The Datura plant is part of the Solanaceae family. Under natural conditions, it is found in tropical America, Mexico and Europe.
Datura is a rather large herbaceous perennial. This genus is represented by branchy low-growing trees or shrubs, they are decorated with large funnel-shaped flowers. After some time, the stem of the bush is completely lignified. Large greenish-gray foliage has an ovoid shape and is about 12 centimeters long. In some varieties, the foliage has a wavy edge. There is a very short pubescence on the leaf surface. As a rule, if you injure the leaf plates, you can feel an unpleasant odor. In summer, the plant is decorated with large flowers, reaching about 20 centimeters in diameter, their accrete petals can be colored red, white, yellow or pink. The opening of the buds occurs at night, and the lifespan of each flower is approximately 24 hours. During the day, the flowers remain open only if the weather is cloudy.
To date, a large number of varieties with two-color or double flowers have appeared, which look very impressive. In place of a wilted flower, a greenish fruit is formed on the bush, which is a seed capsule. Outwardly, it looks like an ovoid or round bump, the surface of which is covered with small thorns. In diameter, the fruit reaches about 50 mm. During one season, a young bush can grow up to 150-200 cm in height.
Datura bush with flowers in full bloom is a stunning sight. In some varieties, besides the fact that the flowers are very beautiful, they also have an intoxicating pleasant smell. But remember that you cannot come very close to a flowering plant, and even more so for a long time to inhale its aroma, because dope is very poisonous.
In mid-latitudes, Datura is grown through seedlings. Only in this case, the bushes will bloom magnificently in summer. Seedlings grown in room conditions are planted in open ground only after they reach at least 15 centimeters in height. Seedlings are planted in the garden in May or in the first days of June, after the threat of return frosts has been left behind.
When planting dope, it should be borne in mind that the bushes are fast-growing and rather large. It is because of this that a distance of at least 100 cm between them is maintained. The appearance of the first buds is observed 15–30 days after planting the bushes in open ground.
When choosing a site for planting such a culture, it should be borne in mind that it must be sunny and have good protection from strong gusts of wind. The fact is that its stems are extremely fragile, and due to strong gusts of wind, they can break. After the planting pit has been prepared, a drainage layer should be placed on its bottom; for this, you can use gravel or pieces of brick. Thanks to this, you will be able to avoid liquid stagnation in the root system.
In the open field, Datura is cultivated only as an annual, because it is not able to survive the frosty winter. However, if desired, it can be saved until next spring. To do this, in the fall, the bush is dug up, planted in a large container and brought into a heated room (you can enter the house).
You can propagate indoor dope with stem cuttings, which should be half-ripe. Their harvesting is carried out in spring or summer. To do this, take a very sharp disinfected instrument and separate several cuttings with it, which should be about 10 centimeters long. Please note that the cutting must have at least 2 or 3 internodes. Tear off all the leaves at the bottom of the cuttings, thanks to this, you will be able to significantly reduce the moisture loss of the cuttings. Please note that the lower cut of the segment must be oblique; for this, the cutting should be cut at an acute angle. Treat the bottom of the cutting with a root-growth agent. Plant them in the soil mixture for rooting. After the root system is formed in the cuttings, new shoots and leaves will begin to grow.
Growing from seeds
Datura can be propagated by seed, if desired. Scientists have found that the seeds of such a plant are capable of maintaining excellent germination for a long time (up to several decades).
Sowing seeds is carried out in the last winter weeks or in the first days of March. Seed material needs pre-sowing preparation, for this it is kept in water for 24 hours, the temperature of which should be from 45 to 50 degrees. Fill the seedling box with wet sand and peat soil, sow the seeds into it, and sprinkle them on top with a 5mm layer of substrate. Transfer crops to a cool (about 16 degrees) and well-lit area that is well protected from direct sunlight. To provide crops with uniform moisture, the top box can be covered with a transparent film.
Growing Datura from seeds is easy. The first shoots should appear 15–20 days after sowing. As soon as the seedlings appear, the film should be removed from the box. After the young plants have the first pair of true leaf plates, they are dived into separate cups. The seedlings are transferred to a warmer (from 18 to 20 degrees) place.
If you have an adult dope bush, then it is quite possible to collect seeds from it with your own hands. It is recommended to collect seed on a dry, fine day. It should be borne in mind that those seed pods that are well ripe are able to open themselves, while the seeds spill out onto the soil surface. In this regard, if you are planning to collect seeds, then do not forget to put on a nylon sock on the seed pods in advance.
Datura flower. Planting seeds for seedlings.
Growing at home
How to transplant
Datura is a fast-growing plant. That is why while the bush is young, it has to be transplanted regularly, while it is recommended to increase the size of the container gradually. In the first year of growth, the bush may need several replants, because it will grow very quickly in size. Experts advise that you try to transplant the plant during the period of emergence of young leaves before the phase of intensive growth begins. If the adult dope bush is very large, then instead of transplanting it is recommended to replace the top layer of the soil mixture in the container with a new substrate.
Transplanting such a culture should be very careful, resorting to the transshipment method. The fact is that it reacts extremely painfully to trauma to the root system and recovers for a long time after that. That is why you should pull the bush out of the pot along with a lump of earth, while trying not to destroy it. A container suitable for growing dope should have large drainage holes at the bottom. The bush, taken together with a lump of earth, is placed in the middle of a new pot, and then it remains only to fill all the voids with a new soil mixture. Compact the surface of the substrate, taking care not to leave any air pockets. Water the transplanted plant with plenty of water so that the potted clod is completely wet. After a while, drain the excess liquid accumulated there from the pan. After the plant is watered, the substrate can sag heavily. In this case, the required amount of soil mixture will need to be poured into the pot.
Datura flowering period lasts quite a long time. It starts in March and ends in November. In order for the bush to bloom continuously and magnificently, it is necessary to remove the flowers that have begun to fade in time. If the dope grows in the garden, then its flowering ends with the onset of the first frost.
In spring, summer and autumn, this culture develops normally and grows at a temperature typical for living rooms. In winter, when the dope has a dormant period, it is recommended to rearrange it in a place where the air temperature will be kept at a level of 10 to 12 degrees.
Even small frosts can destroy this plant. When the temperature drops to 6-8 degrees, it can already get serious damage. But such a flower tolerates heat very well, so on hot summer days it will feel quite comfortable.
The optimal place for this flower is one that is very well lit, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight. In winter, he is at rest, and all his processes slow down. Therefore, at this time, it is recommended to rearrange the plant in a shaded cool place. However, with the onset of spring, immediately after the start of active growth, it should be transferred to its original place.
In order for the bush to grow lush and spectacular, it is necessary to systematically pinch the tops of the shoots while the plant is young. Due to this, young lateral shoots will actively form in him. Timely pruning stimulates more lush flowering, because the formation of buds occurs on young shoots. When flowering is over, the lateral shoots are greatly shortened (by 2/3 of their length).
In winter, some of the foliage can fly around the dope, but in the spring it will grow back. In the spring and summer, it is recommended to move the bush to fresh air. In this case, you should choose a place for him that will be protected from precipitation, strong gusts of wind and scorching direct rays of the sun. It is highly discouraged to place the plant in places where it can easily be touched (corridor, passage, etc.). The fact is that even from a light touch, shoots or foliage can be injured. But the most important thing is that dope juice contains the strongest poison! To protect a tall bush from injury, it is recommended to tie it to a support.
Datura (brugmansia) in the house in winter. (1 hour)
A soil mixture suitable for growing dope should be loose, fertile and allow water and air to pass through well. Its pH can be slightly alkaline or neutral. You can add a little lime or wood ash to the soil mixture, which will also be an excellent fertilizer for the plant.
The plant needs fertilization during the growing season, and feeding is carried out 1 time in 7 days. Since it is a fast growing plant, it needs a lot of nutrients. In the spring, it is recommended to feed the bush with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. But at the end of spring or at the beginning of summer, phosphate fertilizers begin to be applied to the soil mixture, thanks to which the flowering of dope will be lush and long-lasting.
Before adding a nutrient solution to the soil, the flower should be well watered with clean water. Otherwise, burns may occur on the roots. To feed the dope, you can use both organic matter and complex mineral fertilizer. In winter, the bush is not fertilized. They begin to feed him again only after, with the onset of spring, new shoots and leaves begin to grow in him.
Make sure that the soil mixture is always slightly damp. However, during a cool winter, dope is watered less frequently and less abundantly. Remember that stagnant liquid in the substrate during the cold season can cause rot. However, overdrying an earthen coma should also not be allowed. Particular attention should be paid to watering during periods of intense growth and flowering. During this time, watering should be regular and fairly abundant.
The water temperature for irrigation should be close to room temperature. The flower can be watered with tap water, while no additional cleaning or settling is required. Many growers are sure that, thanks to hard watering, the bush blooms more luxuriantly.
With a cool winter, the bush is rarely watered, preventing the complete drying out of the clod of earth in the pot. The fact that it needs to be watered will be signaled by slightly drooping leaves.
The bush needs regular humidification from a sprayer, and water is used at room temperature. Moisturize it in the morning, because if the moisture does not have time to evaporate from the foliage before nightfall, this can cause the plant to rot. When spraying a bush, make sure that no water gets on the buds and petals.
To increase the humidity of the air, moistened sphagnum can be laid around the pot. You can also put a working humidifier in the room where the flower is. And you can also put several plants next to each other, in this case they themselves will increase the level of humidity.
With a cool winter, the air humidity should be low, otherwise it can lead to the development of fungal diseases and rotting.
Please note that the room where the bush is located should be systematically ventilated, while protecting it from cold drafts. Do not place the bush near the air conditioner in summer and near an open window in winter.
As a result of improper care or due to inappropriate growing conditions with indoor dope, the following problems can arise:
- Foliage falling... This may be due to the fact that the bush was exposed to a cold draft or a sharp change in air temperature.
- Leaf plates become sluggish and lose turgor... This happens if the air in the room is too dry, as well as due to rare or poor watering.
- The buds fall, not having time to open... The plant feels an acute lack of moisture.
- The stems are exposed as a result of the fall of the lower foliage... This is due to the fact that the bush is not pruned. After a while, it can completely lose its decorative effect.
- The bush has weakened and its stems have become elongated... This is observed if the plant is kept in a warm room in winter, but it does not have enough light. The fact is that if the bush is not transferred to a cool place, then its dormant period will not begin, and it will continue to actively grow. But in this case, too poor lighting has an extremely negative effect on the appearance of the flower.
- The appearance of gray rot. This fungal disease begins to develop only if the bush is kept cool with high humidity. In the affected plant, a fluffy coating of gray color is formed on the surface of the shoots and foliage.
- The buds have formed but are not opening. The bush feels an acute lack of nutrients and lacks the strength to bloom.
Datura is quite resistant to pests. However, sometimes red spider mites and whiteflies can still settle on it. Open field shrubs can be damaged by wireworms.
When whiteflies appear on the plant, small dots of light color can be found on the surface of its foliage. Over time, the leaves turn yellow and die off. If the bush is slightly shaken, then you can see how small white butterflies take off from it. To exterminate them, you can spray the flower with a solution of the appropriate toxic chemical: Rovikurt, Fufanol, Aktellik, Confidor, Tanrek, Zeta, INTA-VIR, Karbofos, Aktara or Commander. Also, in the fight against such "intruders", you can use folk remedies: sticky traps (effective only against adults), soap solution, infusion of garlic, dandelion, as well as tobacco and yarrow.
If a red spider mite settles on the dope, then a thin cobweb can be seen on its foliage. If there are a lot of pests, then the foliage begins to actively turn yellow and fly around. Dying off of the affected foliage is observed, while small cracks form on its surface. The bush begins to grow and develop more slowly. To get rid of ticks, you can use a proven folk method. To begin with, the dope is given a warm shower, and its foliage is washed very well. Then it is left in a place with very high air humidity (for example, in a bathroom) for 30 minutes. It is also recommended to irradiate the bush with an ultraviolet lamp for a couple of minutes regularly once a week. For processing a flower, you can use such pesticides that are made on the basis of pyrethrum, and Fitoverm, sulfur powder and Actellik are also suitable.
Due to the wireworm, the development of the bush becomes slower, and it begins to wilt. To save him, you need to sprinkle the surface of the soil with dolomite flour, water the bush with a solution of lime, cover the ground with onion husks, and you can also use an infusion of celandine. For prophylaxis, before sowing seeds, they are powdered with wood ash. If folk remedies turned out to be ineffective, then pesticides such as Actellik, Pochin and Decis can be used for processing.
Datura is a very beautiful, but rather large plant. Therefore, it is used to decorate spacious rooms. This culture is unpretentious and also blooms profusely with large graceful flowers. She is also able to decorate any garden plot with herself. If you are going to grow dope in the garden, then keep in mind that all other crops die next to it, and even weeds grow extremely rarely.
Please note that if any part of such a plant enters the human body, this will lead to the development of very severe poisoning. As a rule, a poisoned person has vivid hallucinations. It is because of this that the sorcerers of European countries used dope for various rituals. In India, the cult of Datura is most widespread. It was used for ritual ceremonies by adherents of the cult of Kali (goddess of death), as well as followers of Shaivism.
Often, flower growers prepare an infusion from the foliage of dope, which helps to get rid of cabbage moths and spider mites on home plants.
How is Datura useful?
Datura is a medicinal plant widely used in medicine as a pain reliever. For the first time, the Aztecs discovered this feature in this plant, and it was they who began to widely use its juice to treat wounds. Datura juice was used for mass magical rituals, it helped people quickly enter a trance state.
In China, this plant was used as an antipyretic and for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. The seeds of this flower in India were added to low alcohol drinks as an aphrodisiac and to treat male impotence. Sorcerers and witches of European countries also used such a plant in their magical rites.
Today, dope is used by official medicine as a narcotic and analgesic agent. It is used to treat asthma, cholecystitis, tachycardia, nervous disorders, peptic ulcer of the digestive tract, colitis and rheumatism. It is also widely used in the treatment of tonsillitis and to relieve epileptic seizures.
The poison is part of any part of the dope. The poisoned person has hallucinations, intense thirst and fever. As for the mucous membranes, they dry out and turn blue. Datura juice has the ability to cause paralysis of the respiratory center, which can lead to death.
Use extreme caution when handling Datura and keep it away from pets and children. Do not forget to protect your hands with gloves when working with a flower, and then wash them thoroughly with soap and water.
The boy fell into a coma after trying dope herb
Types of dope with photo
Datura ordinary, or smelly (Datura stramonium)
This vigorous herbaceous annual can have a height of 0.6 to 1.5 m. The highly branching erect stem is thick and strong. The length of the green foliage with a jagged edge is about 20 centimeters. If you injure her, you can smell an unpleasant smell. The front surface of the leaves is dark green, and the back is greenish. The petals of the funnel-shaped showy flowers are fused, they reach about 7 centimeters in diameter. Their opening takes place in the dark. They can be dyed cream, white and purple. At the end of flowering, small oval fruits are formed, reaching 30–80 mm in diameter. Their surface is covered with a large number of pointed spines.
Datura Indian (Datura metel)
This species is represented by both perennials and annuals (depending on climatic conditions). The height of the bush is about 0.9 m. On the surface of highly branched powerful stems, there is often a short pubescence. The length of the shiny dark green leaf plates is about 20 centimeters, there are large denticles on the edge, and their surface is decorated with a network of veins of a lighter shade. Double or simple single flowers bloom in the dark and have a pleasant smell, they reach 15–20 centimeters across and can be colored yellow, dark purple, white, lilac or pink. The seamy surface of the petals is shortly pubescent.
Datura tree, or brugmansia (Brugmansia)
This species is represented by a curly liana, which has very long shoots. Oblong-oval alternate leaf plates have a dark green color. In some varieties, the edge of the foliage is jagged and there is pubescence on it, represented by thin hairs. Buds are formed in the summer at the tops of the branches. Often, tubular flowers are solitary, they are colored pink, white or yellow, and reach about 25 centimeters in length. The harsh aroma of flowers can have citrus notes. In the dark, it becomes stronger and fills the entire room. This variety has drooping flowers, and there are variegated forms.
Datura strong-bore (Datura ceratocaula)
The height of a vigorous annual is about 100 cm. Smooth thick branched stems are green and hollow inside. Alternately spaced oblong-lanceolate green leaf plates on the edge have large teeth, their seamy surface is shortly pubescent. Fragrant funnel-shaped flowers reach 15–20 centimeters across, they have a purple, white or pale yellow color. The bush blooms in early summer, and fades in the second half of autumn. The fruit is a smooth pear-shaped seed capsule.
Types and varieties of Nemofila for open ground
American forget-me-not is deservedly included in the TOP - 20 beautifully flowering species of herbaceous plants. The delicate flower is just as beautiful as other types for open ground: Petunia, Gaillardia, Iberoliferous Brachikoma, Marigolds, Dimorfoteka, "Bear's Ear", Gladioli, Peonies, Dahlias, Mirabilis. You can plant interesting plants on the site Clarkia, Godetia, Asters, Balsam garden, Nasturtium, Ipomoea, "Night candle" Enotera, Delphinium, Hellebore, Periwinkle.
Some interesting information about the decorative form - Nemophile:
- family aquiformes
- low ground cover plant: up to 18–20 cm
- the genus of beautifully flowering plants includes 11 species, about a hundred varieties
- the highlight of an annual plant is spectacular, rather large (2-4.5 cm) inflorescences with wide simple petals
- homeland of nemophila - California
- in natural conditions, a beautifully blooming species grows in the West of the USA, in Mexico, Canada
- a flower with bell-shaped buds is often called "Blue-eyed" and "American forget-me-not" because of the similarity with a delicate flower
- leaves with light edging, shape - pinnately-lobed, curly stems creep along the soil
- a beautifully flowering herb covers the ground with a luxurious carpet. The flower is suitable for decorating both small and large areas.
- petals are wide, white, each has a speck
- the shape of the flower resembles a round bowl
- openwork leaves go well with graceful buds
- the flowering period is long: from the beginning of summer to the first frost.
Popular varieties of Nemophila spotted:
- Barbara. Purple spots about 0.8 mm in size and veins of the same color are visible on a white background. The height of the flower is up to 20 cm.
- Ladybug. The base is white with barely noticeable purple veins. Along the edges of the petals, in the central part, there are spots of deep blue, with a slight purple tint, color. The buds are large - about 4.5 cm in diameter.
Characteristic features of the species:
- rich shades of petals: sky blue, dark blue, purple, snow white
- some varieties have dots, specks on the surface of the petals (Atomiriya, Okulata), there is a middle of a contrasting color (Blue Ice) and a border around the edge (Discoidalis)
- the diameter of the blue-eyed buds is about 3 cm, the shape resembles a bell
- petals are simple, perfect shape
- Nemofila Mencis's species includes most of the popular varieties for cultivation in a small summer cottage and a large area.
- Blue Ice.
Growing seedlings from seeds
For regions with a temperate climate, the method is 100% suitable. Seedling care has its own nuances, but in general, it is no more difficult than for sprouts of such species for open ground as Weigela, Mirabilis, Portulac, Dimorfoteka, Armeria.
The end of March is a suitable period for sowing small planting material. You should not postpone the cultivation of seedlings, then by the end of June, nemesia will delight the eye with the first buds.
Nemesia is grown from seeds using seedlings or sown directly in the garden or in a flower bed near the house. The plant has a stem root system, long elements are easy to damage and cannot be separated without breaking the integrity. For this reason, such a method of cultivating flowers, like dividing a bush, is not used for nemesia.
Soil and capacity
The soil should be loose, light, nutritious. It is useful to mix peat, leafy soil and sand (equal parts). It is important that there is no lime in the soil.
The seeds are very small, but the roots grow rapidly and deepen. For this reason, a narrow but deep wooden box is needed. A good option is to sow small "grains" directly into peat pots. It is important to take cups with a base made from a natural substance, and not cardboard, which is often found in cheap containers. When buying, you need to ask for a quality certificate: if the proportion of peat is below 70%, then poor growth and death of seedlings are possible with a deficiency of nutrients.
It is useful to study the nuances that affect the growth and development of seedlings. An important point is the temperature regime: a very warm room is not needed for seedlings of nemesia.
Important aspects of growing seedlings:
- temperature. Optimum performance is at +20 degrees. After a couple of weeks (or a little earlier) sprouts appear, then the glass is immediately removed, the seedlings are transferred to a cooler place: not higher than + 15 ° C, so that the seedlings do not stretch too quickly. It is important that the sun's rays fall on the sprouts.
- watering. After germination of the grains, it is necessary to maintain the moisture content of the soil, but do not flood the soil. Seedlings are sprayed, not watered. Moisten the substrate regularly, make sure that a dense dry crust does not form on the surface
- humidity. Before germination, seeds in the soil are under glass or film. After the appearance of the first senses, the protective coating is completely removed, otherwise rotting of the sprouts is possible. To avoid stress, you need to regularly (every day) ventilate the soil until the sprouts have sprouted: move the glass back a little or partially open the film for 10-15 minutes. Excess moisture is harmful, especially at moderate temperatures: mold may develop
- lighting. Good lighting is necessary for the growth of the senses. It is convenient to put peat pots or a container with seedlings on a wide window sill or on an old table near the window. It is important that direct rays do not fall on young specimens for a long time.
- Young plants must be hardened, strong before the grower transplants them to the site. Nemesia loves the sun, you need to pick up a site where there is no deep shade and trees with a dense crown.
- The optimal period is early June. By this time, recurrent frosts have stopped in most regions, the heat-loving plant will not freeze out when it gets cold. The temperature when planting seedlings on a flower bed or lawn is at least + 18 ° C.
- A day without precipitation, strong wind, fog is suitable for the procedure. The soil is fertilized with peat (a little), dug up, carefully break up the clods.
- After picking, the seedlings are sprayed. You can add a little chopped straw mulch if dry days are common in the area. A good mulch option is crushed peat: with each watering, the roots will receive not only moisture, but also additional nutrition.
Use in the garden
Astrantia look very natural, so they can be planted in naturalistic gardens. They look better in larger groups. They can be combined with sedges, herbs, hosts, and other perennials. Astrantia is often planted near hosts because it scares away snails that feed on hosts.
Photo. Astrances with hosts planted in shady places
In English-style gardens, they will be reliable company:
- sage (Salvia)
- bells (Campanula)
- pinnate or pennisetum (Pennisetum)
- patagonian verbena (Verbena bonariensis)
- monarda (Monarda).
Astrantia grows well on the banks of streams and ponds. Dark colors reflect in the water to add a fresh shine. It can be planted in groups against the backdrop of a lawn, under stairs, along paths or next to a gazebo.
Low varieties are suitable for growing in pots placed on balconies, terraces, in the garden. Astrantia is successfully grown in pots, the main thing is to water it regularly. The inflorescences are used in dry bouquets as cut flowers.
Astrantia is a valuable plant for cut flowers in uniform compositions and with other species. Also plays the role of the so-called bouquets filler.
After cutting, Astrantia flowers can be dried in a cool, dark, ventilated place (then they do not lose their color) and used to create dry bouquets.
Astrantia does not impress with its huge, colorful flowers or gorgeous leaves, but it has a charm that is hard to resist. This shade-loving perennial can be a great flower bed decoration and ideal filling for floral or perennial compositions.