The genus of plants Koleria is a representative of the Gesneriev family, it includes about 65 species. In nature, this plant can be found from Mexico to Central America, and also in Colombia and on the island of Trinidad. The name of this plant was given in honor of Michael Kohler, who lived in Zurich in the 19th century and was a famous teacher. Representatives of this genus are distinguished by a low demand for air humidity and temperature, and therefore it is much easier to grow them in comparison with other plants included in the Gesnerievye family.
Coleria is a perennial herb or shrub. The root-tuber of such a plant is scaly. Opposite petiolate leaf plates, elongated in length, have an ovoid shape. On the surface of the leaves there is a dense covering, consisting of pile, their length is about 15 centimeters, and their width is about 8 centimeters. Some species have red veins on the surface of dark green foliage, while others have a dark olive plate and a light colored central vein. The foliage can be glossy and ribbed, or the plates are covered with red or white pile. In hybrids, the foliage color is silver or bronze. When grown indoors, this plant has a lush flowering. On the axillary peduncle, 1-3 flowers grow. The size of the corolla tube is about 50 mm, it is slightly widened downwards, and narrowed towards the pharynx. Corollas are bell-shaped. The wide-open pharynx has five obtuse lobes, on their surface there are many spots, dots and strokes. In natural conditions, the color of flowers is very different: pink flowers on a white throat are dots of dark pink color; orange-red flowers have a yellow throat, on the surface of which there are specks of dark red color; the flowers are brown with dots of white color, and there is a pink pattern on the white throat.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... In July – November.
- Illumination... Needs bright sunlight, which should be diffused.
- Temperature regime... In summer and spring, from 22 to 26 degrees, and in winter, from 16 to 18 degrees.
- Watering... In the spring and summer, it is necessary to water abundantly and often; in the autumn, a gradual reduction of watering is carried out. In winter, watering should be scanty and rare, while the clod of earth should not be allowed to completely dry out.
- Air humidity... Common for rooms in living quarters. On hot days, the container with the bush must be placed on a pallet filled with moistened expanded clay.
- Fertilizer... It is necessary to feed the flower in April-October 1 time in 7 days; for this, fertilizer is used for flowering plants.
- Dormant period... November – March.
- Transfer... If necessary at the beginning of intensive growth.
- Suitable soil mixture... It should include leaf and turf soil, sand and humus (4: 2: 1: 1).
- Reproduction... By seed method and cuttings.
- Harmful insects... Scabbards, spider mites, whiteflies, thrips and mealybugs.
- Disease... If the bush is improperly looked after or placed in unsuitable conditions, then it may have problems with foliage or with flowering.
Unpretentious indoor flowers Coleria
Caring for paintwork at home
When grown indoors, window sills located in the western or eastern side of the room are very well suited for growing. If the bush is on the south window, then it will need shading from direct sunlight, for this you can use a transparent cloth or film. And in this case, the flower can be placed deeper into the room. When growing a bush on a north-facing windowsill, there is a high probability that flowering will not occur due to lack of light. In winter, he also needs a lot of light.
In summer and spring, koleria needs warmth (from 22 to 26 degrees), and in winter it needs coolness (no higher than 16 degrees).
How to water
In the spring-summer period, watering the bush is carried out immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries out. With the onset of autumn, watering is gradually reduced, and in winter it should be very poor, but at the same time, make sure that the lump of earth in the pot does not dry out. For irrigation, use well-settled water. Bottom watering is best suited for such a crop, the fact is that the ingress of water on the foliage has an extremely negative effect on its condition.
When grown at home, the bush develops within normal limits and with low air humidity. However, it should be borne in mind that the higher the humidity in the room, the better the color scheme grows and develops. It is impossible to spray it with water, because the ingress of liquid on the surface of the foliage is extremely undesirable. In order to increase the humidity of the air, it is recommended to put the container with the flower on a pallet, into which moistened pebbles are first poured, while making sure that the bottom of the pot is not in the liquid.
Top dressing of coleria
Top dressing of koleria is carried out in April – October 1 time per week, for this it is necessary to use fertilizer for flowering plants. No feeding is carried out from November to March.
As a rule, when grown in indoor conditions, the flowering of Coleria is observed in July – November.
Most often, during the dormant period, the leaves and stems do not die off in the bushes, in this regard, they can not be removed, however, pruning of long stems has a positive effect on the formation of the root system. During the dormant period, the bush needs coolness (from 12 to 16 degrees). At this time, the plant is watered very sparsely and rarely, but at the same time it is necessary to ensure that the substrate in the container does not dry out completely.
Koleria transplant is carried out, if necessary, after its root system ceases to be placed in the pot. It is recommended to transplant using the transshipment method, while the new pot should be the same height as the old one, but wider. A soil mixture suitable for this procedure should consist of leafy and light soddy soil, and also sand (4: 2: 1). Also for this purpose, a substrate consisting of leafy, turf and humus soil, as well as sand (2: 3: 1: 1) is suitable. Due to the fact that the plant reacts extremely negatively to the stagnation of liquid in the roots, it is recommended to pour a small amount of charcoal into the soil mixture and the drainage layer. If the bush is still young, then when making up the soil mixture, sod land must be excluded from its composition.
Coleria from seeds
Sowing of coleria seeds is carried out in the second half of winter. For sowing, bowls are used, the seeds are evenly distributed over the surface of the substrate, but at the same time it is not necessary to cover them with a layer of earth on top. A soil mixture suitable for sowing should include 1 part of leafy soil and 2 parts of sand. After the sowing of the koleria is completed, the soil mixture should be poured through a strainer, and the container is covered with glass on top. Crops must be provided with daily ventilation, and they must also be placed in a warm place (from 20 to 24 degrees). After the seedlings appear, the shelter is removed, and the plants dive into a larger container, while using the same soil mixture as for sowing (see above). When diving, a distance of about 20 mm is observed between shoots. After 4–6 weeks, the mature plants dive again, for this they are transferred into a new container, keeping a distance of 30 mm between the seedlings. In separate pots, reaching 70 mm in diameter, koleriya is planted only when the bushes develop well, while using a soil mixture consisting of light turf, peat and deciduous soil, as well as sand (1: 2: 4: 2).
Reproduction of coleria by cuttings
This plant can also be propagated by cuttings, for this you need to cut off the upper part of the shoot. For rooting, the cuttings are planted in a mixture consisting of sand and leafy earth, taken in equal parts, and you can also use just sand for this. The substrate is moistened, and then the container is covered with glass on top. It should be remembered that too high humidity can cause rot on the cuttings. To speed up the rooting process, cuttings are treated with an agent that stimulates root growth before planting, and you will also need bottom heating of the container. The rooting process takes about half a month. Rooted cuttings need to be transplanted into separate pots, while using the same substrate as for planting adult specimens (see above).
Indoor plant koleria: leaf propagation at home
Diseases and pests of koleria
Brown specks on foliage... In order to prevent the appearance of brown spots on the leaf plates, it is necessary to use not cold, but slightly lukewarm water for watering the bush.
Coleria leaves turn pale... If direct sunlight falls on the foliage or the bush is overfed, then the surface of the leaf plates becomes faded and yellow specks form on it.
A gray bloom appeared on the foliage... If a gray bloom forms on the leaf plates, then this is a sign that the bush is affected by a fungal disease. This can happen due to excessively high air humidity and stagnant water in the soil mixture.
Twisting the foliage... Leaf plates can curl due to the fact that the plant does not have enough moisture. To increase the level of humidity in the air, it should be sprayed from a sprayer around the bush using lukewarm water. In this case, care must be taken that liquid does not get on the surface of the sheet plates.
Coleria does not bloom... Sometimes flowering may be completely absent or extremely scarce, while there are several reasons:
- regular stagnation of water in the substrate;
- during the rest period, the air temperature in the room was either too high or too low;
- the bush lacks light;
- excessively low air humidity.
Coleria leaves wither. If in winter the bush feels a lack of light, then its foliage may wither a little.
Why does Coleria bloom poorly?
Pests of koleria
Most often, thrips, scale insects, whiteflies, mealybugs and spider mites settle on such a flower.
Types and varieties of koleria with photos and names
Coleria bogotka (Kohleria bogotensis)
Such a herbaceous perennial naturally occurs in Colombian forests, while it prefers to grow on rocky ground. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m. On the surface of non-branching straight shoots there is pubescence, consisting of white or red hairs. The shape of the pointed foliage is oval-heart-shaped or wide ovate, it reaches about 75 mm in length and up to 35 mm in width, the edge is jagged. The front surface of the leaf plate is dark green, it has pubescence, located along the veins and consisting of variegated white hairs. The length of pubescent pedicels is about 50 mm, they grow 1–2 flowers, which are axillary and drooping. The corolla tube is about 25 mm long, pubescent and pale red outside, and orange-red downwards. On the inner surface of the yellow throat, there are specks and stripes of red. Lush bloom, it begins in the second half of the summer and lasts until the first autumn weeks.
Coleria majestic (Kohleria magnifica)
There are red hairs on the surface of the stem. The leaf plates look like quilted, they are glossy, and on their surface there is a pubescence consisting of white hairs. Large orange-red flowers have dark streaks that go right into the pharynx.
Hairy coleria (Kohleria hirsuta)
The foliage is bronze. The outer surface of tubular flowers has a red color, on the surface of the yellow throat there are rich red specks.
Coleria spikelet (Kohleria spicata)
The homeland of this species is Mexico. The bush is very small, the leaf plates adorning it have an elongated shape. At the top of the long stems are red flowers, the throat of which is orange.
Coleria Linden (Kohleria lindeniana)
In natural conditions, this species is found in the mountainous regions of Ecuador. The height of this herbaceous perennial is about 0.3 m, on the surface of the bush there is pubescence, consisting of white hairs. The length of the ovoid leaf plates is about 70 mm, and the width is up to 20 mm. The lower part of the green leaves has a pale pink tint; greenish or silvery-white veins are clearly visible on the dark green front surface of the plate. One or several axillary flowers are formed on peduncles, the length of which is about 60 mm. The corolla is bell-shaped; the length of the flower petals and corolla tube does not exceed 10 mm. On the surface of the tube, there is a pubescence of white hairs, its inner surface is yellow with brown specks at the pharynx, and purple stripes are present on the white outer surface on the limbs. Lush bloom is observed in the first half of the autumn period.
Foxglove coleria (Kohleria digitaliflora)
In nature, such a herbaceous perennial is most often found in the forests of Colombia. On the surface there is a dense pubescence of white hairs, the stems are straight. The shape of the leaf plates is elliptical (lanceolate or ovoid), their length is from 18 to 20 centimeters, and their width is from 10 to 12 centimeters. On the surface of short petiolate green leaf plates there is a pubescence of hairs, while on the seamy surface it is denser than on the front. Up to five flowers grow on axillary inflorescences. The length of the corolla tube is about 30 mm, it is white, and at the top with a pinkish tint. There are purple dots on the surface of the green throat of the corolla. The bush blooms most luxuriantly in the last summer and in the first autumn weeks.
Coleria uneven (Kohleria inaequalis)
A medium-sized bush has not very large pubescence. Orange-red flowers, their limb lobes are reddish, and there are dark dots on their surface.
Coleria pleasant (Kohleria amabilis)
Such herbaceous perennials in nature are most often found in the mountains of Colombia at an altitude of 800 m above sea level. On the surface of green or red stems there is pubescence of white hairs, their length is about 0.6 m. The length of the petioles is about 25 mm. Opposite ovoid leaf plates are up to 100 mm long and about 70 mm wide. The front surface of the foliage is dark green or green, and the back is greenish, there are silvery-white lines and brownish-red streaks on the plate. On the outer surface of the axillary flowers there is pubescence, the corolla tube is pink - with white or white with purple spots at the pharynx. Flowering lasts almost all year round.
Coleria fluffy (Kohleria eriantha)
Velvety dark colored leaf plates have a red edge. The color of the pubescent large flowers is orange-red, on the surface of the lower lobe of the limb there are many yellow specks.
Coleria tube-flowered (Kohleria tubiflora)
It occurs naturally in Costa Rica and Colombia. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m. The lower surface of oval long leaf plates is red, and the upper one is dark green. The length of the red and orange flowers is about 25 mm.
Woolen koleria (Kohleria lanata)
Homeland of this kind of Mexico. The shoots are powerful. Small oval leaf plates, crenate along the edge, have dense pubescence of fawn hairs.On the surface of the orange-red corolla tube, there are dots of a pale crimson color, they cover the lobes of the wide-open limb. The bush looks fluffy due to the fact that small hairs grow on its entire surface.
KOLERIYA is an ampelous plant from the Gesneriev family. Home care
The flowers resemble modified bells that have an elongated corolla. Their color can be different: from pink to dark brown, interspersed with a different shade. Most often, hybrids are grown at home, which have a long flowering period.
Requirements for growing koleria, home care
- Lighting. Since the plant prefers bright, but diffused light in conditions of natural growth, then in rooms it is most suitable for a place on the windowsill of east or west windows.
Content temperature. In the spring and summer months, it is recommended to maintain heat within 22-26 degrees, with the arrival of autumn, the indicators gradually decrease to 16 units.
Air humidity. Coleria, when grown in rooms, copes well with dry indoor air, however, with a more humid content, it develops much better and faster. Since the plant is pubescent, spraying should not be carried out, as drops of moisture can provoke decay or can deprive flowers and leaves of decorativeness. Therefore, the humidity is increased in other ways: they put air humidifiers or a vessel with water next to the koleria, the flower pot is placed in a deep tray with expanded clay poured onto the bottom and a small amount of water.
Watering. In the spring-summer period, it is recommended to water koleriya, focusing on the state of the top soil in the pot. As soon as it dries up, moistening is carried out with well-settled water. It is required that the clod of earth does not dry out. Also, experts recommend using bottom watering, when the liquid is poured into a stand under the flowerpot, and after 15–20 minutes, the leftovers are drained. All this is due to the fact that almost all parts of the plant are covered with hairs.
Fertilizer. From April to mid-autumn, the color should be fed using formulations for flowering indoor plants. The regularity of such fertilizers once a week. In the winter months and the remainder of the fall, feeding is not used.
The substrate is made up of the following options:
- leafy soil, light turf soil, river sand (ratio 2: 1: 0.5)
- humus soil, light turf soil, leafy soil, coarse sand (in a ratio of 1: 3: 2: 1).
So that moisture does not stagnate in the soil mixture, a little crushed charcoal is mixed into it. For young plants, the sod substrate is not supplemented.
Reproduction of hoya at home
Florists practice sowing seeds and rooting stem cuttings. With a certain amount of patience, it is possible to grow a hoya from a single leaf blade. Before propagating hoya at home, you need to familiarize yourself with the existing methods of obtaining new plants.
The best time for hoya breeding is the beginning of the growing season. Although the plant does not have a pronounced rest time, during the cold season of the year, the growth of the vine slows down. With the arrival of spring, hoya lends itself more effectively to reproduction, although it is possible to experiment with rooting of shoots in other months, but not at the time of flowering.
Hoya: propagation by cuttings
The stalk is cut from a healthy pagon. It should be short - 5-6 cm, consist of two internodes and 1-2 pairs of leaves. The lower leaf blades are removed, leaving only the upper pair. Before rooting the hoya, the cutting is dried for a couple of hours, then the cut is treated with a root formation stimulator - heteroauxin, zircon or root root and buried in a soil mixture or in a vessel with water.
Substrate options for rooting cuttings:
- peat and sand, taken in equal parts
- 2 parts fertile garden soil and 1 part sand
- peat tablets
- sphagnum moss.
A plate with a handle placed in water or a substrate is covered with plastic wrap or glass on top and regularly moistened with a spray bottle, do not forget to air it quite often. Experienced growers use plastic bottles with a cut off the bottom and provide air access by unscrewing the cork.
A vessel with a rooted handle is placed in a warm place where it is possible to constantly maintain a temperature of 22 degrees Celsius. The roots will appear after 2 weeks. The plant is transplanted into an independent pot without waiting for a developed root system, because, as it lengthens, fragile roots break easily during transplantation.
Hoya propagation by a leaf
The leaf is chosen healthy and young, cut off with a small fragment of the petiole - it is there that the growth point is located. This is important, because, cut off at the very base, it will remain a leafy blade sticking out in the ground, even with roots, and will not form a shoot.
The method of obtaining a new specimen from a separate leaf is similar to how the hoya propagates by a cuttings. The planting material is also dried and treated with root or other root formation stimulant. The composition of the soil mixture is the same, however, the leaves are planted in a cramped pot in several pieces and periodically fed. It will take a long time, about a year, before a pagon is formed from a rooted leaf.
Growing hoya from seeds
Under indoor conditions, the process of pollination is difficult, and it is almost impossible to become the owner of the planting material. However, if you're lucky, it can be purchased from a specialty store or ordered from suppliers. Hoya seeds in the photo look small, hemispherical and dark chestnut in color, with a characteristic fluff like a dandelion. They ripen in small pods. They should be sown in a soil mixture consisting of leafy and soddy soil mixed with chopped sphagnum moss in the year of harvest.
Seedlings appear quickly, after about a week. The soil is constantly watered, but make sure that excess water flows into the pan through the drainage holes. A vessel with seedlings is kept in a warm corner of the room, and after about 3 months, a plant with 2-4 leaves is seated in separate containers. For the prevention of fungal infection, it is periodically sprayed with Bordeaux liquid.
Knowing how to grow hoya from seeds, many new specimens are obtained, but this method is not entirely suitable for hybrid plants - the parental characteristics of the variety are often lost.
How to care for koleriya
Coleria is quite adaptable for cultivation under artificial lighting conditions, and is also suitable for cultivation in tropical greenhouses. It is somewhat more difficult to grow this plant in an ordinary apartment. The flower feels comfortable under the open sun, but prefers to grow in high humidity conditions. On hot summer days, the sun's rays can cause it to burn in the form of yellow spots on the surface of the leaves, so do not leave the color for a long time in the open sun.
After a period of active growth and flowering, the plant loses its beautiful appearance - it begins to prepare for a dormant period, so you need to give it the opportunity to dry out between light watering. The top can be trimmed after the leaves are mostly wilted. But it is important to remember that kaleria is a light-loving flower, therefore, even during winter dormancy from December to April, it requires sufficient lighting.
Coleria prefers to grow on a mixture of sod (leaf) soil, peat and sand (perlite) in a 2: 1: 1 ratio.
The temperature in the room where the flower grows can be kept in the range from 16 to 26 ° C. In winter, the temperature should be slightly reduced, but not lower than + 12 ° C. At the same time, keep in mind that koleriya does not tolerate cold drafts.
Water the plant sparingly with lukewarm water. Do not fill it until the substrate is waterlogged, but drying out is also not permissible. And when the kaleria is in a state of winter dormancy, the intensity of watering must be limited.
Coleria prefers a humid atmosphere; for this, it is advisable to install air humidifiers in the rooms where it grows. You can not spray the plant from a spray bottle, in extreme cases, you can spray warm water around the flower into the air, avoiding drops on the plant itself.
You can feed koleriya during active growing season with a regular mixture of mineral fertilizers once every three to four weeks.
The easiest way to propagate this plant is by dividing the rhizome. This is done in March or late autumn after the flowering period. The flower needs to be carefully, so as not to damage the roots, take it out of the pot, rinse the root with warm running water, divide and plant in containers with the same substrate that is used for growing.
You can propagate kaleria with seeds, for this, seeds are sown in January-February in a mixture of turf and sand and cover the container with plastic wrap or glass. It is recommended to germinate seeds at a temperature of about 22 - 24 ° C.
Cutting or stalking as a method of reproduction is also quite acceptable. To do this, use the tops of the plant. The lower leaves and flowers are removed and several cuttings (3 - 6 pcs.) Are placed in cups of soft water at room temperature. When roots appear at the bottom of the cuttings, they must be planted in containers with a mixture of sand and peat. Within 5 to 6 weeks, the cuttings will root sufficiently, then they can be transplanted into regular pots.
Kaleria prefers low, wide pots, so it is not necessary to increase the size of the pot when transplanting. A plant transplant should be done no more often than once every two to three years in the same pot, replacing only the substrate with a new one, while not forgetting to fill the drainage to the bottom. Transplant carefully so as not to damage the fragile rhizome.
Pests and diseases
Coleria is resistant to insect infestation, but sometimes aphids, spider mites or mealybugs appear on it with poor care. Over-watering can cause gray or root rot. In this case, the plant affected by the disease or pests should be treated with an insecticide solution and the intensity of watering should be reduced.
Despite the fact that coleria is not one of the common indoor flowers among florists, unlike its super popular "relatives" - gloxinia, saintpaulia or streptocarpus, we recommend you this beautiful plant with a long flowering period.