soil and future crops.

Thrips

Looking closely, you can see small black-brown strokes on the leaves. These are pests. They feed on plant juices, the affected areas become discolored, the tissues in these places die off. In severe cases, the leaves acquire an unnatural silvery tint, the shoots are deformed, and the flowers fall off. In addition to the fact that thrips are harmful to the plant, they carry pathogens of many dangerous diseases. Heat and dry air contribute to their spread.

Small black dots on the leaves of watermelon are nothing more than the thrips themselves

Homemade traps made from pieces of cardboard or plywood covered with something sticky (long-drying glue, honey, petroleum jelly) are effective against thrips. Adults are partial to yellow and blue colors.

The tops of tomatoes obtained from the pruning process can be used to combat many pests.

From folk remedies against some types of thrips effective infusion of tomato tops, chamomile, marigold greens, celandine, onion or garlic arrows. But they are not afraid of tobacco thrips, therefore, in the event of a mass invasion of a pest, it is better to immediately use biological products - Fitoverm, Vertimek, Karate, Konfidor-Maxi, Spintor. It may take 3-4 treatments at intervals of 7-12 days. It is better to remove the affected parts of the plant immediately.

Numerous diseases and pests that attack watermelon are not a reason to abandon their cultivation. The main thing is to notice and correctly identify the problem in time. Most of them at an early stage of development are successfully handled not only by potent chemicals and insecticides, but also by folk remedies. The latter are also effective as prevention, because it is much easier to prevent the disease than to deal with the consequences later.


Diseases of pears and their treatment. Pest control

Every gardener knows that in order for a fruit tree to bring generous harvests, it must be healthy. And the pear is no exception. Read this article and find out which pests and diseases of the pear are most dangerous and how to deal with them. This information will help you determine in time that the tree has started to hurt and you will be able to provide him with timely assistance.

  • 1 Diseases
    • 1.1 Black cancer
    • 1.2 Fruit rot
    • 1.3 Scab
    • 1.4 Cytosporosis
    • 1.5 Rust
    • 1.6 Powdery mildew
    • 1.7 Milky shine
    • 1.8 Video "Processing of pears from diseases"
  • 2 Pear pests and control
    • 2.1 Green aphid
    • 2.2 Pear moth
    • 2.3 Pear beetroot or leaf beetle
    • 2.4 Pear mite
    • 2.5 Leaf Roller

What caterpillars can be found in the garden

There are many types of caterpillars that can ruin the life of a gardener and gardener. In the garden, the most common hawthorn... Their clutches can usually be found on the leaves of trees entangled in cobwebs. They adjoin gold-tails, which settle on small branches, also enveloping them with a "shawl" of cobwebs.

Extremely dangerous leaf rollers, which, despite their small size, are capable of quickly destroying buds, leaves and flowers. A sign that these caterpillars have chosen your site are the leaves of plants twisted into a tube, inside of which there is the same cobweb. Several generations of leaf rollers are born in one season, therefore, it is necessary to deal with this pest very quickly. And if you notice a furry caterpillar or a cluster of eggs covered with fine hairs, most likely you decided to breed in your area. unpaired silkworm... It can easily and quickly capture the entire site, as it moves from place to place with the wind.


Protection measures for sea buckthorn from pests

To protect sea buckthorn from pests, it is necessary to follow the agrotechnology of growing this crop, thin out dense plantings, remove fallen leaves, and carry out preventive spraying twice a year.

Do not forget that sea buckthorn is a light-loving plant, remove dried branches and leaves so that excess moisture does not accumulate at the roots. It is recommended to strengthen the soil with sand or peat.

Diseases are mainly affected by old varieties of sea buckthorn. Therefore, for planting, choose recently bred shrubs that are slightly susceptible to infections. Carry out constant monitoring of plants for the presence of parasites, it will allow you to identify pests in time, and the correct treatment will save your garden.


Black rot of petunia (Latin Guignardia bidwellii)

Signs of black rot infection: visually, petunia resembles a burnt stick, the stem in the root part becomes soft, easily separates from the root collar and is removed from the ground. The leaf plates begin to curl, acquire a yellow color and become stiff to the touch. The disease quickly spreads from a sick individual to healthy ones.

Black rot affects the rhizome and stem of the petunia

Causes of the disease

  • dense planting
  • high air humidity
  • excessive soil moisture
  • Soil pH is above normal.

Black rot can affect petunias even at the seedling stage.

Prevention and treatment of the disease

Through seedlings, both viral and fungal diseases of petunia spread, and the fight against them begins with the obligatory treatment of seed material and processing of containers for planting with a weak solution of manganese or copper sulfate. If land from the garden is used for planting, then it is pre-steamed and treated with biological products with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichodermin, Fitosporin, Agat25-K).

Petunias need regular thinning and watering of seedlings, planting seedlings in soils with a neutral pH (optimum 5.5-7). A preliminary reduction of the increased acidity of the soil with lime is possible.

At the first signs of the disease, treatment with Bordeaux liquid, potassium permanganate, Ridomil MC, Maxim or other drugs containing mancoceb, metalaxil or oxadiccyl is needed. Trichodermin and Fitofosporin show good results.

As a preventive measure, the soil is watered with sulfur-containing preparations (Cumulus, Sulfur colloid May, Tiovit Jed). From organic methods, you can apply an infusion of onion peels or marigolds (20 g of flowers per 1 liter of water).


Root rot

The disease affects the zucchini rhizomes. Also, it can harm the ovary and stem of the plant. During ripening, the fruits have an irregular shape, rot. The causative agent of the disease hibernates in the soil, and primarily harms the weakened bushes of the plant.

Control methods

  • It is advisable to keep the water for irrigation in the sun so that it warms up. During watering, allow water to get on the plants, water on the soil.
  • Fight weeds regularly.

Diseases and pests of petunia: the main problems in growing

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Diseases of petunia - we study the symptoms and fight against diseases +

Knowing all the diseases of petunia and pests that can be dangerous for this flower, you can quickly react by noticing strange symptoms. In this article, we will look at the most famous diseases and effective ways to combat them.

The life of any plant begins with seedlings, which are transferred to the ground after it gets stronger.

And already at this stage it is worth taking care of the health of the petunia, since the seedlings can also be susceptible to diseases and pests.

At the same time, most diseases and problems are caused by improper care and mistakes by gardeners. Let's take a closer look at the most common errors.

It is worth starting with bad or late shoots. How to determine this? Usually, the seed packaging indicates the approximate time when the seedlings appear. The average period is about five days.

But many gardeners who have planted petunias do not wait for them to appear in a week.

The problem can be both in the seeds and their improper storage, and in non-observance of the rules for planting and growing seeds, for example, planting too deep, as a result of which the petunia cannot germinate, therefore it is better to plant it superficially.

It also often happens that the seedlings do not throw off the shell, that is, the greenish sprout has already risen, but the seed cannot get rid of the peel.

This problem can be caused by too dry air - the dried hard shell of a young and recently shed plant is very difficult to throw off. If you are faced with such a nuisance, humidify the air in the apartment or simply sprinkle the seedlings with water.

If the problem remains within a few days after moistening, then, most likely, the plants cannot be saved - the immunity of such petunias will be very low.

Another problem with young seedlings of petunias is the thinned stem, which can break from the wind. This indicates the presence of such a fungal disease as black leg.

Many fungal diseases live in the ground with the flower, but if you often ventilate the plantings, avoid waterlogging and not be zealous with nitrogen fertilizers, the fungus will not manifest itself in any way.

And if you do not provide the plant with proper care, the fungus will definitely wake up, and at the same time, it will not be possible to save the seedlings from the black leg.

If you notice plants with a thinned stem, urgently remove them, and treat the ground with potassium permanganate to kill the spores of the fungus.

Also, the seedlings may turn yellow, which may indicate the presence of chlorosis, that is, a lack of iron.

This usually happens due to too much watering or "poor" soil devoid of vitamins and microelements.

If you notice yellow leaves, feed the petunia with iron chelate, which can be purchased at a store that sells seedlings, seeds, and garden tools.

It happens that the seedlings begin to stretch up strongly, while there are almost no leaves on the seedlings. This usually happens as a result of a lack of light or an increased temperature in the room.

If this happens, do not despair. Try trimming the tops of the seedlings, deepening the planting to the cotyledons.

But at the same time, remember that it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the room and provide the plants with additional lighting.

In general, you can fight viral and fungal diseases (black leg, gray and white rot) of young seedlings and adult plants according to the same scheme: first, we remove all damaged plants, and the soil is treated with potassium permanganate.

The main pests of an adult petunia - how to save a flower?

Now let's consider which of the pests can attack your petunias, and what methods of struggle are best used against them.

The most famous pest is aphids, the main symptoms of the appearance of which include deformation of leaves and shoots, wilting of plants. Aphids can be detected by the appearance of shiny dew on the green part of the petunias.

If you notice this pest, be sure to treat petunias with any of the following drugs:

  • Aktara
  • Ram
  • Kemiphos
  • Arrivo.

Another dangerous pest is the whitefly, the appearance of which leads to wilting and yellowing of the leaves.

Whiteflies, more like a white moth, usually live on the underside of the leaves. One of the options for fighting is trapping with glue traps.

But if there are too many whiteflies, petunias should be treated with drugs such as Taran and Aktara.

Whitefly adult flower pest

Thrips can also be dangerous, the appearance of which is very simple to determine: on the upper side of the leaves, silvery streaks form, a scattering of dark excrement.

Moreover, the insects themselves are so small (up to 0.5 mm) that they cannot be seen.

In the fight against this pest, drugs that can be used for the defeat of petunias by whiteflies and aphids will also help.

Spider mites can also be harmful. The main symptoms of their appearance are lightened leaves, which over time will begin to become covered with dark dots.

If you do not start a fight, a thin web will appear on the petunias, and after that the plant will die.

To combat this pest, powerful means should be used - Demitan or Apollo, preparing the solution strictly according to the instructions.

Powdery mildew - we defeat the most terrible enemy

Why did we decide to talk about powdery mildew separately? This disease is considered one of the most dangerous, but knowing all the rules and remedies, you can cure your petunia flowers. Before learning how to deal with powdery mildew, you need to know what it looks like and why it appears.

This fungus covers the leaves and other parts of the plant with a white bloom, which is somewhat similar to simple powdered sugar.

If you do not start a fight, old leaves on petunias will begin to fall off, and new ones will grow crooked and already sick.

Without treatment, your favorite flowers will simply die, so as soon as you see a bloom, immediately start treatment.

Why does powdery mildew appear? We have already said that fungal diseases begin to manifest themselves in the case of poor care. Powdery mildew begins to parasitize if:

  • The weather is too humid outside (for plants that are grown in an apartment, weather conditions are not important).
  • You have used too much nitrogen fertilizer.
  • The correct watering regime was not observed. For example, they watered the petunia when the ground was not dry yet, or, conversely, did not water the plant at all for a long time.

Powdery mildew on petunia

And, of course, powdery mildew can crawl from diseased plants to healthy ones, so try not to plant flowers too close to each other, which will also provide normal ventilation. To get rid of powdery mildew, you need to use an integrated approach to treatment. First of all, remember about proper care:

  • Water the petunia only when the soil in the pot or in the flowerbed has dried out.
  • Try not to spray weak plants.
  • The infected flower must be exposed to the sun until it is completely cured.
  • If you are sick, stop using nitrogen fertilizers.

Next, it is worth cutting off all the affected areas of the petunia, not forgetting about the peduncles - the more affected areas you remove, the faster the flower will recover.

Due to the fact that mushroom spores are located in the upper layer of the soil, it must be removed.

Do not forget to treat petunias with fungicides, also wash the pots and disinfect them with a solution of potassium permanganate.

The above methods are very effective, but they can only stop the development of powdery mildew. To completely cure petunia, it is worth resorting to folk and chemical methods of struggle. Let's first examine the most popular recipes for folk remedies for powdery mildew:

  • Mix 20 g of soda ash with a few drops of liquid soap, dissolve the mixture in 5 liters of water. Stir the liquid well and spray the flowers.
  • Garlic will also help you: grate 30 g of garlic, pour all 5 liters of water. The resulting mixture must be infused for a day, after which it is filtered through a gauze - and that's it, it is ready to use.
  • Mustard powder saves from powdery mildew - mix 2 tablespoons of the product in 10 liters of warm water, mix thoroughly so that there are no lumps, and water the plants after the liquid has cooled.

But if the folk methods did not help you, try using effective fungicides. So, the most effective means against this fungal disease are called such means as Forecast, Vitaros and Previkur.

  • Mikhail Malofeev
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Diseases and pests of petunia: the main problems in growing

An interesting and beautiful petunia flower, although it is resistant to all kinds of diseases and is accustomed to growing in conditions of high humidity and heat, but in our front garden is a real test.

Most of the pests and diseases enter the garden along with the seedlings, so if you want to grow petunias in your area, you should know a little about the methods of dealing with various ailments and parasites.

The number of plant ailments that a gardener may encounter is not so small. An important point is the prevention of petunia diseases, which largely depends on the conditions of its growth.

The birthplace of petunia is South America with its high humidity and hot temperatures. Therefore, the plant may not feel completely comfortable in our latitudes and be subject to various ailments.

However, with due attention of the gardener, the southern beauty will delight you for many years. Diseases of this plant can be both viral, bacterial or fungal.

Did you know?
Discovered in 1921, the asteroid is named after petunia.

Powdery mildew

- a fungal disease that lives in the upper layers of the soil. The cause of the development of the disease is cold air, irregular watering, too dense plantations, as well as a high nitrogen content in the soil.

Often, powdery mildew infection occurs from nearby diseased plants growing or through contaminated water during irrigation. Noticing the problem right away is not easy.

Initially, the fungus appears on the leaves closer to the root in the form of a whitened plaque, but subsequently covers the entire stem with a bud. The end of the development of the disease is the rotting and death of the flower.

For the treatment of powdery mildew
in petunias, all damaged leaves and buds must be removed. It is imperative to remove the top layer of the soil, replacing it with a well-fertilized soil.

You also need to treat the plant with Topaz fugicide, or a similar preparation, making sure that the solution covers the entire flower.

In the future, control watering and do not let the plants thicken, which will help protect the petunia from this disease.

The causative agent of this disease is also a fungus, which manifests itself as a result of increased air humidity or due to mechanical damage to the plant.

It is quite easy to recognize the disease, you just need to pay attention to brown spots, which often take on a rusty tint
... Light areas appear on these spots, where fungal spores soon form.

Leaves diseased with brown spot begin to wither and soon completely die off. When fighting brown spot
, it is necessary to cut and destroy diseased leaves and remove fallen leaves in a timely manner.

For prevention
flowers should be treated with solutions containing copper (copper oxychloride or Oxyhom is perfect). Processing should be carried out at intervals of 10 days.

The root cause of the appearance
white rot
is high humidity at low temperatures
... In addition, dense plantings give the green light to its development, especially in combination with too acidic soil.

The flower is infected not only through damage, but also by absorbing the fungus through the stomata. The disease manifests itself in the form wet brown spots, and in high humidity conditions, a white coating may appear
.

The stems damaged by white rot become soft and take on a light color. In the stem and on the surface, myceliums are formed, which soon ripen into sclerotia.

The shoots that are located above the affected part completely die off. In this way, rot can affect all parts of the flower.

To fight
with infection, complete digging and saturation of the soil with lime is necessary. All damaged stems and leaves are immediately removed, after which the plant is treated with charcoal.

To hold back development
ailment, you can shower the ground around the plant with crushed ash, but it is still not worthwhile to completely exclude the use of chemicals that can be easily found in modern stores.

Did you know?
Petunia is often called the "Balcony Plant"

Wet rot
often the result of too deep planting, over-oxidation of the soil and high humidity
... The disease successfully tolerates low temperatures, and can develop as little as +3 ° C.

When infected with wet rot, the stems are covered with oily, brownish spots closer to the root. At the same time, the leaves wrinkle and droop.

Sclerotia, covered with a felt coating, are formed on the stem. Plants can be stunted, turn yellow and die.

The infection can overtake petunias at any age.

When fighting
with an ailment, it is necessary to remove diseased plants, and also to use special chemicals (for example, "Ridomil" or "Profit").

For warning
diseases can be treated with plants "Fitosporin".

Low temperatures and dense seeding can lead to
gray rot petunia
... Also, the development of the disease is often affected by a lack of light and an excess of nitrogen in the soil. Stems with leaves are infected through open damaged areas, and flower infection occurs through the pistil.

Rot appears in the form of brown spots (resembling a rash), which later become covered with a grayish fluff
... After a while, the affected parts of the plant wither, and soon they completely rot. If the infestation is too severe, the entire flower may die.

The development of the disease stops when the temperature rises above + 25 ° C. Also it is necessary to cut off damaged areas in time and clean the soil from rotten leaves
.

It will be beneficial to feed the plant with fertilizers high in potassium and phosphorus. You can use the preparations "Skor" or "Maxim", but they will not be very effective in case of severe infection.

By its symptoms, a fungus black leg
petunias are very similar to wet rot. The disease affects young seedlings and if you do not take any measures, you can lose the entire petunia garden.

The manifestation of the disease is explained by the high density of plantations, high humidity and acidity of the soil.

To prevent illness, you need to devote more time prevention
: use a lighter substrate with low nitrogen content, avoid dense sowing and water the plants sparingly.

Watering the soil with preparations containing sulfur will give a good preventive effect against the black leg of petunia.

Usually the manifestation of the disease is diagnosed on the basis of the stem. It darkens and gradually rots, after which the plant begins to wither and eventually completely dies
.

Late blight
affects the plant at any age, caused by cold nights and abundant dew.

To process
plants need preparations "Ridomil" or "Profit". Copper oxychloride also helps. All these solutions can be used not only for treatment, but also for prevention.

Important!

Don't give too much shade to the petunia. From this, the plant begins to wither.

Unfortunately, not only various diseases, but also various pests can cause trouble for the gardener.

Petunia pest control is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance, but prevention and timely treatment of plants from aphids, thrips, slugs will help you enjoy the bloom and bright colors of your front garden.

Why do petunia leaves turn yellow? Sometimes small white midges, similar to moths, hide under the leaves. They are called whiteflies and at the slightest touch they fly to nearby plants.

Symptoms
the presence of this pest - yellowed leaves and their subsequent wilting.

When fighting
with whiteflies, it is a good idea to use glue traps, which can be used not only for trapping, but also for monitoring the insect population. If the number of whiteflies increases, chemicals such as Aktara or Mospilan will help.

The natural enemy of the whitefly is ladybugs, a small number of which can destroy a pest colony in a fairly short time.

Spider mite
often invisible to the human eye and the pest can be recognized only on the cobweb on the leaves, and white, spotty discharge
.

Such mites can travel from plant to plant in colonies, destroying them. White spots grow on the web, after which the leaves begin to wither, and subsequently fall off.

Fight
with pests you can use the folk method. To do this, it is enough to make an infusion of medicinal dandelion (30 gr.

1 liter of water), and spray the plant with it.

As an alternative solution to the problem, you can use chemicals, such as: "Neoron" or "Apollo".

One of the most dangerous garden pests - aphid
, which can often be found on petunia. The plant can be threatened by more than a hundred species of this parasite.

In areas of the flower affected by aphids, drops of sweet dew appear, to which the fungus eventually joins.
This leads to the fact that the leaves begin to lose their shape, and the buds wither over time.

The plant dies, including from various viral diseases, which are carried by aphids.

To fight
with the parasite, it is best to attract its natural enemies: the lacewing and ladybug. You can also use the chemical method. The preparations "Fufanon" and "Aktara" are perfect.

Small brown pest not exceeding 1 mm in length
... Most often, thrips are kept in a group, and can live not only on the inside of the leaf, but also on the outside.

You can find out about the presence of the parasite by the white dried stripes on the leaves.
... The buds and flowers quickly lose their shape, and the plant itself withers over time.

At the first manifestations of pests, it is necessary process
petunia with the preparation “Spintor-240”, or use insecticides like “Ankara” or “Confidora”, performing the treatment of plants several times a week.

Some of the most harmless parasites are considered
slugs
... Their invasion does not lead to decay and wilting of plants.

Slugs can be recognized by the characteristic holes they left on the leaves and flowers. However, this is rather aesthetic harm, expressed in damage to the appearance of your front garden.

Get rid of
from such a pest is easy, it is enough to sprinkle the ground around the petunias with superphosphates.

If you still decide to plant a flower in your garden, then you should know about the pests and diseases of petunia.

To prevent trouble
it is enough to adhere to some prevention of petunia diseases: use the optimal composition of the soil (not heavy and not acidic), observe the distance between plantings, water it in a timely manner and monitor the level of nitrogen in the soil. It is also important not to allow moisture to stagnate in the soil.

Following these simple tips, you will enjoy the blooming southern beauty for a long time.

Diseases of petunias and their treatment with photos, prevention

Protecting Pitunias from disease and enjoying beautiful blooms

Petunia (Latin Petunia) is an unpretentious plant, and quite resistant to diseases.

At home, the flower grows at high temperature and humidity, so growing in the open field of the Moscow region and central Russia can weaken it and make it susceptible to diseases.

If the leaves begin to dry, the color falls off, or the petunia wilted - diseases and pests are most often the reason for this. Poor care and improper use of fertilizers cause the appearance and development of fungi. In some cases, they are brought in with low quality seedlings.

Powdery mildew of petunia (lat.Erysiphaceae)

Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus that infects peduncles, leaves and stems in the form of spore-like white spots. The vital activity of the fungus interferes with the photosynthesis of the plant, as a result of which the leaf plates curl and die off.

Powdery mildew - fungal diseases of petunia photo

The causes of petunia disease

  • sharp temperature drop
  • lack of sunlight
  • excess nitrogen and moisture.

Prevention and treatment of petunia disease

If a diseased plant is found, it is dug up, burned away from the garden, the top layer of soil under the diseased plants is removed. Healthy petunias are treated with Topaz, Bravo or Skor.

Many petunia diseases can be prevented, and no treatment is needed at all, or light organic remedies will suffice.

To protect the crop from powdery mildew, plant beds are thinned out to provide good access to sunlight and air ventilation. The dose of nitrogenous fertilizers is reduced.

For prophylaxis in the spring, before planting in open ground, the ground is disinfected with a foundation.

From organic methods, infusions have proven themselves well: garlic (30 g of grated garlic per 1 liter of water, stand for a day) and mustard (2 tablespoons of powdered mustard in a bucket of water at room temperature, insist 4 hours).

Gray rot (lat.Botrytis cinerea)

Gray rot is a disease caused by soil fungus that penetrates through damage to the root or ground part. The defeat of the peduncles occurs through the pistil.

Sign of defeat: the formation of spore-bearing fluffy spots of gray color. The disease develops rapidly at any stage of growth from seedling to seed emergence and can kill petunias in 3 days.

Diseases of petunia and the fight against them: photo of gray rot

Reasons for infection

  • excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizing
  • soil and air moisture above 80%
  • lack of sunlight.

With moderate watering and temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius, gray rot does not develop.

The fungus remains on plant debris and hibernates on the wooden floors of greenhouses.

Prevention and treatment

Thorough inspection, cleaning of rotten and fallen buds and foliage. The introduction of nitrogenous dressings reduce the rate of development of the fungus or stop altogether, and, on the contrary, increase the potassium and phosphorus ones.

Diseased plants are immediately dug up and burned, the rest are treated with Topaz, Maxim, Trichodermin, Ordan, or Skor. Profit, Ridomil and Fitosporin have also proven themselves well.

Black rot of petunia (Latin Guignardia bidwellii)

Signs of black rot infection: visually, petunia resembles a burnt stick, the stem in the root part becomes soft, easily separates from the root collar and is removed from the ground. The leaf plates begin to curl, acquire a yellow color and become stiff to the touch. The disease quickly spreads from a sick individual to healthy ones.

Black rot affects the rhizome and stem of the petunia

Causes of the disease

  • dense planting
  • high air humidity
  • excessive soil moisture
  • Soil pH is above normal.

Black rot can affect petunias even at the seedling stage.

Prevention and treatment of the disease

Through seedlings, both viral and fungal diseases of petunia spread, and the fight against them begins with the obligatory treatment of seed material and processing of containers for planting with a weak solution of manganese or copper sulfate. If land from the garden is used for planting, then it is pre-steamed and treated with biological products with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichodermin, Fitosporin, Agat25-K).

Petunias need regular thinning and watering of seedlings, planting seedlings in soils with a neutral pH (optimum 5.5-7). A preliminary reduction of the increased acidity of the soil with lime is possible.

At the first signs of the disease, treatment with Bordeaux liquid, potassium permanganate, Ridomil MC, Maxim or other drugs containing mancoceb, metalaxil or oxadiccyl is needed. Trichodermin and Fitofosporin show good results.

As a preventive measure, the soil is watered with sulfur-containing preparations (Cumulus, Sulfur colloid May, Tiovit Jed). From organic methods, you can apply an infusion of onion peels or marigolds (20 g of flowers per 1 liter of water).

Late blight (Latin Phytophthora infestans)

The disease manifests itself on the root part of the stem, which becomes dark and begins to rot. The plant withers and dies over time.

Symptoms of petunia disease and their treatment of late blight

Reasons for infection of petunias

It often coincides with late blight of tomatoes and potatoes.

Methods of protection and treatment

As a treatment and preventive measures, petunia is treated with Ridomil, Profit, or any copper-containing preparation according to the instructions.

Brown spot of petunias (Latin Phyllosticta petuniae Sp.)

A characteristic sign of the disease is the appearance on the face of the leaves of dark brown spots of a round shape, which from time to time changes to an elongated, oblong, with clearly visible concentric zones of color. The light areas of the leaf become covered with fungus and begin to secrete spores. The diseased plant gradually dries up and withers.

Brown spotting of petunia appears as small spots that grow over time.

The cause of infection is excessive humidity. Therefore, watering should be moderate, and rainwater and runoff should be drained or diverted.

Prevention and treatment of petunias, diseases and control of them

Immediately after the discovery of brown spot, diseased leaves must be removed, fallen leaves must be collected and burned away from the front garden.

For treatment and prophylactic purposes, plants are treated with copper-containing preparations twice a week with a break of 10 days. The best preparations for the treatment of petunias from brown spot: Oxycom, copper oxychloride, Kartotsid.

Diseases of petunias and the fight against them video

If your plant suddenly begins to wilt, you need to act quickly to help it fight off the infection.

The most common petunia diseases and their treatment with a photo of infection symptoms, which we discussed in the article, will help determine why the flower is not feeling well, and will tell you how to protect other crops from the spread of the disease.

Pests and diseases of petunias (photos, signs and control measures)

So that the flowering of petunia is not overshadowed by anything, you need to know the symptoms of its main diseases and how insects harm the flower. And the measures you take to combat the main enemies of the petunia will protect the plant for the whole summer.

Petunia is a fairly hardy and resistant plant.

But since the homeland of this southern beauty are countries with a warm and humid climate, staying in temperate latitude conditions becomes a test for petunias.

And if in the flower garden you have already noticed signs of diseases or "work" of pests, be on the lookout - this means that petunia is under threat of infection.

The main pests of petunia

Most often, parasitic insects enter your garden with poor-quality seedlings, infected planting material, as well as from neighboring areas.

Therefore, seedlings and seeds should be bought only from trusted sellers. Petunia, like other plants, is fond of thrips, aphids and spider mites.

To identify pests on time, you should periodically inspect the flowers.

Spider mite

Small mites most of the time remain out of the field of human vision. They are detected only by the presence of cobwebs and whitish spots of secretions. A colony of ticks is able to quickly move from one plant to another, destroying everything around.

Signs of infection
: the appearance of insect colonies on the underside of the leaves. Formation of sticky webs on the stem and leaves. At the same time, whitish spots are formed on the surface of the plant, which constantly increase in size. Subsequently, the leaves dry out and fall off.

Thrips

These are small insects with an elongated body up to 1.5 mm long, dark or dark brown in color. They keep in groups of several individuals and live on the outside and inside of the leaves.

Signs of infection
: The appearance of thrips on petunias is evidenced by dried whitish stripes on the leaves.

Flowers and buds begin to deform, and the plant gradually withers.

The pest can be detected by green or black excrement on flowers and the outside of the leaves, or by the presence of a colony of individuals.

Aphid

Another invisible, but dangerous enemy of garden flowers is aphids. Petunia is threatened by several hundred species of aphids, and each of them will have to fight "to the bitter end."

Signs of infection
: parts of the flower attacked by aphids are covered with drops of sweet (honey) dew.

Over time, a sooty fungus joins the secretions, and the affected leaves are deformed and curled.

Young buds wither, including from viral diseases, which are carried by aphids.

The main diseases of petunia

Diseases of petunia are no less insidious than pests, so plant health depends entirely on your vigilance and timely action.

Powdery mildew

This disease is caused by a microscopic fungus that develops on the leaves, aerial parts and buds. The focus of infection spreads from the bottom up, gradually affecting the entire plant.

Signs of infection
: the upper part of the leaves is covered with a whitish bloom, then the spots spread to the underside of the leaves and eventually cover the entire plant with a continuous bloom. This interferes with the normal process of photosynthesis, due to which the leaves of the petunia dry out, curling up like a boat.

Gray rot

The source of this disease is soil fungus, which enters the plant through damaged roots or aerial parts. If infected with gray mold, the plant can die in a matter of days.

Signs of infection
: Initially, light brown spots, similar to a rash, form in the lower part of the plant. Gradually they dry out and become covered with a fluffy gray coating. Soon, the entire aerial part of the petunia is defeated, regardless of the stage of its development.

Blackleg

Blackleg is an actively progressive disease that literally “burns” petunia seedlings, leaving a black, dried stem from them. What is most dangerous is that the disease easily passes from one plant to another.

Signs of infection
: the stem at the bottom darkens, softens and rots. The lower leaves turn yellow, become tough and curl. Plants literally "fall out", are easily removed from the ground (with separation from the root collar).

Petunia is a hardy and healthy plant that gives us bright colors and a wonderful smell all summer.

To protect the plant from all sorts of misfortunes, listen to our simple recommendations and regularly carry out preventive treatment.

And then the colorful petunia will "settle" on your site for a long time.

Diseases and pests of petunias on Supersadovnik.ru

Blackleg

How to recognize
: the disease affects petunia shoots from the beginning of seed germination. The root collar darkens, a black constriction appears in the lower part of the stem.

At high humidity, after 4–6 days, the blackened part of the stem softens and it breaks. Seedlings wither and lie down.

Reasons: thickened crops, sowing too early, high soil and air humidity, high soil acidity.

Prevention and control measures
: observe the sowing time, do not thicken the crops, do not use too heavy or acidic substrate. The soil prepared for sowing should be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 l of water).

Seedlings in peat tablets are practically not damaged by the black leg, the tablets are sterile and impregnated with a fungicide.

When a black leg appears, it is necessary to spray the plants and shed the soil with a suspension of preparations containing mancozeb, metalaxyl or oxadixil in a ratio of 20–25 g / 10 l of water: Ridomil MC, Ridomil Gold MC, Profit.

Another way
: remove all affected plants, and sprinkle the surviving seedlings with 1% Bordeaux liquid or potassium permanganate solution (3 g per 10 l of water).

Gray and white rot

How to recognize gray mold
: Light brown spots appear on leaves, stems and flowers, which are then covered with a gray fluffy bloom. The affected parts of the plant first wither and then rot, turning into a brownish mass with a gray bloom.

The reasons
: too dense crops and planting, high air humidity, low temperature (below +14 ° С), excess nitrogen fertilizers, lack of light.

Prevention and control measures
: avoid overly dense crops and plantings, over-watering, too low temperatures.

Biopreparation "Integral" (25 ml / 1 l of water), chemical preparations "Skor" (2 ml / 10 l of water) and "Maxim" (2 ml / 1 l of water) will help.

How to recognize white rot
: on wet brown spots, which in humid conditions are covered with a white bloom of mycelium.

Affected tissues soften and turn white.

The reasons
: excessively dense planting, low temperature, high humidity and untimely removal of affected plant parts. The fungus can spread through the flower garden with spores that have settled on the hands and clothes of a person when caring for plants.

Prevention and control measures
: deep digging and liming of the soil, timely removal of the affected parts of the plant.

When the first signs of the disease appear, treatment with biological ("Integral" - 5 ml / 1 L of water, "Fitosporin-M" - 4-5 g / 1 L of water) or chemical ("Maxim" - 2 ml / 1 L of water) preparations ...

How to recognize
: the base of the stem turns brown and decays. The plant withers and subsequently dies.

The reasons
: high air humidity, cold nights with abundant dew.

Prevention and control measures
: do not thicken the crops, regularly ventilate the seedlings.

Brown spot

How to recognize
: on rusty-brown spots on the leaves, at first rounded, then oblong with concentric zones. Fruiting of the fungus is formed on the light part of the spots. Affected leaves wilt and dry out.

The reasons
: mechanical damage, high air humidity.

Prevention and control measures
: compliance with agricultural practices, preventive treatments (spraying) with copper-containing preparations at intervals of 7-10 days ("Kartotsid" - 50 g / 10 l of water, copper oxychloride - 40 g / 10 l of water, "Oxyhom" - 20 g / 10 l of water) ...

Powdery mildew

How to recognize
: the upper part of the leaves is covered with a whitish bloom, then the spots spread to the underside of the leaves and cover the plant with a continuous bloom. This interferes with the normal process of photosynthesis, due to which the leaves curl and dry out, the buds do not bloom.

Control measures
: remove and burn the affected plant, thin out thickened plantings and reduce the dose of nitrogen fertilization.

On seedlings, spraying with garlic infusion (25-30 g per 1 liter of water) or mustard infusion (2 tablespoons of powder per 10 liters of warm water) helps.

On adult plants, the preparations "Skor", "Bravo", "Topaz", "Previkur" are used.

Pests should be especially wary of at the stage of growing petunia seedlings.

How to recognize
: deformation of leaves and young shoots of petunia, local chlorosis, general wilting of plants. The petals are covered with honeydew and sooty fungus. The buds wither, including from viral diseases, which are carried by aphids. The companions of aphids are ants.

Prevention and control measures
: attracting ladybirds to the site, regularly washing the leaves with water or a solution of laundry soap (1: 6), fighting ants on the site. Chemicals: Aktara (0.5-1 g per 1 l of water), Confidor, Decis (0.1-0.5 ml per 1 l of water), Fufanon (1 ml per 1 l water).

How to recognize
: on damaged leaves, indistinct yellowish spots appear and gradually increase. Slight curling of leaves is possible. With severe damage, the leaves dry out, the shoots can be deformed.

Prevention and control measures
: regular washing of leaves with water or a solution of laundry soap (1: 6). Weed control on the site.

Transferring plants to a cooler room - Whiteflies don't like dropping temperatures. Catching with sticky tape traps.

When fighting whiteflies, one treatment with any drug is usually not enough. Requires 2-3, preferably drugs from different chemical groups. A weekly waiting period is required between treatments.

Most often they use "Mospilan", "Apploud", "Aktara", "Biotlin", "Iskra Zolotaya", "Tanrek", "Commander Maxi", "Fufanon".

How to recognize
: by pollen falling from the stamens onto the flower petals. Brown, dry, empty anthers, thickened pistil bases, too fast flowering of plants.

Flower petals and leaves are covered with small white (prickly) and black (excrement) specks.

The pricks form scattered small yellow or discolored spots, streaks, stripes that merge over time, and the leaf surface acquires a shiny silver-white color. Later, the injection sites turn brown or black.

Prevention and control measures
: destruction of weeds and plant residues on the site.

If thrips are abundant, cut the plants early before the pests have spread to the bottom of the stems.

Biological preparations: Fitoverm, Fitoverm-M, Vertimek, Akarin. Chemical preparations: Aktara, Confidor, Intavir.

Spider mite

How to recognize
: the leaves brighten and become covered with small yellow dots (from injections), then turn yellow and dry, covered with cobwebs.

Prevention and control measures
: timely and sufficient plant nutrition with fertilizers, airing and watering.

Destruction of weeds around and inside greenhouses, greenhouses, beds. During the growing season, spraying with "Akarin", "Bitoxibacillin", "Fitoverm".

Chemicals: Aktellik, Kemifos, Neoron, Apollo, Demitan.

How to recognize
: small yellow punctures appear on the leaves, later - light patterns-pest moves. The dark brown miner pupae mature on the leaves and then fall to the ground, where they undergo the next phase of development.

Control and prevention measures
: When buying ready-made seedlings, carefully inspect the plants. Affected plants are immediately removed until insects emerge from the pupae. Treatment is carried out with drugs "Actellik", "Karbofos", "Fufanon".

How to recognize
: oblong holes on leaves and flowers. Slugs do not cause significant harm, but eaten leaves and flowers spoil the appearance.

Prevention and control measures
: until slugs appear, spread fresh lime or superphosphate over the soil surface. Use traps (boards, beer saucers). For severe damage, metaldehyde is used.


Watch the video: HOW TO TAKE CARE OF WATERMELON PLANTS