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Cherry pruning: basic rules and features of processing different types

Cherry pruning: basic rules and features of processing different types


Any gardener who grows cherry on his plot should be able to prune the tree to provide him with the best conditions for development. To successfully complete the procedure, you need to familiarize yourself with the basic rules, depending on the type of cherry and the desired result.

Reasons for pruning cherries

Cherry pruning plays an important role in maintaining the health of the tree, and also allows:

  • form the crown correctly, which contributes to better development, fruiting and good immunity;
  • increase yields and rejuvenate the tree. Since the crown of a cherry is in close connection with the roots, an excessive amount of branches overloads the root system, and it cannot fully supply the tree with nutrients. Removing most of the non-viable shoots allows the cherry to channel energy into the formation of new branches and the formation of fruits;
  • prevent diseases. A properly formed, non-thickened crown will be able to receive a sufficient amount of sunlight, which will positively affect the development of the plant, and good ventilation will serve as a preventive measure against various diseases, especially fungal ones.

Many gardeners believe that it is not worth pruning cherries, as this can provoke gum flow. But such a situation can arise only when a large number of branches are cut out of the crown at once.

Pruning rules

To properly trim, it is important to choose the right time, be familiar with the cutting technique, and use a sharp tool.

Timing

The timing of pruning depends on your goals:

  • the first formative pruning is carried out immediately after planting, in the 2nd-4th year - in the period from mid-March to early April, before the start of sap flow. In this case, the air temperature should be at least -5aboutFROM;
  • It is advisable to carry out sanitary pruning in the fall, from mid-September to early October, after the sap flow has stopped. The air temperature should be -5-8aboutFROM;
  • rejuvenating pruning can be done in spring and autumn at the same time and temperature as other pruning.

Making slices

When removing thick old shoots, a cut per ring is used. Take a closer look at the branch and you will notice ring-shaped nodules at its base. You need to cut the branch along the upper edge of the ring. Do not leave hemp and do not cut with the ring - this threatens the appearance of a hollow, cracking of the wood and rotting of the bark.

It is necessary to cut correctly so as not to injure the tree.

If you need to cut the outer bud (for example, to avoid thickening the crown and direct the branch outward), then make an oblique cut (about 45about) at a distance of 0.5 cm from the outward-facing kidney.

When cut correctly, it is flush with the kidney

Instruments

To carry out pruning, you will need:

  • secateurs (it is convenient for them to cut thin branches);
  • lopper (able to cope with branches up to 2.7 cm in diameter located in the depth of the crown);
  • garden saw, especially when performing anti-aging pruning.

Do not forget to lubricate the trimmed areas with garden varnish or varnish-based oil paint, as well as disinfect the tools to prevent infection from entering the tree. To do this, they can be calcined over a fire, wiped with a rag moistened with alcohol or a 5% solution of copper sulfate.

Formative pruning of various types of cherries

Crown formation measures may differ depending on the type of cherry, but the schemes themselves are universal and can be applied in any region.

Pruning tree cherries

The tree cherry is often found in garden plots. Popular varieties:

  • Zhukovskaya,
  • Turgenevka,
  • Nord Star,
  • The bottle is pink.

Its main feature is considered to be fruiting on bouquet branches. They give a harvest within 5 years, but on condition that their length is not less than 30-50 cm.

All tree cherry buds can give rise to new shoots

Table: formation of the crown of a tree cherry

After 4 years, cherries require sanitary and anti-aging pruning

Pruning bush cherries

Bushy (bush) cherry (Vladimirskaya, Bagryanaya) is also successfully grown by many gardeners. Unlike tree varieties, bushy forms fruits on annual branches. Another feature of such a cherry is the presence of a growth bud at the end of the branch, therefore, if there are no branches on it, it cannot be shortened, otherwise the shoot may dry out.

A growth bud is located at the end of a bush cherry branch, so you cannot shorten the branches

Table: formation of the crown of bush cherry

When pruning bush cherries, remember not to shorten the branches.

Felt Cherry Pruning

The main difference between the felt cherry is the pubescence of the shoots and leaves, as well as the short pedicels, due to which the flowers and fruits stick around the shoots.

Felt cherry berries are tightly arranged on a branch

Table: Felt cherry crown shaping

To get a felt cherry bush, you must leave the strongest shoots growing from the root head annually.

Sanitary pruning

Sanitary pruning is usually done annually or every 2 years.

Table: how to sanitize different types of cherries

After trimming, collect the debris and incinerate it.

Video: rules for pruning cherries

Anti-aging pruning

Taking into account the fact that cherry trees live 12-15 years, the first rejuvenating pruning should be done when the plant reaches the age of 8 years. Another sign indicating the need to rejuvenate the tree cherry is a decrease in the length of the one-year growth to 20 cm, and in the bush, the bare ends of the branches. Felt cherries do not show such signs, so be guided by age and yield.

It is advisable to carry out rejuvenating pruning not immediately completely, but within 2-3 years, so that the cherry does not lose too many branches and does not gum.

Trimming algorithm:

  1. Remove old, dead, twisted branches, including skeletal ones.
  2. Remove root shoots.
  3. On a tree cherry, cut off the remaining skeletal branches to the first strong lateral branch outward (you need to count from the top), remove excess branches (for example, in the center of the crown), and shorten the remaining branches to 40–45 cm at the top bud.
  4. On bush cherries, also trim off the skeletal branches to the first strong side branch. Remove excess thickening growth. Do not forget that it is not recommended to shorten the shoots, so as not to reduce the yield and not to harm the further growth of the shoot. If you really need to shorten any branch, then also cut it to the side branch.
  5. For felt cherries, it is recommended to remove the excess growth and cut the shoots back by 1/3 until they reach a length of 60 cm.

Trimming for transfer (lateral branch) should be carried out outside the crown

Cherry pruning is not difficult and can be done by any gardener. Follow all the recommendations and you will certainly provide your cherry with the best conditions for growth, and the tree will thank you with a quality harvest.

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Timing of pruning trees in spring

An important question in tree pruning is exactly when to do it. If this procedure is carried out too early, while the temperatures are still low, the tree may not tolerate frost. If you tighten the pruning before the start of sap flow, the plant will "cry" for a long time.

The ideal weather for "cutting" the garden is clear, slightly frosty, with an air temperature of at least –5 ° C. In the middle lane, the timing of pruning trees in spring is usually limited to the period from mid-March to mid-April.


Correct pruning of cherries and cherries in the fall

Before you start pruning, you need to learn how to make the right cut. The diagrams show sections for the bud (when cutting off a part of the shoot) and for the ring (when you need to completely cut out the branch). Below you will see how to do the correct trim for the ring.

When the branch is partially removed, pruning is used for the bud. The approximate cutting angle is 45 degrees, which will reduce the likelihood of rotting. The direction is outward of the crown, this will prevent the subsequent thickening of the tree.

And now we will consider in detail what to cut on cherries and tree cherries in the fall. We will tell you about bush cherry separately.

So, the main purpose of autumn pruning is reorganization and thinning. It is necessary to remove some of the extra branches so that the plant does not waste energy on maintaining ballast. Examine the tree carefully and remove:

  • dry, diseased and damaged branches that can become sources of infection
  • thickening branches
  • shoots growing inside the trunk
  • branches that look down
  • young root growth.

Also, it will not be superfluous to remove tops (powerful fattening shoots), young shoots on the trunk, lower branches at forks and intersecting shoots. These cases are clearly shown in the diagram.

Do not try to delete all of the above in one go, since such global pruning of young cherries and cherries in the fall can weaken trees and even lead to their death. Better to do the work in stages, paying attention to a specific problem each year. Do not touch small shoots until spring.

Pruning old cherries and cherries in the fall has a special feature. If the trees are already very tall, it is necessary to cut 60-90 cm from the tops, leaving up to 3 m of the main trunk. Young trees can be subjected to such a procedure only two years after planting and provided that the trunk grows at least 75 cm annually. Pruning old cherries and sweet cherries in the fall is usually limited to thinning. However, if necessary, you can also shorten shoots that are too long using the bud cut method (cut no more than 1 m at the same time). This will redistribute nutrients and increase yields.

When pruning young cherries and sweet cherries in the fall, it is important to pay more attention to thinning, but now you can calculate how you will carry out spring formative pruning.

After pruning, the crown of the tree will become more transparent. Each branch will receive more light and there will be no risk that weak shoots will freeze or break under the snow in winter.

Cherry and sweet cherry seedlings are not pruned in autumn, but if necessary, you can carefully remove the interfering or dry branch.


Tips from experienced gardeners

Following the recommendations of specialists, the procedure will be easy and efficient:

  1. The pruner should be held with the narrow part towards the branch.
  2. When a year has passed after planting the seedling, it is necessary to cut the branches by 7 cm, and the trunk by 20 cm.
  3. You need to cut the branches right at the base of the trunk so that there are no stumps.
  4. When removing a massive and heavy branch, it is necessary to file it from the bottom, and then from above, so as not to damage the bark if the branch suddenly begins to fall.
  5. If the tree is frozen, then it is better to postpone pruning it until next spring.

Following these simple rules, in the summer it will be possible to harvest a rich harvest of juicy and mouth-watering fruits.


Watch the video: Pruning Deciduous Fruit Trees