Video about forsythia: care, formation and pruning, fertilization, propagation by cuttings
Video about forsythia. As soon as the snow melts, the snowdrops bloom, at the same time the amazing forsythia shrub blooms, which will be discussed today. The name "Forsythia" is given in honor of the Scottish botanist and gardener William Forsyth, he was also one of the founders of the Royal Botanic Society. In Russia, forsythia has been cultivated since 1917. In nature, forsythia grows in the deciduous forests of the Korean Peninsula. Of the seven existing species, I would recommend oval forsythia or ovoid forsythia, the Latin name for forsythia is "ovata". Since it is the most winter-hardy, it does not require shelter for the winter, it is also very drought-resistant and unpretentious.
Forsythia is one of the first to bloom and fills our garden with spring mood. Its main advantage is that flowers appear on the shoots earlier than leaves. The flowers of forsythia "ovata" are up to 2 cm in diameter. In general, the shrub grows to a height of 1.5-2 m and a width of about 2 m. I would recommend forming it at the level of 1.3 m or 1.5 m, also in in diameter, do not allow it to reach a 2-meter size, since our gardens are small and I want to place a lot of plants in them.
Detailed information with a photo about planting forsythia and caring for it.
Forsythia is very unassuming to care for. In the spring, right now, when the flowers have blossomed on them, you can apply a complex fertilizer with trace elements, after 2 weeks - about a month later - you can repeat the feeding. If fertilizers are not applied, it will still continue to grow, this will not affect in any way, but you will also be grateful for organic fertilization during the season.
Reproduction of forsythia
Forsythia easily propagate by seeds, cuttings, air layers. In the middle of summer, we can cut semi-lignified shoots of 20 centimeters each, make a substrate from well-rotted peat and sand, and plant cuttings there. It is advisable to cover them with a film or a five-liter bottle. For better rooting of forsythia cuttings, you can dip them in root or hold them in a heteroauxin solution.
Forsythia blooms for 10-20 days, after which seeds ripen in October, which can be sown. Seedlings bloom for 4-5 years.
Forsythia flowers have a delicate sweetish aroma, but it is felt only when approaching the bush.
For forsythia it is easy enough to pick up neighbors, it can be Cossack juniper, spirea, Thunberg barberries and other plants. The most amazing combination can be obtained when planting forsythia and Ledebour's rhododendron or Deursky rhododendron. Since they bloom at the same time, it is very abundant, completely covering the branches with flowers, and lilac and yellow colors are well combined.
Forsythia needs annual pruning. Today we will cut this specimen mercilessly. We drew a shape for ourselves in our head, usually it is a spherical shape, and we will cut off everything that visually goes beyond its boundaries. When pruning, we try not to leave stumps, we make a cut immediately above the bud, and in such a way that the branches grow outward. That is, in the direction of bud growth, you can determine in which direction the future branch will grow. If I slice here, the branch will grow in roughly the same direction. If I cut here, the branch will grow outward. Semi-lignified shoots can also be used for rooting. That is, we cut off everything that stuck out and went beyond the limit of the visually drawn sphere from above. So that the crown is well lit, ventilated, not thickened, we cut off all branches that grow inward. There is no need to regret, we are doing good.
If the forsythia has become too old, does not bloom well and takes up a lot of space, you can "plant it on a tree stump." This is the name for radical pruning at ground level. Forsythia after such pruning quickly recovers, will give many new shoots that will delight you with beautiful flowers.
By the spring holidays, you can make forcing shoots forsythia, that is, in January-February, cut the branches and put them in the water. Forsythia flowers can beautify any interior.
Let me remind you once again that forsythia is very unpretentious. The type of forsythia "ovata" is oval, ovoid - the most winter-hardy, drought-resistant, practically not affected by diseases and pests.
Forsythia looks good as a tapeworm and in complex compositions. It is suitable for both large parks and small gardens. Forsythia shrubs are planted at a distance of 2 m.
In caring for forsythia, you can make 2 mistakes: planting it too close to other shrubs, and the second is to fertilize in late August or late autumn. The fact is that the shoots must mature and prepare for winter, that is, in no case should any fertilizers be applied at the end of August and in the fall. Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied once a month from May to July.
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Features of species and varieties
In some of the warmest countries, the spring gold shrub blooms in February or March. Gardeners who want to achieve the same result often order seedlings of European forsythia varieties. But this is not entirely correct. We will understand all the intricacies of choosing planting material, planting and growing this flowering shrub.
Not all plants of this species are yellow
In European countries, the following types of forsythia are used for landscaping and decorating gardens, squares, streets:
- Dark green
Some types of forsythia have 2-5 varieties. The most popular varieties are Golden Times, Fiesta, Variegata, Spectabilis, Weekend, Beatrix Farrand.
However, most types of forsythia, in particular European and dark green, do not tolerate frost very well. Gardeners complain that only that part of the bush that was under the snow survives after frost. And in our garden centers it is these forsythia seedlings grown in foreign nurseries that are sold.
If the gardener lives in the southern lane, he can buy and plant any kind of shrub. But if it is planned to grow the above species and varieties of forsythia in the northern region, it will have to be well insulated for the winter.
Less commonly, planting material of frost-resistant plant species can be found in garden stores. These are, in particular, drooping (drooping, drooping) and ovoid, as well as Zimbold's forsythia and intermediate. Well, if you find a zoned variety in some nursery, then it will definitely take root and winter well.
All types and varieties of forsythia are similar in appearance, but each plant has its own characteristics. - height (up to 3 meters), crown shape, flowering period and other varietal or species qualities. Therefore, before buying seedlings, you need to ask the seller in detail about all important aspects.
Pruning Cossack juniper
Juniper is a coniferous culture, the care of which is not difficult. All that is needed is to weed and loosen the soil, water and spray the bushes in hot weather, and also periodically trim. Most gardeners are interested in how to prune a juniper, what is needed for this, and when such actions are correct to carry out.
Focusing on what shape of the crown should turn out, the following ways are distinguished by which pruning is carried out:
- Point - this method involves shaping the shoots, cutting them to formed buds. This method helps to form bushes for the first time when the juniper has a few more branches. Varieties that growers would like to leave a natural creeping look can also be pruned in the same way. For this, the selected shoots are cut above the bud, about 2-3 cm, with an incision at an angle of 45 degrees
- Blind - pruning Cossack juniper in this way involves cutting off almost all young branches using a garden tool. When such a "hairstyle" is done for plants, there is no need to become attached to the location of the buds or anything else. It is so good to arrange a living fence from the culture, it is suitable for bushes with dense, well-developed crowns.
It is best, knowing how to trim juniper, choose cloudy days for the procedure. It is important that this is a cool period, for example, autumn. Additionally, before cutting, it is recommended to spray the bushes using sprinkler irrigation. Moistened coniferous branches are much easier to cut, and garden tools are not dull.
One of the most important properties of conifers is fast branching. Therefore, the topiary method of care is aimed, first of all, at reducing the activity of shoot development in order to improve their natural decorative appearance.
Of the entire mass of branches, it is necessary to select only a few of those that are correctly located. The remaining coniferous mass must be cut out, leaving only the shoots growing at the top. Here's how to prune horizontal juniper, Cossack and rocky species in order to form a bush. Subsequent measures involve only the removal of young branches that appeared in the following seasons. In this case, it is allowed to remove no more than 25% of the increase in one season.
The common juniper variety does not need frequent haircuts. The superficial removal of young shoots is sufficient to increase the density of the crowns. It is recommended to cut hedges several times during the summer, shortening the branches sticking out of the fence. In a larger mass, the crop easily tolerates formation and pruning, but to reduce the recovery period, the plant is sprayed with growth stimulants.
Propagation by seeds and layering
So how to propagate forsythia? It is well accepted when grown in green and lignified cuttings. Two more methods are less popular - this is reproduction by layering, as well as by seeds. The latter, by the way, is very laborious, but with the help of seeds, healthy forsythia can be grown in large quantities. But this is a very long time, the cycle from planting seeds to flowering can stretch for a very long time.
Reproduction of forsythia in spring by layering begins with the fact that the shoots on the mother plant must be cut under a stump so that healthy young branches can grow over the summer. Already in the fall, they will need to be bent to the ground and placed in shallow grooves. For reliability, it is better to pin the escape with a piece of wire, and only then cover it with earth. The soil before such a "planting" also needs preliminary processing. Firstly, it must be well loosened, and secondly, at the bottom of the grooves it is better to arrange a drainage layer of fine gravel crushed stone. From above it should be sprinkled with soil.
It is allowed to propagate by layering not only in autumn, but also in early spring, but the shoots must be young.
Forsythia planting and care in the open field
Today, forsythia is widely used to decorate city streets and private gardens, primarily due to the fact that yellow flowers bloom in early spring, even before the leaves appear on the branches of the bush.
Planting forsythia should be carried out in the spring or at the beginning of autumn, with the expectation that the bush has time to take root before the frost, so be guided by the conditions of your place of residence. Light areas that are not blown by winds are good for planting, partial shade is also suitable, but the sun is still preferable.
The composition of the soil is also not fundamental, the main thing is that the substrate is not excessively wet and has an alkaline reaction. If the soil in your garden is acidic, then it must be dug up with ash to shift the reaction to alkaline.
The height and width of the planting hole should be approximately 0.5 m each, and the depth 60 cm.When planting several plants, make sure that there is at least 1.5 m between them.A 20 cm drainage layer is placed at the bottom of the planting hole, then 10 cm of sand, then put mixed leaf soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 2 to 1 and to 1. Fill the hole so that after planting, the root system of the seedling is placed at a depth of 35 cm.
Next, the seedling is placed in a hole and sprinkled with earth, after which the soil is slightly trampled and watered well. In the fall, in addition to these procedures, it is also necessary to cover the area with mulch.
Lilac can also be used as a design for a garden plot, it is easily grown when planting and nursing in the open field. You can find recommendations for growing this plant in this article.
Tips from experienced gardeners
To carry out correct propagation by cuttings, you must adhere to the advice of experienced professionals:
- it is recommended to cut the cuttings early in the morning, before sunrise it is during this period that the branches contain the maximum moisture, so they take root faster
- rooting must be started immediately if this is not possible, then the cuttings must be put in water so that they take root - it is important that the leaves are not in the water
- the best environment for the cutting is a greenhouse, it creates the best conditions for the plant
- so that the leaves do not consume a lot of moisture, they must be cut in half
- cuttings are harvested from the strongest branches of a fertile tree
In addition, it is important to prepare everything in advance, that is, to outline in advance the branches from which the cuttings will be harvested. Then prepare the area in the garden and prepare the soil with manure and sand mixture. It is recommended to take river sand, as it contains many minerals necessary to create the "correct" microflora.
On the video - harvesting of apricot cuttings:
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