Daffodils - groups and varieties

Daffodils - groups and varieties

The rich world of daffodils

Daffodils. Stadium grade 2 w-y

In Italy, the name of the company Floriana Bulbose for the sale of bulbous plants, especially daffodils, needs no introduction.

Therefore, there are usually so many people who want to see the exhibition of blooming daffodils that you can get to it only by appointment.

An exhibition worthy of an artist's brush

The exhibition was held at the villa of Enrico Shedzbala - the founder of this company, breeder scientist, member of the Royal Society of Horticulturalists (RHS), which is located in the small but very picturesque town of Monte Porzio Cattone near Rome

This private collection of daffodils is the most complete and extensive in Italy. She is also known abroad. Not only Italians come to see it, but also foreigners, including even the royal couple from Denmark, who left their rave reviews.

Love for life

Enrico's love for daffodils, as I later found out, was born quite by accident after he saw the land he had just acquired, covered with blooming wild daffodils. Since then, he began to grow them, conduct breeding experiments, collect the most beautiful and interesting varieties and hybrids from around the world.

So the delicate flower of narcissus - poetically, which Enrico later showed me, became the meaning of his life and the beginning of a family business.

The exhibition is the fruits of his work, which give joy from the first spring flowers flying in bulbs throughout Italy and around the world.

Daffodil kingdom

Daffodils. Ice wings 5 ​​w-w variety

Going to this exhibition, I, of course, hoped to see interesting varieties of daffodils, but what I saw there exceeded all my expectations. Surrounded by dark green velvet cypresses, a sea of ​​more than one thousand three hundred daffodils fluttered under gusts of spring wind, among which it was impossible to find a single "double", and bright yellow freesia bushes and weigela trees, strewn with soft pink flowers, only emphasized this is a unique sight.

There were daffodils, small as coins, and very tall, with and without a delicate aroma, “passed” through the centuries, preserving their ancient exquisite beauty, and, conversely, new items in this family. Almost transparent, seemingly made of the finest silk, the petals of daffodils were: dazzling white, golden yellow, reminiscent of the rays of the sun, double color, bright orange, pink and had a wide variety of shapes.

Myths and modernity

I remembered the legend that a beautiful young man was turned into a daffodil flower, which for thousands of years has remained one of the most beloved, exciting and pleasing, about which legends and poems are scattered. Whether it is true or not, the narcissist had a special role in the erotic culture of Europe. European herbalists considered the daffodil flower a talisman attracting love, and Italians - a symbol of passion. And today, donated daffodils mean a declaration of love. Although among different peoples it can have a completely different meaning, as, for example, among the ancient Greeks - it was a symbol of sorrow.

Since ancient times, narcissus has been widely used in perfumery and medicine, since some plants contain essential oil, and bulbs contain alkaloids.

It continues to be grown in China and in some other countries of the East to obtain essential oils, where a strong floral aroma is popular.

A bit of botany


Narcissus (Narcissus) is a perennial bulbous plant from the amaryllis family. The native land of daffodils is the Mediterranean, but several species are found in Central Asia and China. Currently, more than 60 natural species, hundreds of natural varieties and hybrids are known, about 35,000 only registered breeding varieties and hybrids.

In order not to get confused in this large family, the International Classification of Narcissists was developed, experts have divided a huge number of forms of daffodils into 13 groups.

But, I did not expect at all that I would be able to see all the groups blooming at the same time, all sorts of shades and colors of flowers at the exhibition.

Group 1. Tubular (Trumpet). They are characterized by a single flower on a stem; the length of the flower tube is the same as or longer than the petals. The group is dominated by white and yellow flowers. Gin-and-lime-1-y-gww is a representative of this species at the exhibition. This beautiful daffodil has a lemon-colored perianth, the same color has a crown, which gradually turns into white with a green "eye".

Group 2. Large-cupped. Single flower on a stem; flower crown in length from 1/3 to full length of petals. Grade Stadium 2 w-y. A very beautiful, short flower with dazzling white petals and a large, round crown of bright yellow color. Early-medium flowering. Another variety is Vega 2 y-o. The flower is beautiful and unique with its bright contrasts of yellow and rich orange. It appeared on sale not so long ago, but it was immediately liked by lovers of daffodils. Blooms very early.

Group 3. Small-cupped. They have a single flower on the stem; crown length no more than 1/3 of the petal length. Most varieties of this group are characterized by medium size plants, abundant flowering and a delicate aroma of flowers, inherited from the progenitor - the poetic narcissus (P. poeticus L).

Sabine-hay-3 y-r - fabulously beautiful daffodils. They have one small flower on a peduncle, an orange perianth and an intense pink crown. Blooming later.

Group 4. Terry (Double). One of the most beautiful bands. Usually one or many flowers per stem; the crown of the flower or the whole flower is terry. The group selected varieties with double flowers from different groups, so they differ from each other in morphological characteristics. Terry flowers can be of different colors, sizes and shapes. Tahiti-4-y-r grade. The beautiful flower, known for being hidden in a private collection for many years before being put up for sale, was a huge success at the first exhibition and is now immensely popular with daffodil lovers. Mid to late bloom.

Group 5. Triandrus (Triandrus). The varieties of this group have all the features of the species three-stalked daffodil (N. triandrus L). They have two or three flowers per stem.

Ice wings 5 ​​w-w variety is a beautiful, bright snow-white daffodil, interesting for its large crown, blooms for a long time. It is so bright and beautiful that it is impossible to pass by and not notice!

Daffodils. Variety Cotinga 6 w-p

Group 6. Cyclamine (Cyclamineus). This group is obtained as a result of crossing cultural forms with the species cyclamen daffodil. They usually have a single flower on a stem that looks like a cyclamen; the petals are bent back, their long crown sometimes exceeds the length of the perianth lobes. They are characterized by very early flowering. Cotinga 6 w-p is a beautiful snow-white cyclamen-shaped daffodil with an apricot-pink crown on a high, strong peduncle. Early-medium flowering.

Group 7. Jonquilla. The varieties of this group were obtained from crossing with the specific daffodil Jonquilla (N. Jonquilla L) and inherited its characteristics.

They have two or three flowers on a stem, dark green leaves. Suzy 7 y - r is a famous jonquilia giunchiglia daffodil with golden yellow perianths and an intense orange crown. Flowering is average.

Group 8. Tacetic, or multi-flowered (Tazetta, Bunch-flowered). Up to 20 flowers per stem; the crowns are round, the leaves are dark green. The Hugh town 8 y-o cultivar is a very beautiful flower with a modern orange crown, the perifolia is yellow.

Group 9. Poetic (Poeticus). Single flower on a stem, crown length no more than 1/3 of the petal length; the crown is flat, bright in color, the petals are white. Actaea 9 w - gyr. Perfect in his form, beautiful, well-known poetic narcissist.

Group 10. Bulbocodium Hybrids. Small flowers, bell-shaped. This new group of daffodils is still in the breeding stage and is especially popular in Australia.

Read the ending Daffodils, groups and varieties →

Elena Kulishenko, Italy
Especially for "Flora Price"

Types of daffodils

There are more than 3000 varieties of daffodils, distributed mainly in southern Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia. Garden daffodils are the result of hybridization of different species. The culture also grows natural species of daffodils and their natural hybrids.

12 groups of the unified international classification of daffodils

  1. Tubular - the crown is long, in the form of a tube, exceeds the length of the petals or is equal to them.
  2. Large-crowned - the crown is tubular or funnel-shaped, more than a third of the length of the petals in height.
  3. Small-crowned - crown no more than a third of the length of the petals.
  4. Triandrus - obtained from the hybridization of the three-stalked daffodil with the garden. Small plants, flowers are collected in umbellate inflorescences, 2-4 pieces per peduncle.
  5. Terry - this includes varieties of a very different structure and origin with double flowers.
  6. Cyclamen-shaped flowers with a long crown and strongly bent back petals.
  7. Zhonkilievye - flowers are small, fragrant, 2-3 on a peduncle.
  8. Tacetny - flowers of medium size, fragrant, up to 12 per peduncle.
  9. Poetic - white, fragrant, single flowers with a short crown.
  10. Wild species, their forms and natural hybrids.
  11. Split-crown - the crown is divided into lobes.
  12. All others not included in the previous groups.
Narcissus. © mitsuteru Narcissus. © Rastko Radivojev Narcissus. © mitsuteru

The most effective way of breeding wild species is by sowing seeds before winter or in July. Seeds are sown in bowls or directly into the ground. For the first few years, it is best not to touch the seedlings until the bulb has formed.

Next, young plants are transplanted to a permanent place. Most of the species bloom only for 6 years, and small-flowered species - for 3 years. Hybrid forms and varieties are usually propagated by babies and bulbs.

Narcissus: use in garden design

With the exception of exhibition gardens, the decorativeness of which is designed for a short time (as in the famous Dutch Keukenhof bulbous park), daffodils are not planted in large arrays: after flowering, their foliage takes on a sloppy look, but does not die off completely for a long time, which can ruin a large-scale composition.

The classic way of planting daffodils in a flower garden is in groups of 5-7 bulbs in landscape compositions between clumps of perennials (geraniums, host, cuffs and others). The partner plants should surround the group of daffodils on all sides, from where the view of the flower garden opens. In late spring, they grow back and almost cover the yellowing non-decorative bulbous foliage.

Miniature varieties can be planted in rock gardens. At the same time, there should be quite beautiful plants next to the daffodils, distracting attention from the yellowing leaves in May.

All varieties of daffodils are suitable for container planting.

After flowering, the container can simply be removed to a secluded place and there you can take care of the flowers until they complete their development cycle.

(You can learn how to grow container plants in the article "Mobile flower beds").

Designer Tips

Do not try to use many varieties of bulbous plants of different flowering times in one flower garden. The best impression will be made by simultaneous flowering of daffodils of 1-3 varieties. If you are a novice florist, do not complicate your task - choose one unpretentious variety for your flower garden.

Test the selected varieties first in the garden and mark their exact flowering time in your garden, and then select partners for them and plan a flower garden.

In the spring, the garden changes rapidly. Early daffodils bloom when bare soil prevails in the garden, with few plants able to keep them company.

Late varieties bloom already in the midst of spring, when there is a lot of greenery and flowers in the garden. Therefore, the ideas for compositions with these varieties will be completely different.

Do not try to embrace the immensity and choose partners for daffodils so that flowering does not stop all season. Such a flower garden will be boring because there will be few flowers in it at any given time. Feel free to rely on plants that bloom at the same time as daffodils.

Plant more small-bulb crops (chionodox, snowdrops, crocuses and muscari) for the early varieties, brunner, badan, tenacious, primroses for the later varieties.

Enjoy the perfect combination of colors in full, and then let them take over the flowering race. another flower garden!

Daffodils: varieties with photos and names

We present to your attention a catalog of daffodil varieties with photos and names

Daffodils tubular: varieties with photos and names

Terry daffodils: varieties with photos and names

Large-crowned daffodils: varieties with photos and names

Accent Brackenhurst Cairngorm Carlton Fortissimo
Gigantic star Ice Follies Pink sharm Prof. Einstein Red devon
Salome Semper Avanti StainLess Large-crown mixture

Small-crowned daffodils: varieties with photos and names

Daffodils Tazetta: varieties with photos and names

Orchid daffodils: varieties with photos and names

Botanical daffodils: varieties with photos and names

Bulbocodium var. conspicuus

Classification of daffodils

1. Tubular(Trumpet) daffodils of garden origin. The varieties of this group are characterized by the presence of one flower on a strong peduncle. The main feature is that the tube is equal to or longer than the perianth lobes.

2. Large-crowned (Large-cupped) daffodils of garden origin. The flower crown is shorter than the perianth lobes, but is more than 1/3 of their length.

3. Small-crowned (Small-cupped) daffodils of garden origin. The length of the crown is less than 1/3 of the length of the perianth lobe, the flowers are large, single.

4. Terry (Double) daffodils of garden origin. They occurred as a result of mutations of various species, according to the structure of the perianths, they are divided into 5 groups. Flowers are single or collected in a raceme.

5. Triandrus (Triandrus) daffodils of garden origin. The varieties of this group have all the characteristics. daffodil (N. triandrus) - the crown is small, in the form of a "cup", the petals are slightly pulled back, the flowers are small, 2–6 per stem.

6. Cyclameniform(Cyclamineus) daffodils of garden origin. These varieties have occurred as a result of crossing cultivated varieties with species daffodil cyclamen (N. cyclamineus) - a crown in the form of a narrow long tube, the petals are pulled back, on the peduncle there are 1-2 small flowers.

7. Jonquilliaceae (Jonquilla) daffodils of garden origin. The varieties of this group were obtained by crossing with the species Jonquille's daffodil (N. jonquilla). Small flowers with small crowns. The stem usually has 2 to 6 flowers. They are quite thermophilic, they do not live long in the middle zone.

8. Tacette (Tazetta) daffodils of garden origin. The cultivars have inherited many traits. daffodil bouquet (N. tazetta). The crowns are small, on the peduncle there are from 2 to 5 medium-sized flowers. Bloom late. In the middle lane, they require mandatory shelter for the winter.

9. Poetic(Poeticus) daffodils of garden origin. A small group of aromatic varieties with a large flat single flower and a very small flat crown. These varieties can be planted in partial shade.

10. Split-crown(Split-Corona) daffodils of garden origin. This very young group (selected in 1975) combines varieties with a strong crown dissection.

11. Bulbocodium hybrids (Bulbocodium hybrids). Single flower. Wide-open crown (tube), very narrow petals.

12. Species daffodils (Spieces). Natural species and their cultural forms

12. Other daffodils (Others). This includes varieties and species that are not included in the previous groups.

To this day, about 50,000 varieties of daffodils have been bred, and many new products appear every year. Varieties have been bred with pink shades of the crown, and with multi-colored, brightly colored with large, fragrant, densely double, fantastically beautiful flowers.

Elegant and beautiful tubular daffodils such as'Spellbinder'' with white crown and yellow petals. Large-crowned ones are no less popular: 'Precocious', 'Oregon Snow', 'Manon LeScaut ', 'Rosy Sunrise'. Among the new products - 'Berlin'with a highly corrugated bright crown. Small-crowned daffodils are light and graceful. Very good 'Audubon'and'Lancaster'.Elegant terry daffodils: 'Obdam', 'Modern Art ','Delnashaugh', 'My story'.

The peak of popularity of daffodils with a split crown came at the end of the 20th century. Many varieties of this group turned out to be unstable, but many masterpieces remained, such as'Chanterelle'. New wonderful varieties have appeared: 'Pink wonder', 'SunnySide Up'. Interest in triandrus ('Thalia'), cyclamen-like ('Jetfire', 'Wisley', 'Cotinga'), taffy ('Avalanche') groups. Many of them have exquisite strong aromas.

The species was first bred in 1538. The Italians liked the daffodil for its strong fragrance. The size of the blossoming flower reaches six centimeters. The flower-bearing stalk grows longer than the leaves and can reach fifty centimeters. The plant emerges from the ground in early spring, is actively growing and begins to bloom in the month of May. Flowering period up to 12 days.

When the temperature drops below 10 degrees in winter, the flower requires shelter.

After reviewing the photo with the daffodil and the description of the variety, you can choose the plant you like of the poetic daffodil and breed it on your site.

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