Onions are one of the most useful garden plants, which is why they grow in almost every area. You can't cook soup without onions, you can't cook meat, fish or salad.
Usually a turnip ripens in two years: a set grows from seeds by autumn, and a turnip grows from a set the next year. To grow bulbs from seeds in one season, they resort to the seedling method: in the spring they sow onion seeds for seedlings and with the onset of spring they transplant the seedlings into the garden.
In our article you will find information on when and how to sow onions, how to care for the seedlings when they are ready for transplanting to the garden, and also why it is better to grow the seedlings yourself rather than buying ready-made seedlings.
Biological features of onions
Onions are a bright representative of the Liliaceae (Onion) family, they belong to the class of monocotyledons, the shoots of which have one cotyledon. It is believed that onions are native to Central and Southeast Asia. Onion plants are very diverse. There are about 400 of their species, but only about ten have been introduced into the culture.
Bulbs and green leaves, depending on the variety and growing conditions, contain 6 - 12% sugar, 2 - 4% protein, 0.6 - 1.1 mineral salts, which include potassium, calcium and iron phosphorus salts, as well as a number of trace elements (zinc, aluminum, copper, nickel, etc.).
Onions are especially valuable for the content of various vitamins (C, PP, A, group B, etc.), phytoncides and essential oils.
Onion-turnip (ripe onion) and green leaves are used for food.
Green onion feathers are mainly consumed fresh, added to salads, and bulbs are used as a seasoning for various dishes (boiled or fried), as well as for canning.
In folk medicine, onions also occupy an important place.
Onions stimulate the appetite and aid digestion, as it enhances gastrointestinal secretion and kidney function. Thus, it has a diuretic effect and helps to eliminate kidney stones and sand. The essential oil contained in onions is bactericidal and, as a result of the destruction of abnormal intestinal flora, can eliminate the causes of gas formation, which causes excessive, sometimes colicky pains.
Onion juice dilutes the mucous plugs in the bronchi and thus facilitates coughing. Finally, onions relax the cramps in the stomach and intestines and reduce blood sugar: onions are also credited with stimulating the nervous system.
Onions can be used internally and externally. With prolonged sputum, coughing and hoarseness, the inside of the bulb is taken out, the cavity formed is filled with sugar, which after a short time, as a result of drawing out the juice from the remaining part of the bulb, turns into a viscous, pleasant-tasting mass, which is consumed.
You can also survive the juice of the bulb and take it mixed with honey or sugar.
Biological features of onions
Bulb onion is a biennial plant, in the first year it forms a bulb, and in the second year seeds. But in the conditions of the northern and middle zone, this is a three-year culture.
In the year of sowing, onion sets (small onions) are grown from seeds of nigella, from which onions are obtained in the second year, and seeds in the third year. Onion seeds have a strong cornea and are capable of germinating for 2 to 3 years.
The swelling of seeds takes a rather long period of time, provided that a stable soil moisture is established, which is a consequence of adaptability to the conditions of an arid climate. Onion shoots appear in the form of a single cotyledon, a curved loop. The base of the cotyledon pulls the upper part of it to the surface, then, within 4 - 5 days, the loop is straightened.
Onion seeds begin to germinate already at 2 ⁰ C. At an optimal temperature (18 - 20 ⁰ C) and a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, seedlings appear in 10 - 12 days, and at temperatures below 10 ⁰ C - after 20 - 25 days.
Onion seedlings in the loop phase are severely damaged by small frosts, more mature plants tolerate -6, -7 ⁰ C. in calm weather.
The leaves of this plant grow well at 18 - 20 ⁰ C, at 25 ⁰ C and more, their growth slows down. Onion roots develop relatively faster at lower temperatures than leaves.
An increase in soil temperature above 20 ⁰ C delays root development. During storage, onions can withstand temperatures of -3 ⁰ С, but they must be harvested simultaneously with heat-demanding crops.
All varieties of onions are divided into 3 groups: spicy, semi-sharp and sweet. In terms of the content of essential oils and sugar, spicy varieties are superior to sweet ones, and semi-sharp varieties in these indicators occupy an intermediate position. Spicy varieties have good keeping quality, sweet varieties are much inferior to them in this, they, as a rule, are slightly soft.
Central Russian onion varieties belong to long-day plants; under short-day conditions, bulb formation and flowering are delayed.
Onion varieties of southern origin bloom faster with a short day. In these varieties, with a long day, the formation of the bulb slows down and it ripens poorly.
If in general the climate for growing onions must be warm and sufficiently dry, then its requirements for heat and moisture are different throughout the year.
In spring, the delicate onion plant grows very slowly. It is insensitive to cool weather around this time, but it does better with sufficient warmth and moderate humidity nonetheless. During the period of more intensive growth, in early summer and in summer until about July, sufficiently abundant watering or rains are useful.
In very dry summers, the bulbs and thus the harvest are small. Too high humidity is fraught with the risk of fungal diseases and contributes to unwanted weed growth.
In the middle of summer, the growth and development of onion plants gradually slows down, the maturation phase begins, in which the absorption of nutrients is gradually limited, and the bulb itself is filled with reserve substances.
Dry and warm air is most favorable during this time. Clear weather is also desirable during harvest, as the bulbs harvested dry are easier to clean and store better.
So, the onion needs most of all water in the first half of the growing season, that is, during the period when the tops grow and the bulb forms. At the final stage of the growing season, that is, in its last third, excess moisture, ensuring intensive leaf growth and delaying feather lodging, slows down the ripening of the bulb, and as a result, such an onion is not able to withstand long winter storage.
If unfavorable conditions develop (the weather is dry, the soil is very compacted, the plants lack light and nutrients), under such circumstances, the onion quickly stops forming leaves and begins to form a bulb. If this process has already begun, it cannot be stopped by any known agricultural methods (irrigation, loosening, fertilization) and ultimately it leads to a significant shortage of crops. This biological feature of onions is used when growing sets from seeds, when they artificially create a thickened standing of plants, as a result, they begin to lack food, water, light and, as a result, they stop growing early, form small bulbs (sets) and go into a state of dormancy.
Onions are plants that have a period of physiological (internal) dormancy. Until this period is over, the bulb will not germinate, even under favorable conditions. However, during the period of physiological rest inside the bulb, albeit slowly, there is an increase in children.
Onions are especially picky about soil fertility, this is easily explained by the fact that with a relatively large mass of leaves, its root system is rather poorly developed.
Despite the relatively small removal of nutrients, it is possible to count on obtaining rich onion yields only on soils with high fertility.
For onions, the weakly acidic reaction of the soil solution is most favorable (pH 6.5 - 7.0). On soils with an acidic reaction, even with favorable weather conditions, seedlings grow extremely slowly. On soils with high acidity, it is better to place onions in the second year after adding lime.
Light sandy loam or loamy-humus soils are best suited for growing onions and are more likely to provide high yields.
The best precursors for onions from vegetable crops will be those for which organic fertilizers were applied (cucumber, cabbage, early potatoes).
Under onions, on average, 5 - 6 kg of humus or compost are applied per 1 m 2 of the area of the garden and mineral fertilizers (in a gr of a.c. per 1 m 2) of nitrogen 3 - 4.5 phosphorus 6 - 9 potassium 6 - 9.
The soil should be sufficiently settled and connected closely to the subsoil. Therefore, in the fall, it is necessary to dig up the soil to a depth of 20 - 30 cm, while applying phosphorus and potash fertilizers. When cultivated in autumn, the soil acquires the ability to absorb soil moisture. Deep spring tillage should not be carried out under the onions, since the loose soil makes it difficult for the seeds to germinate or they go too deep and as a result, uneven seedlings are obtained. As a result, many (thick-necked) bulbs are formed.
The blocky soil dug up before winter must be prepared especially carefully for sowing in the spring. First of all, care should be taken to preserve the precious winter moisture.
In the spring, the soil does not need to be dug deeply (the exception is waterlogged soils, which could no longer be dug up in the fall). Thus, the soil, as soon as it is possible to walk on it, is only slightly loosened with a rake until its surface becomes finely lumpy and even. It is recommended to compact light sandy soils to the required density so that the seeds do not fall too deep during sowing.
A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
I always grew onions through sets, but last year I was not lucky with the planting material: it was either stored incorrectly, or initially it was unsuccessful: the bulbs were born, let's say gently, medium-sized, some of them went into the arrow.
Onion seeds in stores have attracted attention for a long time, and finally I made up my mind.
For the experiment, two bags of seeds were chosen - sweet Ecstasy and peninsular Albion and F1 Spirit. Having estimated that the onion will need early sowing (and therefore, a high and unheated place), in the fall I picked up a bed in a well-lit place. Previously, cabbage grew on it, so there was enough organic matter - well rotted, as it should be onions. I applied complex fertilizers and sand to make the earth lighter.
In the spring, when the snow was still lying, I covered the bed with a film - let it warm up faster. I started sowing in the second half of April, as soon as the soil dried up and stopped sticking to the plane cutter in kilograms.
IMPORTANT. Onion seed germination is often poor. So when buying it is worth taking 1-2 spare bags and sowing thicker. It is better to pluck out the excess. And pay attention to the expiration date - seeds retain their germination capacity for about 2 years.
Nigella was disinfected for 10 minutes in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, then immediately washed with cold water and sown.
The rows were placed at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, the rate of seed consumption was 10 g per 10 sq. m.
Since the soil is clayey, floating, after sowing, it mulched the bed with dry peat with a layer of 1.5 cm.Otherwise, the surface quickly became covered with a crust, and weak loops could not break through to the light (and this event occurs about 2 weeks after sowing).
IMPORTANT. So that after the rain the seeds would not be drawn into the depths, I rolled the surface of the garden bed after sowing with a heavy log.
I thinned the seedlings twice, the first time in the phase of 1-2 leaves, leaving 2 cm between the bushes, the second - in the phase of 3-4 leaves (all the excess went into the salad). As a result, about 10 cm remained between the plants.
The care was simple - shallow loosening of the row spacings (the onion does not like very much when weeds crush it), watering and feeding. Since the bulb is poured only until the plant is experiencing drought, in the first half of the summer it watered very abundantly (about 15 liters per 1 sq. M), but since mid-August, the watering has stopped completely.
Fertilizers for onions are also very important to have more leaves. This directly affects the size of the bulb. Therefore, barely after germination it was 2 weeks, I fed the young plants with the infusion of bird droppings, and later, after thinning, watered them with a complex water-soluble fertilizer. The same feeding was repeated after 10 days. And the last was spent at the beginning of the formation of the bulb.
The biggest threat to onions (after drought) is downy mildew. To protect the plantings, you have to spray them with a solution of copper sulfate (40 g per 10 l of water): the first time - at the beginning of the formation of the bulb, the second - after 2 weeks. The treatments were carried out for prophylaxis, while there were no first signs of the disease.
The crop was harvested at the same time as the onions grown from sets - in late August - early September. And what are the results?
Spirit gave leveled bulbs 60-70 g in weight. A lovely sight! It is stated that it does not germinate in winter and practically does not suffer from cervical and bacterial rot. As for the Ecstasy variety, it fully justified its name - fruitful, beautiful and very, very, very tasty. His bulbs are large - 140-160 g (instead of the declared 400-600 g), without bitterness, and now I simply cannot put other onions in salads! Will definitely grow again.
Onion-turnip from seeds in one year
It is quite possible to grow onions from seeds in one year. Our resourceful summer residents have learned to do this very successfully, using two methods: firstly, it is an early spring thickened sowing of seeds, and secondly, it is growing through seedlings.
The most suitable varieties for such onion cultivation are considered Myachkovsky, Strigunovsky and Odintsovets... Also good varieties Russian size and Exibition, which have very large bulbs (350 g, and sometimes up to 500 g) of a delicate, sweet taste.
Now let's take a closer look at each method.
Early spring landing. Early varieties are most suitable for growing onions in this way, and onions grown in this way will not be stored for so long, so it is best to use them first.
It is recommended to start sowing around April 20-25 (we look at the weather). We warm the seeds, disinfect, germinate and sow very early on the beds prepared in the fall.
The beds should be covered with plastic wrap in advance so that the ground warms up well before planting the seeds.
On the day of planting, we remove the film from the garden, make grooves and spill them with hot water. Then we spread the seeds, sprinkle them with humus or compost, compact the soil and cover the bed again with foil.
We remove the film from the garden only when shoots appear.
Further planting care is the same as for onions, which we grow from sets. The only difference is the need for planting thinning.
The first time the onion should be thinned when it reaches 7-10 cm. The second thinning is carried out after 3 weeks and the third - 2-3 weeks after the second.
As a result, the distance between the bulbs should be about 10 cm. With this method of growing onions, it is very important that the bulbs have time to fully ripen.
To somehow speed up this process, you can do the following:
- In the second half of the growing season, undo the bulbs so that they are half above the ground.
- Pull the bulbs slightly by the feather, as if lifting them in the ground, or slightly prune the roots with a shovel.
With these actions, the process of supply of nutrients from the leaves to the bulbs is significantly accelerated and their ripening is faster.
Some summer residents, in order to accelerate ripening, crush onion leaves, but this method is dangerous because pathogenic bacteria or pests can get into the neck of the bulb.
With this method of planting, it is quite possible that not only onions will grow from seeds, but also onions and onions. Therefore, after harvesting and drying the onion, it must be sorted into large (more than 4 cm), medium (3-4 cm) and small (up to 3 cm).
Then we leave large bulbs for winter storage. Medium bulbs must be consumed first, they are also suitable for forcing green onions. Small bulbs (sets) are left for storage for spring plantings.
Onions through seedlings. Growing onions through seedlings is, of course, troublesome, but not difficult. But there are many advantages: firstly, the onion ripens perfectly by the fall, not at all worse than the one planted with the seed, and secondly, the yield is twice as large as when the seeds are sown directly into the open ground.
We sow seeds for seedlings at the end of February - the first half of March. We grow onion seedlings at home in boxes, seedling pots or other containers with a height of at least 10 cm.
The main condition is that the walls of the containers should not be transparent, as light will interfere with the development of the root system.
Seeds can be sown into 1 cm deep grooves or simply planted densely over the entire area of the container.
Then we cover them with a layer of earth (1 cm) on top, slightly compact, carefully water (preferably from a spray bottle, so as not to wash the seeds out of the soil) with warm water and put the container in a warm place (22-25 ° C), covered with a film.
After about 10-15 days, shoots begin to appear and the film is removed. After the sprouts (loops) appear, the containers with seedlings are placed in the brightest place, while it is desirable to maintain the air temperature at 9-12 ° C for 3-5 days.
Then it is recommended to increase the temperature to 15-20 ° C during the day and 10-12 ° C at night. If the air temperature in the room is higher, then regular ventilation is necessary so that the seedlings do not stretch out and do not get sick with a black leg.
In addition, if the seedlings grew at an elevated temperature, then later, when planted in the ground, they do not take root well.
Water the seedlings of onions sparingly, do not overmoisten the soil. Before planting the seedlings in the ground, we feed it two times, but if it grows strong and healthy, then you can feed it once.
We carry out the first feeding one week after germination, and the second two weeks after the first.
A solution for dressing can be prepared from both mineral fertilizers and mullein infusion by stirring in water in a ratio of 1: 6.
We feed very carefully - little by little.
At the age of about 60 days, the seedlings can already be planted in the garden. By this time, it becomes strong, has a developed root system, 3-4 true leaves and a thickness of 3-4 mm at the base.
Usually, onion seedlings are planted in the vegetable garden from May 1 to May 10, depending on the weather in the region and on the condition of the soil. She is not afraid of small frosts.
The best time to plant is in the afternoon, when the air temperature is already starting to drop. Before transplanting, water the seedlings well, then carefully remove each plant from the ground.
If the roots are long, then they need to be shortened a little, by about one third. This is done so that when planting, the roots do not bend upwards, since the plant survival rate decreases.
We plant onions in rows with a distance between plants of 8-10 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm. If you are planting large varieties of onions, it is better to adhere to the scheme of 30x30 cm. Immediately after planting, we water the garden well.
Later, during the first week, until the plants take root, we water every day, keeping the earth moist. Then watering should be carried out as the soil dries out.
The following agrotechnical measures are no different from those that are used in the cultivation of onions in other ways, namely: weeding, watering, loosening, feeding, harvesting.
On this, perhaps, the article will end. In it, I told you about growing onions from seeds in two ways: with a two-year culture - we grow onion sets, and already from it the next year - onion-turnip and one-year old - in one year we get turnip onions directly from the seeds, planting them either very early spring, or seedlings.
We will talk about the third method - sowing podzimm - in one of the subsequent articles.
White rot of onions
Sclerotiniasis, or white rot - a disease caused by a fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which is capable of infecting any part of the plant. Onions can become infected with them both in the garden and during storage. Moreover, in the garden, the disease develops slowly, and in the storage facility it quickly destroys the crop.
During the growing season, the onion leaves turn yellow and die off, and a white fluffy bloom with black blotches appears on the roots and scales of the bulbs.
Waterlogging, increased acidity of the soil, non-observance of crop rotation and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers contribute to the spread of the fungus.
Treatment and prevention of white onion rot
With early detection of symptoms of the disease, the vegetable is treated with fungicides. Abiga-Peak, Ordan, Previkur Energy and others have shown themselves well. At the very beginning of the disease, the areas of the onion feather affected by the fungus can be cut out and sprinkled with crushed coal.
Fungicides should be applied alternately so that the fungus does not get used to the specific active ingredient.
Sick plants must be immediately removed from the site along with the top layer of soil. You also need to monitor the soil moisture in the beds. If it is high, then the onion is not watered or fed for a week.
After harvesting, the soil is watered with a solution of copper sulfate (50 g per bucket of water).
Growing onions from seeds
Batun onions are most often sown directly in the garden. Sometimes seedlings are grown in the spring in order to quickly collect the first crop. Despite the fact that the batun is a perennial plant, some gardeners prefer to grow it as an annual. In this case, a normal harvest can be obtained only through seedlings: after all, in the long-term version, the maximum yield is achieved only after 2-3 years.
How to collect seeds from onions
Collecting onion seeds is easy. From the second year of life, he gives numerous arrows with peduncles, which, in order not to reduce the yield, are constantly broken out. These arrows are on several bushes and must be left. In the middle of summer, they will bloom, then seeds will appear in them. When they are almost ripe, that is, they acquire a black color, but will still firmly adhere to the inflorescences, the plants are pulled out and hung upside down in bunches in a dry room, substituting any container under them or simply spreading out a sheet of paper.
When the seeds are dry, they will spill out on their own. It is very easy to remove them at this time. The seeds are dried for a few more days, spread out in a thin layer, and then poured into small paper bags for storage. The germination period of onion seeds is short: with proper storage (in a dry, dark place), a maximum of two years.
Growing onion seedlings
Seedling cultivation of batun onions is used when the entire cycle from seeds to complete harvesting with pulling out plants is carried out in one season. In the perennial version, seedlings are not grown. The seeds are sown in April, the grown seedlings are planted in the garden at the beginning of summer, and in September the plants are completely dug up and used for food.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
To accelerate the germination of seeds, they are soaked in water for a day. Sometimes they are preliminarily etched in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 20-25 minutes. During the day, the water is changed several times, after which the seeds are slightly dried and sown in seed boxes.
Batuna seeds look exactly like the seeds of any other onion.
The soil is a mixture of turf soil with humus (1: 1) with the addition of two glasses of ash to a bucket of mixture. Seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm in moistened grooves, but after falling asleep with earth, a two-centimeter layer of clean sand is also poured on top. In glass-covered boxes at room temperature, the prepared seeds germinate after 2 weeks or a little later.
Caring for batuna seedlings resembles this activity in the case of most vegetable plants. So, immediately after the emergence of seedlings, a sharp decrease in temperature is necessary: it is kept at the level of 10–12 ° C for a week, after which it is raised somewhat. However, temperatures above 15 ° C are destructive for onion seedlings, so growing it in a city apartment is very problematic. It is necessary to equip the lighting: the batun is a plant of long daylight hours.
Watering is needed rare and moderate: it is impossible to fill with water before waterlogging. During the cultivation of seedlings, it is fed twice. The composition of the dressing solution is 2 g of superphosphate and any potassium salt per 1 liter of water, the time of dressing is 7-10 days after germination, and then two weeks later.
If the seedlings are dense, they must be thinned out. This is done in the phase of the first true leaf, at this moment a distance of about 3 cm is left between the plants. Before planting in the garden, a week before, the seedlings of the trampoline are hardened. It is planted in the garden at the beginning of summer, preparing the holes at a distance of about 12 cm from each other.
Seedlings of onion-batuna are very tender, it is not too easy to grow it, therefore they do it relatively infrequently.
Since the batuna seedlings need coolness, this method of growing can be recommended only if there is an unheated greenhouse or a greenhouse, where it is possible to maintain a temperature of 10-15 ° C in April-May: at home, the work expended is too great. Therefore, even for one-year cultivation, it is worth preparing seedlings in a separate bed, covering it in advance with a film to warm the earth. Most varieties of onions will have time to give a good harvest of feathers in such a situation.
Sowing seeds in the ground
Sowing seeds directly into the ground is the main method of seed propagation of the trampoline. If sown under the film in early spring, a normal harvest can be harvested as early as August. Another option is sowing in June-July (for the middle lane). In this case, the plants in the year of sowing will have time to strengthen, and cutting the leaves will be possible only the next year. Podzimny sowing is also used, but it should be thicker, since many seeds will disappear during the winter.
It should be noted that the onion does not like acidic soils and peat bogs. Sandy loam and loam are best suited for him, but it is important that the site is well lit. Preparing the garden - as for most vegetables: preliminary digging with the usual doses of organic and mineral fertilizers. Per 1 m 2, this is a bucket of humus, a glass of ash and 10-15 g of superphosphate, potassium chloride and any saltpeter.
The seeds are prepared in the same way as for growing seedlings. They are sown in grooves spilled with water to a depth of about 2.5 cm, the distance between rows is about 30 cm.If the soil has already warmed up to at least 5 ° C, the seeds will necessarily germinate, but this can be stretched over time: from 8 to 20 days. It is advisable to mulch the garden bed with a thin layer of humus immediately after sowing. When it is clear how many seeds have sprouted, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving about 10 cm between the plants.
Video: spring sowing onions
How to get onion seeds
Looking to completely switch to your own seed production but don't know how to harvest onion seeds? It's pretty simple, although some skills are still needed.
- Choose 5-7 large, healthy bulbs of the same variety.
- In May, plant them in the ground, placing 150 g of compost under each and placing them at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
- Loosen and huddle the plantings regularly, apply nitrogen fertilizer twice to the soil.
- Tie a bow arrow to a peg and keep out birds.
- After the onion flower stalks begin to turn yellow, cut them off and hang them in a dry, warm place to ripen.
- Shake the mature seeds out of the flower cap, fold in a paper bag and sign.
Choosing the best varieties of onions
To simplify the choice of onions, experienced gardeners recommend taking into account the growing season, favorable areas for growing, and the taste of the fruit.
By ripening period
The division by ripening periods is arbitrary, when choosing a plant, you can focus on the growing season:
- early varieties form a bulb 90-110 days after germination. Popular: onion Red Harrow, Karatalsky, Carmen, April Batun
- in mid-season varieties, the growing season is 105-120 days. Famous types of onions are Shakespeare, Globus, Chalcedony, Baia Verde batun, Russian winter.
- Late onion (Kaba, Dzhusay, Globo) ripens in 120-145 days after sprouting.
Depending on the region of cultivation
Conventionally, you can divide the onion into several groups that are better suited for planting in regions with certain climatic features.
In the Kuban, you can start planting onions from mid-April. Plants are planted with different ripening periods: Centurion, Troy, Red Baron, Elan.
In the Moscow region, a suitable period for sowing onions is the end of April. Early and mid-season Sturon, Hercules, Orion are widespread.
Onions are planted in Siberia and the Urals in early May. Annual Siberian, Timiryazevsky, Stuttgarter are in demand.
Selection of varieties to taste
Depending on the taste, the bulbs are divided into three types: spicy, semi-sharp, sweet:
- spicy varieties include early ripening. The bulbs are keeping quality because they are covered with several layers of dense peel. The fruits contain a large amount of essential oils, therefore they are very smelling. Disadvantage - low yield
- semi-sharp bulbs have a loose flesh. The yield is higher than that of the early spicy varieties. This species belongs to the mid-ripening - the fruits ripen longer
- sweet varieties stand out for their high yields. Turnips are used for making salads. Minus - onions are poorly preserved for a long time.
In the southern regions, sweet varieties are most often planted (names - Exhibishen, Comet F1, Campillo). For the cultivation of acute and peninsular varieties (Strigunovsky local, Sturon, Centurion F1), the climate of the middle zone and northern regions is suitable.
The most productive varieties
An important characteristic is the yield. There are several varieties that are in demand in different regions.
The bulbs of the early ripening Stuttgarter Riesen ripen, weighing up to 90 g, have a flattened shape. A rich taste with moderate pungency is a characteristic of the golden brown bulbs. The yield is stable - 30-35 kg from a garden with an area of 10 sq. M.
Yukont forms purple-crimson bulbs in a semicircular shape. Fruits weighing up to 100 g have a spicy pungent taste. From a plot of 10 sq.m. you can dig up 25-30 kg of turnips.
The yield of Setton onions is high - you can dig about 50 kg from a plot of 10 square meters. Features of a mid-early variety - elongated fruits weighing 150-190 g have a spicy-sweet piquant aftertaste. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases.
The Krasnodar variety remains in demand. The crop is harvested 110-120 days after seed germination. Advantages of the variety - the fruits are of the same size, weight is about 100 g. The white pulp has a pleasant semi-sharp taste. The yield is stable - 20-40 kg from a plot of 10 sq.m. Minus of the variety - in damp weather, plants easily infect fungal diseases.
The popularity of the Spanish 313 variety provides a mild sweetish taste of onions with a slight pungent pungency. Fruits grow in weight 170-200 g.This is a late-ripening variety - the growing season is 130-140 days, the yield is about 46 kg from a garden with an area of 10 sq. M. The advantages of the variety include resistance to diseases and low temperatures, and a long shelf life.
When choosing an onion, gardeners should take into account different features: ripening time, resistance to diseases and pests, safety of fruits. If we start from the climatic features of the region, then the choice of the variety is greatly simplified.
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