We start the new summer cottage season from a clean house
Spring cleaning is as exciting as it is tiresome. And if mice have been in the house, this work turns into an anti-epidemiological struggle. There are several effective ways to disinfect a country house with your own hands.
Before cleaning, close access to rodents in the house from the outside. A week before disinfection, traps are set to help identify the presence of mice in the house.
On a fine day, air the room for at least 30 minutes (the longer, the better). Then they remove garbage, droppings, dead mice:
- Spray the object and around it with a disinfectant - professional (diluted according to the instructions) or an aqueous solution of bleach in a ratio of 1:10. Leave for 5 minutes.
A dead mouse and the floor around it are irrigated with a disinfectant solution, and only then they are removed
- Collect corpses and droppings with a napkin, rags in a double bag. Thrown into the trash or burned in the stove, at the stake.
The work is carried out in "combat gear" - a gauze bandage in 4 layers, a kerchief, latex gloves, tight clothing.
Video: the original mousetrap
Effective means for disinfecting a country house
If I had my way, I would disinfect everything with a steam generator. Steam temperature is about 300˚C. How can microbes survive in such conditions? In second place is bleach or any product based on it. The pungent odor evokes thoughts of hospital sterility and is associated with safe cleanliness.
For disinfection you can use:
- Chloramine B. Dilute 100 g of the substance in 20 liters of water. The solution is applied to hard surfaces and then washed off.
Chloramine B is a modern analogue of bleach
- White or Domestos. Means need 300 ml per 5 liters of water. With a solution, wipe everything that is possible and necessary, with the vents open. Then they are washed out with plain water;
Whiteness Solution is a proven disinfectant, but requires careful use with constant ventilation
- hydrogen peroxide with hot water (1: 1), the concentration of the working solution should be 3–6% peroxide. That is, a pharmacy solution (3%) can not be diluted, but concentrated medical or technical peroxide is required. Furniture is usually treated with this solution, wiped, sprayed, then left to dry with open vents. At a water temperature of + 50˚C, the effectiveness of peroxide increases;
If you bought a strong concentration of medical peroxide, it must be diluted to a working solution with a strength of 3-6%
- Medicines-antiseptics: Maxi-Des M, Alpinol, Blanidas Oxydez. With a solution (20 ml of concentrate per 970 ml of water), they wipe the surfaces, wash the floors, after 1 hour they are washed off with clean water. For soaking dishes, the concentrate dose is halved.
Disinfection of dishes with Whiteness takes place in four stages
One of the best ways to disinfect dishes is boiling, but homemade ones also cope with the task:
- baking soda and hydrogen peroxide 3%. These two components are mixed until the consistency of liquid sour cream. With the resulting mass, wipe clean dishes, leave for 5 minutes, rinse with water;
- a mixture of vinegar or ammonia with water (1: 3). Glass surfaces are wiped with this liquid;
- soap-soda solution 2%. Add 200 g of grated laundry soap and soda to 10 liters of water. This liquid is used to wash floors, furniture, dishes are soaked in it (in a hot solution until it cools down), and if it is heavily soiled, it is boiled for 30 minutes. Soda has a disinfecting effect only in hot water - not lower than 40˚C;
- mustard powder or alcohol. The products are suitable for processing aluminum cookware.
In a double boiler, dishes are perfectly disinfected.
After the mice, the dishes can be treated with the strong chemistry already mentioned above, but using a solution of a lower concentration than for the floor:
- For 4 liters of cool water, take 2 tbsp. spoons of White. Clean dishes are soaked in disinfectant solution for 2–5 minutes, rinsed and allowed to dry. Not used for metal cutlery.
- Medical antiseptics are used by adding 10 ml of concentrate to 970 ml of water - a soaking solution is obtained.
- In a solution of Chloramine B (25 g per 10 l of water), linen and dishes are soaked for 1 hour, then rinsed.
How to remove an unpleasant odor
The smell of mouse feces or dead rodents is very persistent. One of the following remedies will help get rid of it:
- the places where the droppings or a dead mouse lay are washed with vinegar solution (for 5 liters of water, 5–6 tablespoons of vinegar). After drying, the surface is wiped with hydrogen peroxide mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Vinegar can also be used for prophylaxis. The solution must be irrigated with the surface before a long absence;
- a closed empty room is quartz for 30 minutes. Then the room is ventilated. To quartz the next room, the lamp is turned on after it has completely cooled down;
A quartz lamp will significantly save energy when cleaning a country house
- use Teflex (odor spray) with closed windows in an empty room. Ventilate after 20 minutes;
- with a solution of potassium permanganate of a pale pink color, wipe hard surfaces;
- use stain and odor sprays to clean up after pets, rodents, including:
- Beaphar odour eliminator;
- Mr. Fresh;
- Nature's miracle - practice has shown that to remove stains, the product is not washed off, as stated in the instructions, but rubbed in and allowed to dry. For washing floors, 40 bactericides are added to 8 liters of water.
To prolong the results of grueling cleaning and disinfection, it is worth making the home extremely unattractive to rodents. In all places of possible penetration of animals, they leave fragrant "gifts", extremely unloved by mice - soda, sprigs of peppermint, wild rosemary, wormwood or cotton balls soaked in essential oils of these plants.
Essential oils for fighting mice are replaced with fresh plants and vice versa
They say that in the house next to which the black elderberry grows, mice will not start. I completely refute this postulate. But thanks to a bouquet of wild rosemary on the floor of the pantry, mice did not appear there for a year.
Ledum and other strong-smelling herbs scare away mice
The health of the owner directly depends on the high-quality disinfection of the country house and, indirectly, the success of the agricultural season. For this, you can use folk remedies, which are no less effective than professional ones.
Disinfection of a country house after mice in spring: good tools and methods - garden and vegetable garden
Description: My name is Tatiana! I am glad to see you in the group of gardening and horticultural lovers. The dacha is my little world, about which you can talk endlessly!
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date of birth of my diary-group August 15, 2019
ActionsA little fun, find a kitty at the dacha
Spider mite control plants
Spider mites are small parasites that cause serious damage to the garden. They affect various cultivated plants - strawberries, raspberries, fruit trees, cultivated plants and even flowers. Show in full. But still there are several plants that are not afraid of this insect, on the contrary, they will scare off the parasite. But what kind of plants they are, I will tell you below.
The stems and leaves are known as cilantro. The dried seeds are called coriander.
Coriander repels spider mites, insects are afraid of this plant like fire. For this reason, it can be planted near cultivated plants, this will protect them from the parasite. You can also make a decoction from dried leaves and seeds, and then spray the plants with them.
Planting cilantro is simple.As soon as it gets warm, you can simply sow seeds in several places in the garden and water. The greens will grow quickly, it will be lush and fragrant. And the main thing will be good to scare off parasites.
Dill has a bright and fragrant aroma that repels spider mites. If you have this greenery on your site, then you can not worry, the spider mite will not attack your plantings.
Sowing dill seeds can be carried out after the soil warms up to +15 degrees. Seeds should be deepened to a depth of no more than 3 cm, and it is advisable to cover them. The greens grow rapidly, the first shoots will appear in a few days, and after 2 weeks lush greens will grow. You can plant dill every 2 weeks.
Garlic can be used to repel spider mites. After planting the cloves, green feathers grow, that's exactly what they release volatile compounds that the parasites do not like.
Garlic can be planted near tomatoes, strawberries, roses. But you need to plant a special sown garlic, not from the grocery store, it is processed with harmful chemicals. It is best to buy seeds from a garden store that will give a good harvest. Preference should be given to hard varieties.
Chrysanthemums contain a special substance called pyrethrum. It is he who spider mites hate. And if you want to protect your plantings from a pest, then plant a chrysanthemum next to it. In the end, you will provide protection and also decorate your garden with beautiful flowers.
Planting chrysanthemums is recommended in sunny places, and the soil must have good drainage. It is important that there is no stagnation of moisture, otherwise the plants will begin to rot and mold.
The principle of operation of the garden checker FAS. Advantages and disadvantages
The sulfuric agent works quite simply:
- the ignited wick starts the sulfur smoldering
- the process releases sulfur dioxide or anhydride
- the gas mixes with air and, with a simple draft, penetrates into all corners of the enclosed space.
This method of action has several advantages:
- High performance indicators.
- Impact speed.
- Action safety. The wick will smolder for 2 minutes, until the spark reaches the checker itself. While the checker flares up, you will have time to leave and seal the room.
- Simplicity of action.
- Ease of use.
- to use it is necessary to take out all food from the cellar
- causes metal oxidation
- does not affect spores of fungi or larvae of pests in the earth
- will not destroy deep-seated mold
- causes burns in living plants, therefore, the greenhouse can only be processed before planting or after harvesting
- too humid rooms should not be fumigated with a saber (for example, when groundwater is located close to the cellar).
Attention! Also, the smoke agent has a high level of fire hazard. Make sure there are no flammable materials in the vicinity before use.
Country tips for growing vegetables and fruits
Home —- Pest control —- How to get rid of mice and rats in the garden once and for all
Disinfection of a country house after mice in spring: good tools and methods - garden and vegetable garden
1. Sauerkraut (Moon in Cancer, Pisces)
5. Gooseberries, currants - huddle.
6. Walnut - digging + ash.
7. Remove the lemongrass and actinidia vines from the supports, cover.
8. Grapes - digging + manure, peat, compost well irrigate and sprinkle 15 cm.
9. Viburnum - harvesting, leave some berries on the branches for the birds.
3. Harvesting Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, along with the roots, dig in the cellar.
4. Mulch the winter garlic beds.
5. Late potatoes - digging + gardening (for seeds).
6. Collection of winter parsley (August sowing).
8. Irises - spud, cut with a cone.
9. Winter sowing of poppy, calendula, cosme, clarkia, godetia, delphinium, cornflowers, alissum, lupine - in grooves 3-4 (for large ones) and 1 cm deep - for small seeds, they are covered with earth and sand.
Whether in the garden, in the garden - Weed control
A large number of weeds are classified as angiosperms. They are divided into two classes: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous.
The most numerous monocotyledons are cereals. After germination, the surface of the seeds of the earth leaves a stalk covered with a transparent leaf, which is called "cap", or "Later". coleoptile from the cap forms a real leaf, in the form of a tube, which then remains in the part of the lower plant. In many cereals, the coleoptile is located under the embryo flap, in the rest it is separated from a thin embryo by a stalk called "mesocotyl" (stem internode). The length of the mesocotyl depends on many factors such as the depth of seeding, lighting conditions, and the type of plant. For example, if there are seeds deep in the soil, then the mesocotyl will be the opposite, and long. The mesocotyl in the upper part is strongly why, thickened, a stem node is formed. The adventitious roots extend downward from it. In cereal plants, the leaves are linear and consist of a leaf blade and a tubular coleoptile that surrounds the stem. In the place of the leaf transition of the plate into the coleoptile, many cereal grains have an appendage - a tongue, and on the outside there are or, outgrowths of "ears". Under normal moisture conditions, soil plants of the same species bush more strongly, growing than in arid places.
In sedges, which are monocotyledonous plants, a cotyledon coleoptile emerges from the seed, and later a bundle of hairs at its base develops a lot. After this, the growth in length of the main sprout begins. sedge roots, as a rule, have a developed hypocotyl - the subcotal knee.
In representatives of liliaceae and with chastitus germination, one cotyledon is formed, which turns green late, inside it, the first green leaf appears from the bud.
The dicotyledonous class includes the most weedy embryos. the seed plant has two cotyledons, in which germination is located opposite ( fig. one). From which, the bud is located between the cotyledons, the stem and leaves appear.
Fig. 1. Underground (a) and aboveground (b) germination of dicotyledonous weed seeds:
1 - main root, 2 - lateral seed, 3 - roots, 4 - hypocotyl (hypocotyl knee), 5 - epicotyl, 6 - lateral, 7 - cotyledon shoot, 8 - petiole, 9 - leaf blade, 10 - scaly, 11 - stipule leaflet, 12 - antennae
In dicotyledonous weeds, cotyledons appear on the surface of the soil, but they can also be underground, then they will serve as a source of nutrients until the plant switches to self-feeding. nutrition This is called autotrophic. In that case, if the cotyledons are underground, then a stem internode (epicotyl) only appears on the surface. Scaly leaves are formed above the epicotyl, after which developed green leaves appear over time.
Leaves are the lateral outgrowths of the stem. The leaf is characterized by a special shape and internal structure, lateral absence of shoots, buds and adventitious roots.
The buds of the first leaves are in the buds and seeds. which, Leaves emerge from the buds, develop from the base of the young, cone leaves can be folded in some ways. In different plants, the leaves can be rolled up in a tube, others are folded along the keel along the veins along or. Such foliation is called folded. is determined by sheet formation using a magnifying glass.
The leaves are very diverse in shape, according to it you can determine the type. Therefore. It is very important to know the peculiarities of the leaf structure of the recognized plant.
According to their structure, the leaves are divided into a petiole, stipules and a plate. The plate itself is permanent of these parts. The leaf is called sessile, if there is no petiole, if there is a petiole, then the leaf is called petiolate and sits on the stem straight. In many plant species, the base is enlarged by the leaf in the coleopticol, in the tube that covers some.
At the plant stem, the leaves on the stem are arranged like this (singly, the leaf arrangement is called the next or At). in a spiral alternate leaf arrangement, the leaves are on a certain order in the stem. Some cereal plants on the stem do not form two rows (such a leaf arrangement is called two-row) or three rows (respectively, the arrangement of this leaf is called three-row).
Many plants form a two-turn spiral, for example, with five leaves. When the leaves sit on nodes one, in pairs against the other, then such a leaf arrangement will be called opposite. Each pair of leaves is placed crosswise in relation to adjacent pairs from above and from below. This arrangement is typical for labiates and cloves. The opposite leaves at the base can be separated from each other or connected, vice versa. Imperfectly opposite leaves, extending from one not at the stem level, represent a transition to shortened. On the next stems with undeveloped internodes, the leaves of the rosette are collected.
If 8 more leaves or leaves depart from the nodes of the stem, then such a leaf arrangement is called Number. whorled leaves in whorls can be for permanent plants of the same species, but it can also be rice ( hesitate. 2).
Fig. 2. The arrangement of leaves on the stems of weed plants:
a - next, b - opposite, c - whorled
There are different types of individuals of which have different leaf arrangements, or species with different arrangements of different parts of the stem on the leaves.
In shoots that develop buds, three categories of leaves are distinguished (they are connected between each other by transitions): lower ones, as well, and middle apical ones.
Grassroots are called underdeveloped shoot leaves, these are, as a rule, the first They. leaves are usually brown or yellow. Such leaves include coleoptile scales or, in which the plate is underdeveloped, they themselves sit at the base of ground shoots (scales of rhizomes and bulbs).
The middle leaves are on the top gradually, the stem or they immediately turn into large, green size and often dissected leaves. Sredinnye leaves are the main organs of nutrition for autotrophic plants and carry out the process of photosynthesis. The median leaves gradually, changing their shape, size and direction into the dissection of the stem apex, pass into the apical apical.
leaves leaves have a simple structure, these include the leaves of flowers and inflorescences, as well as nutrition.
In the bracts of plants, the apical leaves do not play a big role, they mainly serve as protection for young, developing organs.
Leaf blades differ in shape, contours, venation, dissection, color, other and pubescence signs.
Most of the leaves are wide, their lamellar is 2-3 times their thickness. The leaves are combined thickened into a group of rolls.
The shape of the plate is determined by the ratio of the width to its length, the place of the maximum width, the outline of the top and base. As a result of these combinations of indicators, the leaves of various Linear are distinguished.
type of sheet has a length that exceeds its width by 4 times, throughout its entire length it is uniformly wide.
Lingual in comparison with more linear, short, rounded at the apex.
Spatulate is basically the same as the previous ones, but at its base is Rhombic.
the leaf tapers to a large width, tapers evenly at the end and at the base, for example, in amaranth.
oval, Oblong, elliptical leaves wide in the middle, rounded at the ends, longer than width.
leaf Rounded in shape resembles a circle, ovoid at its base has a large width (for example, in a large plantain and blackhead).
The lanceolate leaf is rounded and has the greatest width at the base, the tip is pointed, resembling the shape of a lancet (for example, some types of willow and buckwheat tea).
The leaf blades are ovate lanceolate or in shape with the greatest width closer to called, apex, respectively, obovate and obovate.
Often, leaves are found that have a heart-shaped shape (for example, various types of lamb and buckwheat Tatar), kidney-shaped (garlic walker), notched, wedge-shaped, arrow-shaped and spear-shaped ( Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Forms of the base of the lamina:
1 - heart-shaped, 2 - notched, 3 - kidney-shaped, 4 - arrow-shaped, 5 - round, 6 - wedge-shaped, 7 - spear-shaped, 8 - retracted
There is a huge variety of leaves in shape and shape of the top, base, tip and edges. Shape. plate apex is drawn, wedge-shaped, pointed, notched, rounded, etc. The end of the apex can be flat, obtuse, trihedral, with curled edges, the cap is tightened, etc. The base of the plate is heart-shaped, rounded, wedge-shaped. The edge of the plate is distinguished by a dentate solid or.
The size of the teeth and their shape can be varied. With a decrease in their size, the jagged edge acquires a roughness of the sheet. The smallest size is considered to be the cloves of 0.5 mm, the coarse-toothed leaves are transitional to or lobed incised leaves. When the denticles are edged towards the sharpened leaf, the leaf is said to be serrated. the cloves, if directed in one direction, then serrate leaves are called. If there are rounded obtuse denticles on the leaf blade and sharp notches between them, these will be crenate leaves.
In segregation from the dependence of the plates, simple leaves and Leaves are distinguished. complex ones with solid edges are called whole-edged, deep cuts with leaves along the edges of the plates are called dissected, non-integral, as well as fractional or incised.
In depth, depending on the dissection, the leaves are incised and incised. lobed - those in which the grooves are less than the width of the plate, separate - when the grooves reach the plate, half dissected - those in which the grooves reach the base plate. The lobes of the dissected leaves are connected at the base rims. Separate and whole, as well as dissected leaves belong to simple ones. The leaves are complex, the plates of which are planted separately on petioles.
According to the dissection of the type of plates, the leaves can be subdivided into dissected-pinnately with lobes or segments and a roll-like one with dissected lobes, segments or lobes. leaves Complex of the listed types are called finger-pinnate or-complex. Composite leaves with three leaves are called trifoliate.
Leaf blades of multiplicity are subdivided into divisions and can be once, thrice, twice, or repeatedly dissected. And if we take into account the type and depth of dissection, then they can be palmate, triple-lobed, as well as dissected-pinnately, finger-complex ( fig. four).
Fig. 4.Splatate Patterns of the forms of cotyledons and leaf blades:
1, 2 - spatulate-rounded, 3 - wide-spatulate, 4, 5, 6 - spatulate, 7, 8 - rhodolglvato-linear, 9 - spatulate-spatulate
There are plants with pinnate-pinnate and complex-dissected leaves, in which, in the intervals between the large lobes, there are small lobules, called intermediate ones. Cirro-separate leaves with a large terminal share are called lyre-shaped. Leaves, like dandelion-like leaves, with triangular lobes, which are called facing back, are ply-shaped, and leaves with a plate, which are dissected, resembling the teeth of a comb, are comb-shaped.
definitions For cereals for vegetative organs, you need to know the position of the leaf blade in the bud or folded.
foliation foliation implies that the buds in the leaves are folded along and arranged so that the main vein lies between the edges of the shoot, and the old one looks compressed. The plates in the kidney are rolled up into a tube, the old plates are rolled around the young ones, and the shoot has a cylindrical shape.In developed leaves, folded foliage can be determined by the wedge-shaped linear shape of the plates, folded - by folding and by the shape of the plates upon drying.
When distinguishing between species, an important feature can be the location, i.e., venation in the leaves of the fibrous vascular bundles. venation The type of leaves depends on the presence of different lateral (veins, main ones) and on the peculiarities of their divergence. The main veins are those from which small veins extend. There can be only one main leaf in it, the vein runs in the middle and is called the middle one. or Secondary lateral veins are called, extending from If. the main main vein is not present or it is poorly expressed, but there are longitudinal veins, bases from extending plates and converging at its apex, then this venation will be called parallel-nervous. If the longitudinal nerves form gentle arcs, then this will be arcuate venation. Cirro-arcuate it will be if there is a developed main vein, from which the arcuate lateral veins branch off.
veins venation is called when there is one or more main veins, from which small ones are separated, and from those, in turn, even smaller ones are formed. There are several other species in the venation of anxiety. For example, pinnate, in which there is only the main vein, and lateral ones are formed from it. When the veins are finger-vented, the veins branch off in a somewhat wide fan from the beginning. lamellae venation - such in which many veins depart from the base of the leaf, bundle - veins when they depart from the base directed forward If.
with a bundle of angular venation, then two directions of the vein variant are possible. The first option is the veins when they reach the edge of the leaf and end first, but here they split in two. The result is an absolutely nerve-filled leaf, a perfectly feathery nerve. Option Two - when the lateral veins running along the edges towards the direction do not reach them and are connected to each other or are lost in bends in numerous branches. Tertiary or quaternary veins emerge to the edges. leaf Such will be called imperfectly nervous with feathery-imperfectly nerve ( fig. five).
Fig. 5. Types of venation leaves:
1 - ribbed, 2 - pinnate, 3 - pinnate, 4 - pinnate, 5 - fingerloop, 6 - arcuate, 7 - parallel
Lateral veins of the second and order of the third, which are directed to the edge of the leaf, are called edge-resistant. If the veins rest against the tops of them, then the teeth will be tooth-resistant. If there are grooves between the veins, these are buckle-resistant veins. which, Veins directed to the edge of the leaf, but do not reach are called, its ridge veins entering the teeth - reaching, and the toothed grooves between them - cove-running. lateral If the veins do not reach the edge of the leaf and preliminarily die out by turning to the top of the leaf blade, they are called arcuate. By the way the veins are closed between each other, it is possible to distinguish an arc-closed one. In venation, the lateral nerves, bending to form, apex gently sloping arcs. If the connecting arcs adjoin each other and form a winding weakly elbowed or vein, then we can talk about the presence of a bypass vein. When the veins are bent and form another vein with a loop, then the nerve can be called or looping pinnacle-loop. A large number of plants have near-edge veins, which run along the edges along the plate and then close a network outside the veins.
Small veins with well-developed nerves are connected by thin bridges, which are called Oni. anastomoses contribute to the preservation of the life of the sheet when ruptured. With a monocotyledonous type of nerve, longitudinal, arcuate and parallel veins are connected to each other with the bridges or run separately from each other.
the friend of the leaves can be identified by looking at them at scattered light. Usually green has different shades.In a large number of plants, the color of the upper side is different from the color of the lower, these are called bicolor plants. In many leaves, the color of the presence depends on the erased plaque.
The gloss of the leaves is determined by the appearance of their surface in reflected light. register Him by bending the plate and illuminating it from the side. leaves Shiny at the same time at the place of the fold give a bright highlight. Among the leaves that possess luster, one can distinguish leaves with varnish, glassy, greasy, silky luster.
Examining the sheet, you can determine its translucency, color, shade, the presence of stripes, spots, strokes, dots, specks.
The surface of the leaves can be bare or covered with outgrowths of various epidermis in the form of hairs, cilia, glands, spines. Hairs are subdivided into unicellular and multicellular, branched and simple. The simple ones are stiff, straight, pointed, and thick-walled bristles. From the branched hairs, they are divided into bundles, two-branched and stellate (their rays are located in the form of a stem).
rosettes - a plant organ on which they are mainly located; in the leaves it has a radial structure and a long apical continuing growth. The buds develop on the stem, and together with the leaves, the stem forms a shoot. On the stem of the areas where the leaves are located, the stem of the thickening has, which are called nodes, the intervals between them are called internodes. The place between the leaf and the stem is called the leaf axillary. In the sinus, the lateral buds are located, which then grow at the apex. There is an apical bud on the branch of the stem; it consists of a stem and leaf buds. In a place covered with young leaves, the stem grows.
In many cereals, intercalary growth is observed, while the growing zones are separated from each other by areas that have stopped growing. In some plants, the growth of the shoot is very internode in length, almost does not develop weakly, the leaves are located in a rosette or bundle. Such plants with short shoots are often called stemless. In addition to the apical ones, there are still adventitious buds, they arise throughout, on the stem of internodes, on the roots and on the leaves.
Stems of consistency are subdivided into woody and herbaceous. There are also solid stems (those that are completely filled with tissue). Plants Stems belonging to the umbrella are called stems, tubular cereals with hollow internodes are called Stems.
straws can be dry, juicy, tough, hard, flexible, resilient, brittle. The thickness of weed stems of grasses can vary within 0.3–3 cm, the height can reach 3.5 m, sometimes there are plants that can exceed the listed sizes.
In the direction of the horizontal relative to the surface, stems are distinguished ascending, creeping, erect with adventitious roots, creeping, prostrate, rice ( recumbent. 6). Stems according to changes in the direction of growth are geniculate, curved, twisting, straight, curly, climbing, clinging, resting on leaves or adventitious stems.
Roots. 6. Aerial stems:
a - erect, b - ascending, c - curly, d - climbing, d - creeping
The differences between the listed categories are as follows: an erect stem grows ascending, first grows up horizontally, and then gradually moves to vertical growth. The recumbent stem grows horizontally in the direction, because it is not able to stay upright, the prostrate stem spreads out on the ground, and the creeping stem can change the direction of growth and take root in the nodes. geniculate and curved stems are characterized by varying degrees of highly.
the shape of the stems in the longitudinal direction is also different. There are stems that have a uniform shape and thickness throughout their entire length, namely ribbed, polyhedral, tetrahedral, triangular, there are also thickened stems to the base or at the nodes.
The cross-sectional shape of the stems is also very diverse.cuts Transverse stems help to distinguish round such (stems stems are found in chamomile, large quantities of cereals, doze). Rounded stems are found in flattened, garlic - in bluegrass, there are also triangular, multifaceted, tetrahedral, faceted, grooved-faceted, winged-stems faceted and much more complex When. forms a cross-section of the stem, you can see the air cavity, then the elements of the conductive and mechanical tissues. A cavity is called perfect when, in the case of hollow stems, their central cavity is transverse on a cut with completely smooth edges, a straw in, for example, cereals. If the central cavity is uneven bounded by a line, then it is called imperfect.
also Stems are subdivided according to the nature of their surface, color, shine, pubescence, bloom. All these elements are evenly distributed over the entire surface of the stem or spread only on one side - in the upper lower or part of it. Sometimes they can be grouped into separate areas. For example, in a tenacious woodruff, the nodes of the stem are colored reddish internodes, and the color is green. The stem can change in its structure, adapting to any function. The most common metamorphoses of shoots include tubers, rhizomes, bulbs, as well as hooks, thorns and tendrils.
are Rhizomes are underground stems, which are small covered with membranous leaves. The color of the rhizomes is usually pale, yellowish or brown. On the rhizomes, adventitious roots develop, as well as lateral and apical majority. The buds of perennial plants have rhizomes. they lie at different depths, sometimes they can be on the surface itself, and sometimes they lie at a depth of up to 80 cm. rhizomes The location of different plants is different. They can be located vertically, ascend arcuate, stretch independently. horizontally from the location of rhizomes in the soil, they can be long-creeping (these include bison and wheatgrass) or short-creeping, for example, Chernobyl-wormwood, as well as shortened and rather thick. There are plants that have simple rhizomes or If. non-branching in the plant there are densely branching shoots extending from the roots from them, then turf is formed. In bushes that are loose from plants, for example, in bluegrass and foxtail, the shoots of meadow grass are slightly spaced at the base and dense bush ascend. In arcuate forms, the daughter shoots are pressed to the directed and maternal upward. Dense tussocks rise over the course of several years on the remains of dying shoots and form hummocks. From loose shrub plants, there is a transition to creeping root plants. The creeping-underground species are close to the creeping-rhizome and loose-bush forms. Among them there are short stems with a form-creeping, only with their strengthening base. Then there are forms with which, the shoots lie and take root almost throughout the plant, and the length with whiskers or lashes (these are those that, the shoots take root and give daughter individuals at their ends).
Rhizomes can form tubers if, when filling with nutrients, they thicken at the same time. Leaves on underground tubers are transformed into which, small ones are barely noticeable.
Bulbs are also metamorphosed underground shoots, they are related to each. tubers, the bulb is a shoot, the axis of which has become short and wide, the leaves are thick and fleshy, filled with nutrients ( fig. 7). On the sinuses in the cuts of the scales, bulbous buds are visible. Sometimes aerial bulbs develop.
Fig. 7. Underground rhizome:
a - shoots, b - rhizome with bead-shaped tubers, c - bulb
aerial shoots are also subject to metamorphoses. The peculiar ones undergo changes in the shoots of climbing plants, then the tendrils, which are used to cover the stands, as well as neighboring plants, turn into attachments. antennae Threadlike, clinging to everything and wrapping around strangers support, objects weak stems.In some plants, shoots can be metamorphosed into defenses, in other words, thorns in words. The stem origin of the spines and antennae can be recognized by their axillary position on the plant. In many herbaceous species, the stems function as leaves, which break down or fall off early. Because of this, the stems are green and rich in chlorophyll-bearing tissue.
On the petiole, you can easily distinguish between the upper and lower sides, between the border of the sides is clearly separated by the sides, they are an extension of the wings of the plate. the sides can be placed on the width of the petiole, on the contrary, or, brought together. On the cross section of the petiole, they appear in the form of sharp or obtuse sometimes, and the corners are sharp or rounded ridges. sides on When the petiole is a border, which is a continuation of the leaf blade, then such a petiole is called imperfect, or winged. It represents which, the petiole has no rim. The upper edge between the sides is concave, flat, or it, depressed, can be a kind of narrow groove. Distinguish petioles lamellar, rounded-dorsiventrally and valkovate-valkovate. The width of the lamellar petioles is twice the thickness; in the dorsiventral-valcate, the width is 1.5–2 times thick, the sides are very good. pronounced such petioles distinguish between triangular, semi-cylindrical and tetrahedral. The rounded-valkovate petioles are cylindrical in shape, while they are often flattened, their sides are close together.
Petioles still differ in color, consistency, pubescence, shine. There are dense petioles, hollow and filled with airy tissue, petioles then one-color and two-color, as well as pubescent and some.
In naked plants, the petiole is absent, and the plate is directly attached to the stem, such leaves are called If. sessile leaf slightly covers the stem with its base, then it is called a stem-enclosing one. If the base of a sessile leaf completely surrounds the stem, then the leaf is called pierced. A downward leaf is called at the bases of the transition of the plate to the internode of the stem, and the stem is called winged at the same time (for example, comfrey, curly thistle and bear's ear).
In many species of sedges, umbellates, and also in cereals, the lower part is expanded with the petiole, it is a covering groove, stem or tube. This part of the sheet is called the vagina. In places of its attachment sheet has the form of a cover, which covers the internode and unfolds into a plate not far from the next vagina. node protects the kidneys and the base of internodes.
recognition With cereals, the structure of the features of the vaginas ( fig. eight). Well developed vaginas can be open and closed. Closed ones are a solid one-piece tube (fire), and have open free edges (reed). They will be closed when the free open edges of the vaginas converge closely or one cover the other. Unclosed - if there are gaps between the edges.
Fig. 8. The shape of the vaginas:
a - dissected open, b - open wrapped, c - closed, d - swollen
In the transition from the vagina to the plate in plants, a small outgrowth is formed - a tongue. This appendage serves to protect the vaginal tube from the penetration of water and parasites into it. The edge of the tongue does not always have a solid shape, it is often serrated, ciliated or fringed.
There are double tongues, split, and (rarely very) in the form of hairs replaced by a corolla.
At the base leaf of many plants there are stipules (paired formations that look like scales, leaves, films, bristles).
In plants from the family, buckwheat stipules grow together into tubes - sockets that cover the stem just above the base of its rice ( leaves. nine). The bell can persist throughout its entire life, or it can collapse, becoming almost Fig.
Imperceptible. 9. Shape of sockets:
a - solid, b - dissected
Leaves are capable of various metamorphoses.The leafy breed of organs that are distant and original from the type of organs is proved by the patterns of their stems on the location, as well as the relationship between them and thorns. protect plants from herbivores by buds. A leaf or it can turn into a thorn (thistle and thistle are part of it). Parts of the leaves of climbing plants with a weak stem can turn into antennae. Metamorphoses of leaves are also parts of all flowers.
The flower is the plant's reproductive organ. It is attached to the stem with a pedicel, which can be long or short, as well as uniform or articulated. If the flowers of the pedicel have them, then they are absent are called sessile. There are bracts at the base of the pedicel; they can be leafy membranous or on the pedicel. At the base of the sedentary flower, the bracts are located, they can be pubescent, glabrous or, with or without appendages. the base in the Bracts of the calyx is called the subacute.
A truncated receptacle is called a part of the pedicel; parts of the entire flower are attached to it. The receptacle is a part of a shortened stem, at the nodes of which all parts of the flower are located. The receptacle can be convex, concave, flat and elongated. Three types of symmetry are characteristic of flowers. A flower can be actinomorphic, that is, regular, if its vertical plane can be divided into two equal parts in all directions, zygomorphic, that is, irregular, if it is divided by a vertical plane into two parts in one direction only. There are also asymmetrical (asymmetrical) flowers, which cannot be divided into equal parts by a vertical plane passing through the axis. The calyx is an integral part of the cover, which is formed by sepals - green, glabrous or pubescent. consisting, a Cup of non-fused sepals, is called separate sepals, while sepals, if fused, they are called fused sepals. In such cups, teeth, a tube and a pharynx are distinguished. calyx If painted in a bright color, then it is called time. In corolla-shaped fruiting, the calyx usually disappears, but what happens, it remains with fruits and is called remaining, or non-falling.
Racemose inflorescences are subdivided into simple and simple. In complex inflorescences, flowers can be located on axes on only the first and second orders, and in complex inflorescences, on high axes of orders. Simple inflorescences include a shield, an umbrella, an ear, a basket and a head. represents the Brush is a monopodial inflorescence, in which on the long axis there are flowers with pedicels of the same inflorescence. At the length of the spike, flowers on the axis of the first are of the order without pedicels. At the scutellum, the flowers are located in a horizontal plane. In the umbellate inflorescence, the main axis does not develop, the flowers are located on the pedicels and are horizontal in the plane. At the bases of the umbrella there are small leaves that form the umbrella wrapper. At the head of the inflorescence, sessile flowers are attached to the axis on all sides. The inflorescence-basket has a convex one, on the receptacle there are sessile flowers. The base is surrounded by inflorescences with bracts.
Complex racemic inflorescences include a complex spike, a panicle and a complex umbrella. The panicle inflorescence has the form of which, in the brush, on the first-order axis there are the second and third-order axes, etc. The difference between the complex simple and the spike is that on the first-order axis there are not flowers, but simple ears. The Complicated umbrella differs from the Simple one in that the second order axes are not carried by flowers, but by small bases. Umbrellas of umbrellas have bracts forming rice ( wrapper. 10).
Fig. 10. Types of weed inflorescences brush:
1 - plants, 2 - shield, 3 - ear, 4 - umbrella, 5 - head, 6 - representatives
In the basket of the euphorbia family, the inflorescence is. He cyanthium is a bisexual flower with a perianth.In the center of the inflorescence there is a flower consisting of a pistil with a lobed ovary, a tripartite column and two-lobed stigmas, which are located on a long stem. Pistillate staminate flowers surround the flower. Around the pistillate and staminate flowers, there is a common vellum of the bracts that have grown together between themselves.
After pollination and fertilization, a pericarp is formed. The pericarp has a complex extracarp. the structure, or exocarpium, is called the outer fruit cover, the intercarp, or mesocarp, - the middle part of the fruit, and the inner part - the intracarp, or consistency.
According to the endocarp of the pericarp, the fruits are divided into dry - with a dry pericarp and juicy - with a juicy or partially juicy pericarp. By the number of seeds, the fruits are single-seeded and multi-seeded.
Very important features of the fruit are their shape, shape (length and width), surface, pubescence, weight, size, shine, color, shape. the transparency of seeds and fruits is determined by three thicknesses: factors, length and width. The shape of the fruits and can be seeds is as follows: pear-shaped or such (cyclahena fossil-leaved, obovate), sverbyga (blue cornflower, tripartite ragweed, cobweb burdock), oval (wild radish, rape sow thistle, common field, rounded plantain rough) or (thousand-headed sowing, field cabbage, field mustard), kidney (common cockle, swing heart-shaped), wall (plowed clover, highlander), highlander (bird triangular, horse sorrel), ovoid (spotted omega, weed hemp).
The surface of seeds and fruits may be lumpy, furrowed, smooth, rough, ribbed. The pubescence is dense and sparse, and continuous is also local. In terms of size, the seeds and fruits of weed plants are conventionally classified into five groups: very small (1 mm long), small (1–2 mm long), medium (large 2–4 mm), long (4–10 mm long) and very large (color length 10 mm).
Fig. 11. The main types of pubescence:
Fig. 12.Root Types of Weed Systems:
a - pivotal, b - rhizome, c - fibrous, d - root sprout
The fibrous system of the main one does not have a root or it is very poorly developed, and the main mass is formed by the adventitious roots - the lobes. pivotal Modifications of the root are conical, fusiform, thickened with tuberous lateral roots. At seedlings, cotyledons, as a rule, appear on a thin stalk - a hypocotyl. In its lower part, it passes into the spine. The border is called the junction of the root collar. In shoots of root-suckers, after perennials of the formation of the first leaves, lateral shoots appear on the root neck, which give dicotyledons.
In plant neoplasms, the main root is preserved during the period of development. Monocots have well-developed secondary roots that emerge from underground stem Rhizomes. nodes of cereal weeds reproduce vegetatively due to the method of new shoots that have formed on the stems of the underground.
In nature, there are many weeds, which, in terms of biological and morphological similarity with cultivated plants, can be considered as formed life Similarities. forms with cultivated plants promotes large weed distribution in crops of spring and winter crops. Weed grasses are undemanding to environmental conditions, they are frost-resistant, drought-resistant.
Weed plants are very fertile. For example, the number of seeds of a shepherd's purse can reach 70 thousand. There are also a number of weeds whose seeds reach 500. Thousands of comparison: grain breads on average give about 100 grains per plant. weed grass seeds may not lose their germination for a long time. For example, the seeds of shepherd's lice, bursa and many other herbs do not lose their germination rate for 10 years. Complicating the fight against weeds is the fact that their seeds sprout together.
For a long time in the development of agriculture, there was a selection of groups of biological weeds, which are characteristic of certain crops of groups of cultivated plants. There is a weed group, which is characteristic of crops of spring row crops and grain crops, as well as a group characteristic of perennial crops of grasses.
Annual types of weeds are confined to the crops of spring crops, the development cycle of which coincides with the cycle of development of spring crops: field cabbage, field mustard, common pickle, prominent pickle, wild radish, sowing torus.
Of the perennial plants in such crops, the horsetail, bristly field, and field sowthrow are widespread. Sowings of tilled crops are also littered with medium starlet, medicinal smoke, white gauze.
In some crops, winter annual weeds are widespread, which can develop according to the spring and winter types, for example, a field violet, a shepherd's purse, a field yarrow, a broom, and a common three-ribbed. Perennials include weeds such as wheatgrass and giant bent grass. Weeds of crops of perennial grasses are common rape, medicinal dandelion, sorrel plantain, and great passerine.
Weeds are plentiful and very varied, so classify them fairly if.
it is difficult to take into account the biological characteristics among, then the weeds of them can be divided into two large groups: weeds are random, optional (or weeds) and optional real, mandatory (or obligatory).
random Weeds are a group of plants cultivated on introduced land only when conditions are favorable for their growth and development. This includes species of wild flora that accidentally fall into fields and gardens and grow here along with this cultural one. The group of plants also includes species that retain the ability to exist in nature.
Some of this plants of the group of facultative weeds are forest, meadow, marsh grasses, which are cultivated on the land in single copies, they do not do much harm. Other plants of this are a group of permanent inhabitants of cultivated land and pose a very serious threat to cultivated cultivated plants. Representatives of these weeds are creeping wheatgrass and field horsetail ( fig. 13). These two species grow well under any very conditions and grow densely in gardens and fields. all For the above categories of plants, their growth on cultivated lands is not at all necessary for preservation, destruction, their appearance in the fields does not lead to the extinction of the species in Fig.
Nature. 13. Field horsetail
By the timing of ripening, they can be classified into late and early. The early ones include intoxicating chaff, bindweed buckwheat, wild radish, field mustard, chaffinch pickulnik, ragweed ( fig. fourteen), wild oats.
Ambrosia. 14. Wormwood rice
Fig. 15.Common Chicory
Tuberous and bulbous weeds
Stem parasitic weeds
Root parasitic rooted
Weed semi-parasitic plants
The arrangement of the leaves is opposite, their length is 14–20 mm, and their width is 8 mm. Leaves are oblong-elliptical, petioles are located, which are covered with whitish stellate hypocotyl. hairy reddish blue, glabrous ( fig. 17).
Axiris. 17. Shiritsa rice
Axiris has a pivotal root. Stem erect and branched, reaches a height of 30-120 cm, mainly covered with leaves in the upper part. The arrangement of the next leaves, they are star-pubescent, ovate and whole-edged, on Male. petioles flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences, and women are located in the axils of the upper leaves.
The fruit is oval in shape, nutlet with pterygoid appendages, red, dark or speckled, 3 mm long, 2.2 mm wide, and weight 1.2 mm.1000 nuts thick - 1, 2–1, 8 g.
The minimum temperature for the necessary germination of nuts is +5 ° C, and the optimum seedling temperature is +20 ° C.
appears between March and May; the plant blooms in June-September.
The ripening period in July is from nuts to October, freshly ripened nuts have a low germination rate.
Axiris grows in the fields, on the roadsides as well, and the roads near the fences. Places of distribution - Far Siberia, East, Central Asia.
The thistle of the field family belongs to the Asteraceae (Compositae) and is the root-sucking Cotyledon.
perennial thistle with a length of 8-12 mm, a width of 3-6 mm, obovate first. the leaves reach 20 mm in length and up to 12 mm in width; ovoid leaves are shaped, bristly-toothed on the sides. the leaves are covered with very sparse top and cobweb hairs below. Epicotyl not developed.
The roots of the plant grow vertically and horizontally, vegetative ones are located on them, the buds give new shoots and can germinate depths of 60-170 cm.In the second and third years, the roots of life can reach 4, 8 and 7, 2 m.
The stem is straight, purple-brownish in color, its height is 40-160 cm, the leaves are arranged in a regular manner. The flowers are pinkish, the basket is an inflorescence ( fig. eighteen).
Fig. 18. Field Thistle
Fig. 19. Hogweed Root
Siberian plants are branched and thickened. The stem is branched, harsh-haired, reaches a height of 90-200 cm. The leaves, in the lower growing parts of the stem, are palmate, and the upper ones are fruit. pinnate - flat, broadly ovate, light yellow at the edges, along an achene with a border, up to 10 mm long, up to 6 mm wide, and 0.5 mm thick.
achenes from Seedlings and shoots from buds appear in March-Blossoms. May from the second year of life, in June it bears fruit, and in September from July to October.
From one plant, you can get 8000 achenes, which do not germinate in freshly ripened form. Seeds germinate only in the spring of the next year, from a depth of no more than 10 cm. The plant is poisonous.
mainly in hogweed found in gardens, vegetable gardens, in the fields, in Better. forests of all grows on heavy loamy moist Distributed.
soils mainly in the middle and southern regions of part of European Russia, the Caucasus, Western Siberia and Central Asia.
Blue cornflower is an annual of the Aster family (Compositae).
Cornflower cotyledons 10–16 mm long, obovate 8 mm, wide in shape. The first leaves of the plant reach a length of 40 mm and a width of 12 mm, their shape is narrowly ovoid. Petioles and leaves are covered with hairs. Hypocotyl of pale green Epicotyl. colors are not developed ( fig. twenty).
Fig. 20. Cornflower Stalk
blue straight, branched, slightly pubescent, it can reach a height of 100 cm. Leaves are arranged on petioles, alternately. The middle and upper leaves are sessile, Inflorescence. whole - basket, flowers are blue or blue, inner flowers are tubular, purple-blue or white. The fruit of a cornflower - with a hemicarp, brown or gray, up to 4.5 mm wide, up to 2.3 mm long. The root of the plant is taproot.
The minimum temperature for seed germination is +5 ° C. Seedlings appear in the time period from March to May or from August to Blossoms. September at the end of May - September. The fertility of a single plant can reach 6700 hemicarps, which can germinate from a depth of no more than 7 cm. The seeds retain their viability in the soil for up to three years. unripe and freshly ripe achenes can also sprout. 1000 The mass of achenes is 4 g.
Blue cornflower is found in meadows and fields, near roads. Distribution - throughout the entire part of European Russia, the Caucasus, the Far East, Central and Siberia Asia, with the exception of the Far North.
ivy-leaved Veronica belongs to the Norichnik family and belongs to the Leaves.
annual weeds are located oppositely, their length is 12 mm, shape is 10 mm, width is broadly ovate, toothed at the edges, pubescent. light hypocotyl green, pubescent dorsally. ovoid Cotyledon-shaped, on petioles that are covered with rice ( hairs. 21).
Fig. 21. Veronica ivy
meadows on Occurs, fields, parks, roadsides, among Prefers. shrubs, moist soils and shaded areas. middle - in Distribution and southern regions of the European part of Galinsog.
Russia is a representative of the Aster family (belongs) and Compositae to spring annuals.
The stem of the plant is branched, straight and pubescent, reaches a height of 70 cm. Root Hypocotyl. the rod is slightly thickened. Epicotylus of greenish Cotyledon. elliptical colors, 8 mm long and 5 mm wide ( Fig. 22).
Fig. 22. Small-colored Galinsoga
Fig. 23. Hibiscus trifoliate
The Caucasus. 24. Medicinal sweet clover
The required temperature for germination of seeds is + 4 ° C, the maximum is +36 ° C. Seedlings appear in spring, early and late summer. The plant blooms for a year of its second life, in the middle and at the end of summer. Fruiting begins in mid-summer and continues until early Seeds. autumn sprout from a depth of 5 cm and remain viable for 20 years.
Occurs in pastures and fields, along roadsides. Distribution. roads - throughout the country, with the exception of the Far Sandman.
East white belongs to the carnation family and is a biennial. The first two leaves up to 16 mm long, ovoid 10 mm, shape wide, covered with hairs. The oblong cotyledons are 8 mm long and 2.5 mm wide. The hypocotyl is green-light in color. Epicotyl is not high, leaf arrangement develops.
later opposite, elliptical leaves, sessile - upper, lower - on petioles. Taproot ( Fig. 25).
Fig. 25. White sandman
The stem is branched, from above, straight, slightly sticky, reaches 80 cm in height. Plants Flowers are collected in an apical semi-umbrella, petals. Fruit.
white - polyspermous capsule ovoid. Seeds have an oval shape, gray in color. their width is 1.8 mm, and their length is 1.3 mm.
It blooms from late spring to the end of the first, in May or in the second year of life. Seedlings appear in early spring and late summer. Begins from fruiting summer to early fall. Seeds are capable of growing from a depth of 2 cm. It is found mainly in pastures and also, in meadows in fields, vegetable gardens and orchards, on roadsides. Distribution. roads - all over the country, with the exception of Extreme Yezhovnik.
North ordinary - from the family of bluegrass (cereals), spring refers to annuals.
The stalk is straight or tall, up to 100 cm in wobbly. The root is fibrous. broad-linear Leaves. Inflorescence - panicle ( fig. 26).
Fig. 26.Bull Herb
Fig. 27. Chios
pubescent Stem, prostrate-ascending, reaches a height of 30 cm. Taproot. The foliage is alternate, the leaves are contiguous, the lower leaves are linear, the rest are tripartite. The flowers of the axils are located in the leaves, the corolla is yellow, with purple veins.
The fruit is an oval nut, wrinkled-folded, brown or brown in color. fruit length 3.5 mm, width 1.75 mm.
Shoots from buds and shoots from seeds appear in early spring. Blooms from May to Low. August, freshly ripe nuts have germination, they germinate in the soil from a depth of no more than 9 cm.
Occurs in the fields for tenacity, in gardens, orchards. As a rule, it prefers loose chernozem soils.
Places of distribution of the south-western and southern regions of the European part of Russia.
Mountain ginseed - from the family of lamines (belongs), labiates to wintering annuals.
The stem of the plant is branched, straight, reaches a height of 40 cm. The leaf arrangement is opposite, oblong, the leaves are shaped, the lower ones are on short petioles, and the sessile ones are the upper ones. Taproot ( fig. 28).
Fig. 28. Mountain Zheleznitsa
Fig. 29. Moldavian snakehead
The snakehead grows in gardens, crops, vegetable gardens, and especially abundantly on stony ones. Distributed. slopes in the middle regions of the European Far, in the Russian East, in Siberia, Central Asia.
tuberous Zopnik - from the family of lamellar (labiate), belongs to tuberous perennial plants ( fig. thirty).
Fig. 30. Zopnik Cotyledons
tuberous are located on long, pubescent petioles, have an elliptical shape, 5-10 mm long, 4-8 mm wide. The first leaves are 12–18 mm long, dentate at the edges, round-ovate, long, petioled. The hypocotyl is longitudinally grooved. Epicotyl is not developed.
The root of the plant is long, at its ends there are tuberous thickenings. The stem is straight, branched at the top. The leaves extending from the root are triangular-shaped, cordate, on long petioles, the leaves extending from are located, the stems are on short petioles, cordate.
flowers are collected in dense whorls, lilac petals. Fruit. colors - dark brown triangular nutlet, slightly bent, longitudinally wrinkled.
Seedlings and shoots from buds appear in the spring. Flowering begins from the second life of the year at the end of May to July. Begins to bear fruit from July to August.
Zopnik grows on wastelands, pastures, fields, on slopes. Distributed in the southern and middle European regions of Russia, in Central Asia, Ikotnik.
Siberia, gray is a representative of the cruciferous (cabbage) family and belongs to optional biennials ( fig. 31).
Ikotnik. 31. Rice gray
Fig. 32. Cable car Cotyledon
Russia. 33. Field breeder
Fig. 34. Cinquefoil goose
Fig. 35. Field mint
Fig. 36. Nonea brown-dark
Fig. 37. Full color Cotyledon
field - on short petioles, ovoid, 5 mm wide, 2 mm long. The arrangement of the leaves of the seedlings is opposite, with a pointed tip with leaves, on short petioles. Elliptical leaf shape. Below on the leaves there are brown spots.
The stem is open, ascending, up to 25 cm high. Taproot extending in different directions. Leaves are ovoid, sessile, whole-edged. Flowers - on a long corolla, red legs. The fruit is a polyspermous spherical, box-shaped. Seeds are angular, multifaceted, with a lumpy brown surface.
In early April - seedlings appear in May, blooms from early June to fruiting. August from July to early autumn. Seeds in the form of freshly ripe do not germinate. The maximum fertility reaches 4000 seeds.
In the spring of next year, new seedlings are formed, which germinate from a depth of no more than 5 cm.
vegetable gardens in Grows, orchards, in fields, near forest belts and on roadsides In places.
distribution roads are the southern and middle European regions of Russia, Central Asia and Pikulnik.
The beautiful Caucasus belongs to the family of lamines (belongs) and labiates to spring annuals ( fig. 38).
Fig. 38.Beautiful Pikulnik
Russia. 39. Russian broom
Fig. 40. Asparagus Stem
Fig. 41. Thousand Heads Spanish
Fig. 42. Field violet
Fig. 43. Horispor First
Fig. 44. Cenchrus little-flowered
Area. 45. Greater celandine
3 points - growing, weeds in crops in large quantities, but not exceeding the cultivated number of plants
4 points - weeds, quantitatively over the prevailing cultivated plants.
The quantitative-weight method shows the more accurate result. In this diagonal, in the case of a field, every 50-100 m frames are imposed with a size of 1 m2. Then they are removed from these sites, the plants are counted the number of weeds and they are determined at. the weight of this is desirable to know the species composition of the weed. The counting and weighing of perennial and annual plants is carried out separately. In the group of perennial plants, rhizome and root-sprouting weeds are selected separately, which are considered to be the most malignant and difficult-to-remove field weeds. eradicating them For usually special measures are used on the basis.
On the counter of the obtained data, a map of the degree of contamination of the fields is drawn. On it, annual plants are marked with yellow or dotted rhizomes with paint, perennial weeds are shaded in green with horizontal or shading, root-suckers are in red with vertical or shading. In some parts of the plan, the prevailing groups of herbaceous weeds are conventionally marked with symbols and their average number is indicated, which is in addition to 1 m3.accounts for this, the number of other weeds found here is indicated.
Timely and high-quality harvesting is of great importance in preventing weed land.
Weed control quarantine measures also play a significant role. Weeds, which are usually included in the quarantine group, are often spread along with the seeds of the cultivated.
Plants, the source of the spread of quarantine weeds among cultural plants are sections of non-agricultural roads, use, irrigation and drainage systems, winds, dusty storms, etc.
The group of weeds of internal quarantine, approved according to the list, includes the following: ragweed, ragweed, tripartite ragweed, perennial ragweed, all species of dodders, three-flowered nightshade ( fig. 46) cenchrus Fig.
Anchovy. 46. Three-flowered nightshade
List of pests, diseases of plant pathogens, weeds of quarantine importance for the Russian Federation
Rice bacterial burn - oryzae Xantomonas
Pale potato nematode - Dlobodera Buzinnik
pallida axillary - Iva axillaris
Brown potato rot - Ralstonia solan acearum (Smith)
potato T Virus - Potato T trichovirus
Eastern moth - molesta Grapholitha
Potato smut - Thecaphora solani
creeping Gorchak - Acroptilon repens
Diplodiasis of corn - macrospora Stenocarpella (Earle)
Egyptian cotton scoop - littoralis Spodoptera
Western (California) flower thrips - occidentalis Frankliniella Perg.
Golden potato nematode - rostochiensis Globodera
Golden yellowing of grapes - Indian Grapevine
flavescence wheat smut - Tilletia indica
Indian bean weevil - Callosobruchus phaseoli
Morning glory Ipomoea - ivy hederaceae
Ipomoea pitted - Ipomoea California L.
lacunoza scale insect - Quadraspidiotus perniciosus
Khapra Trogoderma - granarium beetle
Potato moth - Phthorimaea Potato
operculella tuberous flea beetle - Epitrix Gentner tuberis
Potato Flea Beetle - Epitrix Harris cucumeris
Diabrotica corn beetle - Diabrotica Conte Le virgifera
Peach mosaic latent viroid
Gypsy moth (Asian Lymantria) - race dispar
Fruit tree burn - amylovora Erwinia
Smallpox (sharka) plum - Plum potyvirus pox
Palm thrips - Thrips palmi Nightshade
Karny Caroline - Solanum carolinense
Nightshade Solanum - spiny rostratum
Linear Nightshade - Solanum Nightshade
elaeagnifolium three-flowered Peach moth - Solanum Carposina triflorum niponensis
Fruit weevil - Conotrachelus Dodders
nenuphar - Cuscuta sp.
Californian sunflower - Helianthus Sunflower
californicus ciliate - Helianthus ciliaris
Yellowing Potato - potato yellowing alfamovirus
Potato cancer - endobioticum Synchytrium
Cancer of pine trunks and branches - pinicola Atropellis Zeller
Rasp Cherry leaf nepovirus
Rosette mosaic Peach - peach rosette mosaic nepovirus
Pine nematode stem - Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Mediterranean fruit Ceratitis - fly capitata
Strigi - Striga
Tobacco Bemisia - whitefly tabaci Gen.
Texas root Phymatotrichopsis - rot omnivora
Tomato leaf miner - sative Liriomyza Blanch
Mulberry scale - Pseudaulacaspis Targ (pentagona / Toz)
Drying oak - Ceratocystis Bretz (fagacearum.) Hunt.
Phyloxera - Viteus vitifolli
roots Late blight of raspberries and strawberries - Phytophthora fragariae Phomopsis
Hickman sunflower - Diaporthe helianthi
Cenchrus Cenchrus - small-flowered payciflorus
Hairy succession - Bidens four-spotted
pilosa weevil - Callosobruchus maculatus
South American leaf miner - Liriomyza huidobresis Blanch.
Southern corn helminthosporiosis - Cochliobolus heterostrophus
Apple fly - pomonella Rhagoletis
Japanese beetle - Popillia japonica
detection In case of mass spread of any of the weeds of the above near agricultural land, a quarantine site is imposed on the weedy area and mechanical and chemical extermination is used by means of this weed. In order to prevent the appearance of foci of quarantine weeds, the following measures must be taken:
Fig. 47. goiter cocklebur
2. Mechanical destruction.
Weed plants are pruned or leveled by hand and tilled with tools. The method is used for all extermination of biological groups of plants in the system of pre-sowing, main and post-sowing treatment. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of plants. For example, perennial pruning of plants after intensive biosynthesis of nutrients and their localization in the deep layers of the roots even leads to greater soil contamination.
Regularly pruned vegetative organs of plants, as a result of which the consumption of nutrients of weeds for new development of sprouts increases, which contributes to their further method. extinction is widely used in areas with perennial root-sprouting weeds and biennial weeds in the system of autumnal soil cultivation.
Weed roots are crushed by tillage with tools, followed by deep plowing of the soil into sections. This method is mainly used on rhizomatous fields with weediness in the fall cultivation system. Drying.
Weed rhizomes are exposed and crushed to sunlight in dry, hot weather. Drying lasts 15–30 days in dry weather until the weather completely loses its vitality. method This is widely used in the southern (arid) European regions of Russia.
When plowing deep, the roots of perennial weeds are extracted onto the soil surface so that they die at low temperatures. The method is used in areas with little snow and frosty winters.
The method is widely used for the extermination of weeds of all seeds and their types.
Biological methods include:
1. Introduction to crops of crop rotation capable of suppressing certain types of use.
2. Weed insects that feed on weeds (This one). phytophagous method is especially effective in the fight against malicious and difficult to eradicate pests such as wormwood ragweed, creeping bitterweed, field sow thistle, bindweed, field broomrape, etc. ( fig. 48).
Fig. 48. Infectious Disease Application
Hulling as a measure of weed control becomes most effective in the direction from north to south, since in the south the harvesting of crops takes place than before in the north, and the warm autumn contributes to the development of improved weeds, especially root-suckers, which are widespread here.
Cultivation, as it relates to, peeling is a method of surface tillage and the purpose is to mix the soil and trim weeds. it is produced mainly by tine cultivators ( fig. 49). cultivators Paws are of various designs. Undercutters have triangular paws or the shape of a knife located horizontally at a slight angle to the cultivator frame. The first ones are convenient to cut weeds and loosen the soil at a depth of 10–12 cm, the second ones are better to work at a shallow soil depth. The loosening tines are trimmed and the weeds are attached vertically to the tiller's tine. The combined use of pruning and loosening tines ensures thorough weed pruning and deep loosening. There are also tine spring cultivators designed for combing out Fig.
Rhizomes. 49. Paw cultivator
After the regrowth of perennial weeds and plants of sprouts of annual weeds, the soil is re-treated with flat-cut cultivators ( fig. fifty). Each subsequent treatment should be carried out to a depth of 1–1.5 cm greater than the previous one. Thus, perennials are then depleted, and the weeds die. Such treatments need to be repeated 3-4 times over the summer, and at the end of summer the soil should be cultivated with rippers to a depth of 25-27 cm. It is very effective in fields littered with perennial weed grasses. In areas clogged with wheatgrass, it is recommended to use heavy cultivators instead of flat cutters.
Fig. 50. Plowing
The effectiveness of the fight against weeds in herbiphages, first of all, lies in the fact that they prefer certain plants, therefore, the possibility of their spreading to cultivated plants is excluded. Plants use several groups at once, for example, Hymenoptera herbiphages, the larvae of which damage the stems and seeds from the inside, and leaf beetles, since these groups of insects are not direct competitors to each other and enhance the destructive effect on this. The plant protection method allows the use of completely abandoning herbicides in the fight against many thistle thistles, field species of thistle, cornflowers, crucifers, buttercups, milkweed, bindweed, shepherd's purse, horsetail, creeping wheatgrass, spearfishes, some types of chaff, wormwood ragweed, i.e.against most of those weeds for which herbicides are usually applied. use When herbifag is spent on funds much less than in the manufacture of herbicides. The work on herbifig use is mainly aimed at studying the species fauna (composition) and ecology (first of all, the different specificity of food species), as well as breeding, as a result of which it was possible to increase the resistance of some crops to the present.
In the time of herbicides, an effective method was developed with ragweed to combat wormwood, which is not only a field weed, but also a strong allergen. The agrotechnical and chemical methods used for this suppression of plants are sometimes not effective enough, and often they are unsafe for the environment due to their toxicity. It is recommended to use the drug bialaphos against ragweed, which is an actinomycetate producer of Streptomyces hygrospopicus. This drug does not accumulate in the soil and is rapidly decomposed by its microflora. In the bialaphos phase, 6–8 leaves are used in weeds at doses of 0.25–0.5 kg / ha, with the death of this weed being 55–78%. An increase in dosage up to 1–2, 5 kg / ha leads to the complete extermination of the weed, and the regrowth of the repeated weed does not occur until the very end of the growing season.
The ragweed beetle is highly effective in the fight against ragweed using the biological method, specially imported for this purpose from the USA in 1985 and acclimatized in the vicinity of Krasnodar. With the amount of ragweed leaf beetle 400 beetles / m2, complete destruction of the weed is achieved. This technique is most effective in the spring time, when the ragweed sprouts in the wormwood phase are 4–8 leaves.
Fig. 51. Sow thistle yellow
Mulching as a way to protect biological crops from pests
Scatter Better 7-8 cm layer, if the leaves are crushed, decomposed and applied until kept in the air for several months.
Compost in a layer of 2 to 3 cm around the plants and along the shredded.
rows of grass
Scatter 2.5-10 cm thick layers of plants around. Make sure the grass has not been treated with herbicides. If you put it too close to young and delicate plants, you can burn them.
paper a newsprint on the ground and sprinkle it with soil, or press down with stones or grind the paper and put it in a layer 10-15 cm thick.
It is good to use mulch from a more attractive material.
Do not use newspapers with color printing or some colored ones, as illustrations made of paints can be toxic.
Needles in layers 5-10 cm thick. Since the needles oxidize the soil, you should not use it for those plants that do not tolerate high acidity.
crushed tree bark
Scatter in layers 5-10 cm thick around trees or perennials. Bark binds nitrogen in the soil, therefore it is not recommended to use vegetable for it. It is best to recompost tree bark and wood trimmings.
Lay a 20-cm layer of straw so that it does not come into contact with Between. plants in rows, more material can be placed to suppress weeds. Straw can bind nitrogen.
In early spring, the soil should not be mulched until it warms up. If mulching occurs in the fall, then it is recommended to add mulch after weeding immediately. In dry climates, mulching should be done as early as possible to prepare the material to store rainwater. In humid climates, they usually mulch at a later date so that the soil can dry out. The light colored mulch maintains a cool soil temperature, which encourages the growth of plants such as mint loves coolness. A dark mulch, such as a film, is optimal for the growth of thermophilic plants such as basil.Before mulching like soil, you need to free it from weeds. Shaded areas are usually less clogged than therefore, sunny ones can be covered with a smaller layer. Not possible. mulch to lay mulch around young shoots as it can strangle them. In organic mulch, slugs and snails are actively developing, and it also causes rotting, so you should not lay mulch near cultivated plants.
The advantage of organic mulch is its ability to ennoble the soil, replenishing it with organic substrates and nutrients, thus increasing its productivity. Compost is considered to be the best mulch material, since the organisms contained in it contribute to the reduction of soil-borne disease-causing organisms. In addition, the compost does not have to be harvested at the end of the season due to its ability to decompose naturally into soil. Crushed leaves also create a rich nutrient material, but it is imperative to grind them like this, otherwise they will scatter and dry out or in rainy weather they will create a layer impervious to moisture, which will not be able to the roots to penetrate the plants. When mulching, it is preferable to use straw rather than hay, since weed plants retain seeds in the hay, which subsequently, after hitting the soil, will germinate.
The most common inorganic materials are black polyethylene landscape and film fabric. These are expensive materials, but they, in organic contrast, can be used for several Black. For years, the film keeps the temperature of the soil above the ambient temperature, prevents the appearance of increases and weeds in the soil moisture. If it is necessary to warm up the earth, the film should be spread out several plantings to days. In order for moisture, the film to evaporate, holes can be made.
Extermination of weeds in crops of grain crops
Among juvenile weeds in grain crops and spike crops, the most common are blue cornflower, bindweed highlander, rough highlander, wild radish, medicinal smoke, medium starweed, rye rump, white marrow, odorless three-ribbed, common broomstick, tenacious bedstraw, violet, field bristle, bristle grass , pickles, etc. among perennials - mother thistle, common-and-stepmother, sow thistle, wheatgrass horsetail, creeping field, creeping bitterweed, humai bindweed, field, pig, etc. ( fig. 52).
Fig. 52. Mary of Difficulty
Weed control in leguminous crops
In cereal crops, the most common are annual dicotyledonous weeds such as blue cornflower, field mustard, white gauze, shepherd's bag, pickles, wild radish, chamomile shirin, odorless, field yar among perennials - field thistle, field bindweed, field sow-thistle, creeping and field horsetail ( fig. 53).
Fig. 53 Field Bindweed
Weed control in corn crops
Fig. 54. Medium Zvezdchatka
Methods of chemical weed control in sugar beet crops
Weed extermination in potato fields
Weed destruction in oilseeds
Weed control in fiber flax crops
Elimination of weeds in forage crops
Forage crops include perennial legumes and grasses, fodder cabbage, fodder root crops, grain fodder and silage crops. In grain-fodder cultivation of crops, namely barley and oats, silage for corn, root crops, herbicides are usually used in the same doses as in the cultivation of food varieties of these crops.
When cultivating pure legumes (clover, alfalfa) and cereals (timothy, rump, ryegrass), herbicides 4XM 2, 4-D and 2M-groups are the most effective. The death of weeds here reaches 85–90%. crops Cereals begin to cultivate in the phase of 2-3 leaves and the phase in the end of their full tillering.Such common weeds as plantain, buttercups, geraniums, rape, cross, sverbyga, kulbaba, wormwood, thistle, can be easily destroyed with preparations 2, 4-D and 2M-4X, used in ordinary rice ( dosages. 55).
Fig. 55. Field dodder
Weeds Destruction of plants in vegetable crops
Treflan, diphenamide, devrinol, solan, tillam, zenkor and amiben are used intensively for young weeds in the cultivation of tomatoes in agriculture. The effectiveness of most drugs depends on the technology of their use. For example, after spraying, treflan must be embedded in the soil by more than 5 cm, the depth of deep embedding reduces the activity of this herbicide. This drug is slowly inactivated, absorbed well by the soil and weakly moves along the profile under the influence of precipitation. Negative consequences of its action have not been identified.
Diphenamide is used for seedling and seedling cultivation of tomatoes. It is applied by sowing in front of a moist soil with an embedding of 4–5 cm. The death of a preparation for sensitive weeds reaches 90-100%. Diphenamide is used in all regions of the country. If there is insufficient time in the humidity of its use, sprinkling should also be carried out so that Tillam does not form on the surface of the earth.
the peel is a highly volatile herbicide and is used for the widespread cultivation of tomato seedlings. It is introduced directly before planting seedlings and immediately the depth is filled up to 4–6 cm. Abundant rainfall or watering it when used is undesirable, since waterlogging of the soil leads to the displacement of herbicide vapors into Solan.
air is used for vegetative plants, it is not recommended to use it against chicken millet, bristles, black nightshade, since these weeds are resistant to this drug ( fig. 56).
Fig. 56. Bristles For
Weed control in berry and fruit crops
Herbicide system in crop rotation
Effect of crop rotations, herbicide treatment systems and soil on weediness and crop productivity
Note: in the number - the numerator of weeds (pcs / m 2), in the denominator - the yield of crops (i.e. units from 1 ha).
with each year, the intensification of agriculture requires more effective systems of protection against weeds, not only fodder, but also field crops. Fodder crops occupy part of a significant fodder land, especially in areas where livestock raising is widely developed. Due to the strong weediness, the productivity of the land of forage crops remains sufficient for. low cultivation of forage crops use near-farm and grassland crop rotations. Grasslands usually include 4–5 fields and fields with grass mixtures of perennial use. Near-farm crops saturate crop rotations depending on the specialization of the farm, the type of variety and the feeding of livestock. Here, the Fodder system is also widely used to control weed vegetation.
Herbicide crops have the ability to inhibit weed plants. After the correct use of herbicides, due to their aftereffect, the fodder lands remain free of weeds for several years.
The study of herbicide systems has shown that the use of many of the weed control in them gives good How.
The results show the latest research in the field of intensive farming, the effectiveness of the use of fertilizers, pesticides, plant growth regulators increases significantly when they are used together. At the same time, the yield of grain crops is more than 5-6 tons and increases from one hectare, as well as the stability and stability of the crop in various weather conditions.
Timing control of insect pests and weeds is usually therefore. coincide with the herbicide crops are treated for example.pesticides, to control the fly in the spring crops of grain and corn, you can use organochlorine and phosphorus insecticides and herbicides (derivatives 2, 4-D).
Herbicide characteristics used in the fight against weed fields
Also, the mixture is used with preparations based on 2, 4-D in a proportion of 6.5 g / ha + 0.7–1 l / ha of 60% -logran herbicide luwaram.
MILAGRO 040 SC is a post-emergence selective herbicide for weed control in corn crops grown for grain and ears. The drug does not require any surfactants. Milagro destroys such perennial weeds as gumay, germinating, wheatgrass from seeds and rhizomes. The herbicide has a short disintegration period in the soil. After harvesting, the corn can be sown with winter wheat and barley. The preparation is used in a mixture with dual gold, Banvel, Processing.
dialenom milagro should be carried out during the period of intensive growth of weeds and crops, it is not recommended to use very cold or very hot in the preparation when the weather is heavy rainfall. The optimum soil temperature for application is 15–25 ° C. This herbicide should not be used in seeds that have been treated with organophosphate. In the seven days after the application of insecticides, milagro must not be treated with organophosphate insecticides.
post-emergence - TOPIK herbicide for combating wild oats and annual other cereal weeds in crops of spring and winter wheat. The active growth of cereal weeds stops two days after the introduction of the drug. the herbicide quickly decomposes in the soil and is compatible in tank mixes with anti-bipartite herbicides.
FUSILADE SUPER systemic EC - 125 herbicide for the protection of dicotyledonous agricultural crops against many cereal weeds. The drug has a high systemic effect, quickly moves through the system of vascular weeds to the root, making it impossible for new shoots to regrow. The herbicide is used to combat wheatgrass, gumai, pig, wild oat, other chicken and millet weeds ( fig. 57). There is no phytotoxicity in the preparation for cultivated plants. Compatible in tank mixes with anti-bipartite herbicides. It is used more than dicotyledons on 30 crops, including medicinal, destroys not only the aboveground, but also the underground root system of the weed. Effective. plants against such malicious weeds, wheatgrass like. The active growth of weeds stops two days after the introduction of herbicides, and their death occurs in 2-3 weeks. It is used in a wide range of weeds and cultivated plants without affecting phytotoxic crops. The drug is resistant to precipitation.
A pig. 57. Finger rice
Agron is quickly absorbed by the aboveground organs of the weed plant, moving throughout its body and suppressing the aboveground and root systems of the plant. Once in the soil, the compound of the preparation, the clopyralid element, completely decomposes, without causing harm to the environment and cultivated crops.
ZELLEK-herbicide - SUPER systemic action against annuals and perennial cereals. It is absorbed by the leaves of the weeds and transported through the vascular system of the plant to the roots and rhizomes. The herbicide disrupts photosynthesis, as a result of which the growth of the organs of the aerial weed and its root system stops, chlorosis appears. Plants begin to wither, their tissues acquire, dry out a reddish tint.
The spectrum of action includes herbicide annual cereals - foxtail, broom, millet, chicken and hairy oats, gray and crabgrass mice, green blood-grass, chaff, fire, self-seeding perennial cereals - wheatgrass, creeping pork gum, finger grass, white grass and other. fig. 58).
Fig. 58. Field Bonfire
The rate of herbicide consumption of lontrel-300
Spring wheat and barley, winter, oats, millet - 0, 16-0, 66, l / ha
Corn - 1, l / ha
Beet Flax - 0, 3–0, 5, l / ha
long-fibred sugar - 0, 1–0, 3, l / ha
White cabbage - 0, 2–0, 5, l / ha
Strawberries - 0, 5–0, 6, l / ha
spring Rape and winter (seed crops) - 0, 3–0, 4, l / ha
Ryegrass Lawns - 0, 3, l / ha
annual - 0, 16-0, 66, l / ha
Lavender - 1–1, 7, l / ha
Woolly digitalis - 0, 2–0, 3, l / ha
Maclea Preparation - 0, 3–0, 4, l / ha
heart-shaped is applied to cereals in the phase of tillering plants, before going out on the tube, corn - in the phase of 3-5th sugar, leaf beets - in the phase of 1-3 pairs of real flax, leaves - in the phase of "herringbone" culture and in the phase of weeds at the outlet, cabbage - after planting seedlings, after - harvesting strawberries, rapeseed - in the phase of 3-4th leaf culture.
Lontrel-300 is used in tank graminacides with mixtures (zellek-super, centurion-A, bagira), betanal herbicides of the group - such as betaren-burefen AM, express FD 11, as well as preparations based on 2, 4-D, 2M- 4X, 2M-4XII in salt form.
FACET is a herbicide that is different in the rice cultivation systems used. The preparation is applied to the soil both before and after germination. Optimal. culture period of application - the phase of the 2-3rd or 3-4th Application. the leaf of the preparation should be passed on moist, saturated soils at a temperature of at least 20 ° C. processing After the weeds within 24 hours must be covered with water for 2/3 of their height. Drying the soil is not the goal. Since it is allowed to avoid the negative effect of the herbicide on neighboring crops or crops of subsequent sowing, the following rules must be observed:
- the drug is not volatile, therefore sensitive neighboring crops to it are damaged
- it is necessary to avoid the drift of the working fluid on such as crops, tomatoes, alfalfa, sunflower, watermelon, pumpkin, melon, cucumbers and cotton
- it is forbidden to re-use the water previously used for irrigation of rice fields treated with Facet or other quinclorac containing herbicides
- it is not recommended to cultivate carrots and tomatoes for two years on the site treated with a herbicide; eggplants and tobacco should be planted after a year of expiration of soybeans, alfalfa, cotton - 8 months after the introduction of the herbicide into the soil
- rice, sorghum, corn can be planted on the treated area without restrictions.
The working fluid for the drug is prepared as follows. The drug is followed first. shake, fill the sprayer tank by 3/4 of its volume and gradually add the required amount of herbicide there. worker Stir the solution with a mixer until the required volume is formed and turn the sprayer mixer back on for 10–15. Liquid. minutes should be prepared immediately before the Norm. application of the drug consumption for ground spraying is 200-300 l / ha.
AGRITOX is a post-emergence systemic herbicide that has a broad spectrum of action and is based on the produced drug MCPA (2M-4X). Its suppression action consists in the synthesis of growth substances and enzymes, thus causing the death of the ground mass and the system of root weeds. The drug is actively used for the destruction of annual dicotyledonous weeds - such as ragweed, small-flowered galinsog, mouse peas, field mustard, quinoa, buttercup, field creeping, samoseyka poppy, marmie forget-me-not, white field, sunflower sow thistle, shepherd's bag, pickle weedy, wild radish, scythe, upturned rank, and perennial dicotyledonous weeds - such as field bindweed, euphorbia, medicinal dandelion, field and yellow sow thistle, plantain rice ( large. 59).
How to get rid of ants, instructions for dealing with a pest using ammonia
Stereotypes learned from childhood inspire us that ants are extremely useful insects. Alas, this is not the case. Domestic and black garden ants - these types of ants, settling in a house, garden or greenhouse, can cause a lot of problems.
Using ammonia, available to everyone, you can quickly and permanently get rid of ants.
Did you know? Ammonia is a solution of ammonia in water, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. Sold in pharmacies without a prescription. During the Renaissance, it was used to lighten hair.
During the Renaissance, it was used to lighten hair.
Ammonia must be present in the country. It is used not only for medical purposes. Ammonia is used in the garden as an affordable nitrogen fertilizer and pest control.
What harm do ants bring in the country
Reproducing rapidly, insect colonies literally occupy all the territory available to them. Moreover, their nests are well hidden from human eyes, which makes it difficult to fight ants.
Did you know? The center of life of any ant colony is the uterus, capable of laying thousands of eggs. The task of the worker ants is to get the maximum amount of food for her and many thousands of larvae.
Ants are not indifferent to sweets, therefore, dacha food supplies and the harvest of sweet berries are under threat. To obtain "building materials" ants gnaw holes in wooden structures, after which they require replacement or repair.
The harm from ants in the house
Having met one small ant in the kitchen, it is difficult to understand why they were given the majestic name "Pharaoh ants". Stock up on ammonia from ants, because in the house after a lone scout ant, you can soon find whole ant paths.
You can get rid of ants on the site and in the greenhouse with the help of chemicals Muravyin, Fufanon, boric acid.
These intruders settle under skirting boards and in other hard-to-reach places. Working ants are very small, 2-2.5 mm. Due to their large number, they are able to fill the whole house. The harm from such a neighborhood is obvious:
* House ants carry infection. Their paths run through trash bins and kitchen cabinets, while pathogenic bacteria are transferred to food. Due to the bites of ants, pets and humans can become infected with infectious diseases, suffer from allergic reactions.
* They spoil the food. If the ants get to a store of sugar, candy, or sweet biscuits, the food will have to be thrown away. It will be unpleasant to find ants in honey or jam, to which they are not indifferent.
* Annoying pets. The ants transfer their eggs to places favorable for their maturation. They can put them in the fur of a pet or a poultry cage, disturb and bite your pets, which will negatively affect their behavior.
Important! The use of strong chemicals against insects in a home with allergy sufferers, children and pets is discouraged.
An effective way of protection in this case will be ammonia from ants in the apartment. For 1 liter of boiled water, you need a bottle of ammonia 100 ml. This solution is used to wipe all surfaces, baseboards, tiles, process the inner surfaces of drawers and cabinets, trash bins and ventilation.
After airing the room, the smell of ammonia will disappear for a person, however, the method works against ants, since their sense of smell is thousands of times stronger.
Harm to plants
Numerous and ubiquitous insects penetrate into the most remote corners of the garden, there are practically no obstacles for them.
Plants suffer from them, yield decreases:
* Digging passages underground, ants damage the roots of plants: young seedlings and seedlings are especially affected.
* Ants are omnivorous, young leaves of seedlings and adult plants suffer from their jaws.
* Ants spoil crops. Sugar fruits of plums, apricots and other fruit trees damaged by ants become unsuitable for food and storage.
* Tunnels gnawed by ants in the trunks of garden trees make the wood rotten, more accessible to other pests that spoil the trees.
Did you know? The most serious problem associated with ants is considered to be aphids. The sugary juice secreted by aphids is a valuable food for the ant colony.To get as much of it as possible, ants transfer aphids from plant to plant, infecting the entire garden with it.
On the other hand, if aphids appear in the garden, ants will soon appear. Using ammonia in the garden and in the garden will help get rid of aphids and ants at the same time.
How to get rid of ants in the country: using ammonia
An aqueous solution of ammonia is indispensable in the country: the use of this tool allows you to destroy pests with minimal risk to plants and humans.
Important! Concentrated ammonia can cause burns to the skin and mucous membranes; inhalation of ammonia vapors can harm the lungs. Ammonia must not be mixed with chlorine. It is necessary to work with ammonia in a well-ventilated area, using seals, goggles and a mask.
Ammonia from insects in the country will also help with bites. Reddened, itchy insect bites are smeared with ammonia diluted with water 1: 3.
Watering the anthill
In order to drive the ants out of the area, you will have to get rid of the anthill. Sometimes an anthill is dug up and transferred to another place, for example, into the forest, but this is not an easy procedure, in addition, there is a high probability that the ants will return.
It is easier to get the ants to leave the anthill themselves, for which you need to water ant heaps and places where there are many of their tunnels with ammonia.
For this, a solution is prepared:
Another way: a cloth that absorbs liquid well is impregnated with ammonia and placed on an anthill. Cover the top with a thick cloth or polyethylene so that the ammonia does not evaporate. Insects will be scared away by the unbearable smell of ammonia.
Ammonium for plants from ants is used in solution for spraying and watering:
Plants are watered with this solution at the root. This solution is at the same time nitrogen fertilization. To spray plants, add 3-4 tablespoons of sugar to this composition, stir until completely dissolved and spray the affected plants. By killing aphids, you can get rid of ants faster. To destroy aphids, the following components are mixed:
Plants affected by aphids are abundantly sprayed with this composition.
How to prevent the appearance of ants in the country, practical advice
To prevent ants from getting in the country house, you must follow simple rules of hygiene:
* Store sugar, sweet foods and drinks in containers inaccessible to ants: tightly closed cans, bags, bottles.
* Store meat products in the refrigerator, do not leave them on the table or in places where ants can penetrate.
* Immediately after eating, wash the dishes, cutlery, wipe the table without leaving crumbs and food debris on it.
* Keep the trash bin outside the cottage, throw out the trash regularly.
To prevent the appearance of ants in the country, smells are used that scare away insects:
* Salmon from ants in the garden will help as a two-in-one remedy: prevention of insect infestations and plant nutrition. To do this, once every 2 weeks add 1 tablespoon of ammonia to the water for irrigation in a bucket of water.
* Tobacco dust. On the paths of ants found on the site, this agent is scattered. Ants cannot stand the smell of tobacco.
*Citrus. Fresh zest and citrus scent repels not only aphids, but also ants.
*Garlic. When thinning and removing the garlic arrows, they can be spread out on the site to prevent an infestation of ants.
* Wormwood, tansy, mint. Plant these herbs on the site, and spread their cut flowers under bushes, trees. Their natural smell will scare off not only ants, but also mice.
Every gardener wants to protect his home and personal plot from all sorts of misfortunes. Salmon in the garden and garden house will help to cope with this task.