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Cryptomeria

Cryptomeria


The plant Cryptomeria is a member of the cypress family. It is also known as Japanese cedar, although it does not belong to this genus. The tree is compared to cedar because of its high growth and majesty.

Cryptomeria includes only one species that lives only in the mountainous regions of China and Japan, where such a tree is considered a national symbol. The Chinese call cryptomeria "shan", and the Japanese call it "sugi".

Due to its beauty, this coniferous plant has long won the love of gardeners. It was brought to European countries in the middle of the 19th century. Today, cryptomeria are grown both in gardens and at home. But for this you need to study well all the features of an unusual tree.

Description of cryptomeria

Cryptomeria can live in nature for many centuries, during this time reaching impressive sizes - up to 60 m in height with a 2-meter diameter of the trunk. It is believed that the oldest cryptomeria in Japan, the Jomon-sugi tree, is over 7 thousand years old. In the decorative culture, such trees have a more modest appearance and usually grow to only 3 m. The plants have a straight cylindrical trunk covered with red-brown peeling bark and a spectacular pyramidal crown. The bark has a characteristic pattern formed by dark resin. The needles on the branches are slightly curved and arranged in a spiral. Young needles are soft to the touch, but gradually become stronger and harder. Their size depends on the variety - from needles about 2.5 cm long to miniature needles from 3 mm. By autumn, the green color of the needles often changes to brownish, crimson or silver. Yellow flowers appear singly or in bunches at the ends of the shoots. Cones are round and small (up to 2-3 cm) in size. Ripening in the first year, after dropping the seeds, they continue to hang on the tree until spring.

Cryptomeria wood has a pleasant aroma, it is light and almost not subject to decay, but due to its softness it is more often used for decorative items or small household items.

Indoor cryptomeria has many beneficial properties. The plant gives off not only a pleasant, but also a healing coniferous aroma. The oils it contains have bactericidal and antiviral properties. In the whole room where cryptomeria grows, a favorable and healthy microclimate is created.

Cryptomeria care at home

At home, cryptomeria can be grown in a pot or tub based on the size of the variety. The roots of small trees may well fit in such a container. The features of their content in this case will be somewhat different from the garden ones.

Lighting

Indoor cryptomerism will also require good lighting. Small specimens can be placed between window frames, if the design of the window allows it. But they do not keep the pot in bright light - the plant can get burns and will take a long time to recover. For uniform development of the crown, the container is periodically turned towards the light on different sides.

Temperature

In the spring and summer of cryptomeria, the usual room temperature is suitable, but in winter the tree should be kept cool - about 12 degrees. Houseplants will need an influx of fresh air, so the room with them will have to be systematically ventilated. In the summer, you can move the pot of cryptomeria to the garden, balcony or loggia. If the temperature is suitable for the tree in winter, you can leave it on the balcony for good.

Watering

Cryptomeria watering is carried out without waiting for the soil to dry out. In addition, spraying will be required. They are carried out up to 2 times a day, choosing the hours when the sun does not shine on the branches. The amount of watering must be calculated so as not to flood the plant. Constant waterlogging can lead to root rot. For irrigation, use clean and slightly warm water, filtered or settled. Due to the trees' dislike for an alkaline environment, it is better not to use ceramic containers - their walls are gradually covered with lime. If cryptomeria winters in a warm place, the irrigation regime is not changed. If the pot is cool, watering is reduced by about 2 times.

Top dressing

Potted cryptomeria should be fed in the summer, at the beginning and at the end. For this, mineral supplements are used in a dosage that is half of the recommended. Young plants can be fertilized a little more often.

Transfer

Cryptomeria growing in capacity will have to be transplanted. Young trees are transferred to a new pot once a year, adults (from 3 years old or more) - once every 5 years. In this case, the pot should be replaced only if the roots no longer fit in it. Transplants stimulate growth, therefore, to maintain dwarf forms, they should be moved less often. In addition, this procedure is stressful for the plant. To keep the potting soil fresh, it is recommended that you replace the top layer every year.

Cryptomeria should be transplanted with a soil clod, carefully transferring it into a new container. An exception is made for diseased specimens that need a complete soil change.

If room cryptomeria is purchased in a store, you should contact only trusted companies and immediately choose a healthy tree. When it is acclimatized at home, it is transplanted, and then kept in the shade for several days, trying not to move it unnecessarily. Watering is carried out a couple of hours after transplanting, and feeding is not carried out for at least a month.

Pruning

Bushy specimens will need shaping. To do this, their shoots are periodically pinched. In the spring, sanitary pruning of cryptomeria is carried out - dry or too loose branches are removed from the plants.

Cultivation of cryptomeria in the open field

Caring for garden cryptomeria has its own characteristics. In warm and humid climates, plants can be used to decorate the garden. For example, such trees can be found on the shores of the Black Sea. For cryptomeria to look good, grow and develop properly, the following growing conditions must be observed.

Landings will require moderate lighting. Cryptomerias prefer sunny (but not too hot) or semi-shady places. Preferences may vary depending on the characteristics of the variety. In summer, the optimal temperature for a tree is 25 degrees, and in winter - about 12 degrees. The plant does not like heat, like severe cold.

For the cultivation of cryptomeria, neutral or slightly acidic soil is used. The roots go deep enough that trees should not be planted in areas with high groundwater. Calcareous, waterlogged and poor soils should also be avoided. Manure or compost can be added to the soil before planting, and the tree can be well drained. For planting, select a place closed from a cold draft.

Cryptomeria is hygrophilous and needs regular watering in the warm season. By autumn, their volumes are reduced. If the summer is dry, sprinkler irrigation is carried out using lukewarm water. Mulching with a layer of peat or coniferous bark will help keep the trunk circle moist.

The trees should be fertilized periodically. In the spring, organic matter or complex mineral compositions are introduced into the near-stem area. If the soil on which cryptomeria grows is too poor, feeding can be repeated towards the end of autumn, adding potassium and phosphorus or wood ash to the soil. This will help to strengthen the wood before wintering.

Reproduction of cryptomeria

Cryptomeria can be propagated by seeds, cuttings or cuttings. Each of the listed methods has its own subtleties. The most difficult thing is to get new plants from seeds, so they are rarely used.

Growing from seeds

Seeds older than one year lose significantly in germination, so fresh seed should be used. It is preliminarily stratified to improve the percentage of germinating seeds and increase their winter hardiness. Wet seeds on a plate, in a sandy-moss mixture or in a coconut substrate (1: 3) are placed in the refrigerator compartment, where they keep no more than 5 degrees for 2-3 months. To obtain seedlings, you will need cups filled with a mixture of peat and river sand. Seeds are placed in them one by one, the substrate is watered and the cups are covered with foil. They should be kept in a warm and bright place. At a high (about 26-28 degrees) temperature, seedlings will appear faster, but even in this case, germination will take from a couple of weeks to 2-3 months. Like all conifers, cryptomeria seedlings are slow in development.

Cryptomeria and evergreen pyramidal cypress from seeds, a year later.

Reproduction by layering

Garden cryptomeria is easy to propagate by layering. To do this, select several lower branches on the tree. They are cleaned of needles, pressed to the ground, slightly incised, fixed and lightly covered with soil. When young plants form their own roots, they can be separated from the main cryptomeria and transplanted to a new location. It usually takes about 2-3 months for rooting.

Cuttings

The simplest method for obtaining new cryptomeria is considered to be cuttings. It is usually held at the end of the summer. Strong, but not stiff, apical shoots are cut from the tree. Their lower part is cleaned of needles and the cuttings are kept in a solution of a root formation stimulator for up to a day. After that, the seedlings are placed in water or immediately placed in a light peat-sandy soil. For plants create greenhouse conditions, covering with a jar or bag, and put in heat and light. Caring for cuttings consists of periodic watering and regular airing. When new shoots are formed on them, the plants can be considered rooted and planted in their own pots.

Both seedlings and seedlings will need to be formed - they are regularly pinched.

Diseases and pests

Cryptomeria can throw off needles from a lack of moisture in the soil. But because of the tree's love for moist soil, the soil is sometimes waterlogged. Constant presence in damp soil can lead to root rot and the development of diseases. The risk of overflow of domestic specimens is especially high, although garden cryptomeria sometimes suffers from this. Such plants begin to turn yellow and die without taking measures. To avoid this, it is necessary to remove all affected parts from cryptomeria by treating the sections with crushed coal or another antiseptic. The tree cleared of diseased areas is transplanted into fresh disinfected soil. The crown is sprayed with a fungicide solution, carrying out several treatments with a week break, and the area near the trunk is also watered with the same agent.

Along with the overflow, bright light is also capable of harming cryptomeria. If a tree stands in constant sunlight, its needles begin to turn yellow. Noticing this, it is necessary to correct the position of cryptomeria by rearranging or shaking it in some way. If the needles began to dry out in the depths of the crown, this is not a sign of illness, but the natural process of their aging - the needles have a lifespan of up to 7 years.

Cryptomeria has no special pests, but occasionally trees can be annoyed by spider mites or scale insects. Against them, systemic insect control agents should be used, acting strictly according to the instructions.

Types and varieties of cryptomeria with photos and names

The only type of cryptomeria - Japanese (Cryptomeria japonica) - has two varieties (japonica and sinensis), as well as many decorative varieties. These include both tall and miniature plants, allowing the selection of Cryptomeria to suit almost any growing location. Among the most common varieties of cryptomeria for horticulture are:

Elegans

Slow-growing, tall (up to 2 m) and unpretentious drought-resistant variety, characterized by soft long needles. Fully adapted to urban conditions and different climates. This variety of Cryptomeria is not only frost-resistant, but also able to grow in arid conditions. He is not afraid of city dust and smoke. Practically nothing can affect its decorative qualities and development. Trees can even be planted in partial shade plots.

Throughout the year, the color of the needles pleases with different colors. In summer, it turns brown-green, and in winter, coniferous branches delight the eye with green-purple and bronze-red tints. Cones form only on young specimens.

Elegans Viridis

Along with Elegance, this variety is resistant to temperature extremes, therefore it is ideal for growing in regions with unstable weather. This cryptomeria has a wide cone-shaped crown.

Among the plants suitable for home cultivation, the following varieties are distinguished:

Bandai-Sugi

The variety is well known to European gardeners and landscape designers. Such dwarf trees have sprawling coniferous branches of a bluish-green hue.

Nana albospica

An original variety with white needles gradually changing color to light green.

Yokohama

These plants are especially appreciated by bonsai lovers. The height reaches only 30 cm, they have a pyramidal crown. The needles are deep green in color, and turn brown by autumn.

Vilmoriniana

Dwarf variety. It is often preferred by gardeners, since the plant does not take up much space on the site, but decorates it perfectly. In winter, the decorative qualities of the plant are especially noticeable. The reddish-lilac shade of the needles stands out from the rest of the plants. Great for bonsai formation. Its annual growth is only 3 cm. Such plants are considered very hardy and attract with a neat and elegant crown.

Spiralis

Small bushy variety with needles, spirally twisted around the branches.

Arauicarioides

This plant is distinguished by short needles of bright green color. Its numerous shoots are randomly arranged and have an impressive length. A tree may have several trunks.

Compressa

A small tree with many neat short shoots covered with needles. In summer, the plant acquires a bluish-green color, and in winter it becomes reddish.

Montrosa

Trees up to 2 m tall, with a columnar crown and straight trunks.

Globosa nana

The variety is distinguished by its rounded shape, forming a dense bush. The color of green needles changes to bronze-purple by winter. This is a frost-resistant cryptomeria that tolerates frosts down to -12 degrees. In the southern regions, this allows you to grow it outdoors or on a glazed loggia.

Cryptomeria in landscape design

Cryptomeria is often used to decorate gardens and parks. Numerous varieties, differing in external characteristics, allow you to choose a plant of the required size and color. Trees can often be found in recreation areas; they are also used as part of protective forest belts.

Cryptomeria can be planted in groups, forming green hedges or beautiful compositions from specimens of different sizes. Such trees will look no less good in the company of decorative deciduous plants and species with beautiful fruits (euonymus, barberry). You can combine cryptomeria with other coniferous plantings.

Due to its decorativeness, cryptomeria can become a decoration of any garden, which pays for the relative difficulties of caring for such a tree.


Japanese cryptomeria

• for spacious rooms, primarily for winter gardens, offices
• less often in room culture, at a distance of 1-2 m from windows in the south or west direction

the first 5 years in the spring, Cryptomeria is transplanted into a pot with a larger diameter, plants older than 5 years - once every 3-4 years, but annually renew the soil to a depth of about 5 cm

turf land: leafy land: sand (2: 1: 1)

• if kept in the bright sun, the needles may turn yellow (burn)
• intolerance to dry indoor air, possibly yellowing and dropping of needles and twigs
• grows better at a constant moderate air temperature of 18-25 ° C
• the main pests are spider mites and scale insects

in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity

• rooting of non-lignified cuttings using rooting stimulants at a soil temperature during rooting of 25-30 ° C
• less often by sowing seeds

• demanding on air humidity (not less than 65%)
• poorly tolerates stagnant air, ventilation is necessary

• young needles are light green, soft, flat, up to 2.5 cm long, adult - hard, triangular, slightly curved
• there are many garden forms, differing both in the size and shape of the crown, and in the shape and color of the needles


Plants - symbols of Japanese gardens The text of the scientific article in the specialty "Art history»

environmental sustainability of each decorative type with the appropriateness of its use in different wind zones.

Atmospheric phenomena (fogs, blizzards, thunderstorms, hail, ice, dust storms) and soil temperature are recorded selectively in agroecological descriptions, only those that are really dangerous for plants in a given area are noted.

In conclusion of the report on the results of pre-project agroecological studies, methods of reclamation of the microclimate and mitigation of the impact on plants of hazardous atmospheric phenomena can be proposed, bearing in mind that the possibilities of reclamation of climatic parameters are very limited, that the most reliable approach to the formation of plantations from such crops for which microclimatic heterogeneity territory can be of decisive importance - careful selection of plant assortment separately for each clump, individually for each micro-site indicated on the agroecological map.

PLANTS-SYMBOLS OF JAPANESE GARDENS

Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science Main Botanical Garden named after N.V. Tsitsina Russian Academy of Sciences, e-mail: budilova.irina2010 @ yandex.rueastgardens @ mail.ru

In the modern world, Japanese gardening art has transcended national boundaries, having a significant impact on world gardening and landscape art, and has become a source of ideas for landscape architects and designers around the world. Many researchers and artists have long turned their attention to such a special phenomenon as the Japanese garden, and embraced the ideas of simplicity, harmony and minimalism characteristic of traditional Japanese culture, which formed the basis of new styles in architecture and design.

The assortment of plants in Japanese gardens is based, as in China, primarily on plants of the local flora, whose share of the total number of species is 67.1%. But the approach to plant selection has its own characteristics. The type of plants used in Japanese gardens is not as important as the symbolic meaning they contain. Together with stone, architectural elements and gravel, plants play the role of an important, but not the main component in the landscape and are nothing more than one of the materials used by the master to convey the image of his garden.

Traditionally, not only decorative qualities were valued in plants, but those properties that evoked a poetic feeling through aroma, color, shape, turning into emotional excitement.

In Japanese Shintoism, as in the pagan beliefs of other peoples, they deified nature, giving mystical meanings to its individual elements. In religious holidays, evergreens were especially revered, since it was believed that these very plants are the portals between the world of people and the world of deities. First of all, these include endemic pines (matsu), Japanese glue (sakaki), thick-leaved cypress (hinoki) and Japanese cryptomeria (kansugi). The Shinto deification of evergreens as dwellings of spirits organically merged with Chinese Buddhist and Taoist symbols.

The ancient Japanese believed that pines, cedars, cypress and camphor trees were inhabited by deities who passed them on to each other by inheritance. The practice of deifying plants with the least seasonal changes organically passed into Buddhism from Shinto worship of trees, as one of the manifestations of the divine forces of nature, therefore, evergreens were mainly used in early Buddhist gardens. There is a legend that the ancient Japanese gods ended up on the Japanese islands, descending first on the branches of a pine tree. Therefore, pine is one of the iconic evergreens in Japanese gardens and symbolizes the beginning of the year, longevity, eternity, immortality.

In the traditional New Year rite "kadomatsu", ie "Pine in front of the gate of the house", the pine was considered a symbol of the beginning of the year. Over time, bamboo branches were added to the composition of the kadomatsu ritual, which symbolized resistance to the winds and vitality, and the ume plum, which was considered a symbol of the awakening of nature and the beginning of spring.

With the development of agriculture and the introduction of new introduced (mainly from China) crops, ceremonies associated with plants also acquired a pronounced agricultural significance, which was based on longer and more detailed observations of plants. By the abundance of flowering of various plants, they tried to predict whether a peasant would have a bountiful or meager harvest in the coming year: abundant and prolonged flowering of cherries, deutia, azalea, and pieris foreshadowed a rich harvest, and early shedding of flowers - a meager one (Golosova, 2015).

Sakura was used as an indicator of the state of the environment during agricultural work, the flowering of which was considered a signal to plant rice. Sakura in Japan is usually called some types of cherries and bird cherries growing on the Japanese islands and which are the main species used in ornamental gardening: Prunus jamasakura, P. sargentii, P. lannesiana, P. pendula, P. verecunda, P. incisa, P nipponica, P. apétala, P. maximowiczii, P. buergeriana, P. grayana (Golosova, 2002).

Among these species, P. jamasakura was closest to the life of the Japanese, because grew in the immediate vicinity of human habitation. It was this species that the ancient Japanese perceived as Sakura before the Edo period. The Japanese name "Sakura" also has a long history. One of the proposed versions considers this name to be a composition of the words "sa" and "kura" and associates this name with rice plants. "Sa" means the spirit of cultures, and "kura" is the place for the Japanese god. Hence, it is said that the spirit of rice dwells in sakura (Kashioka, Ogisu, 1997). The great popularity of sakura among samurai was influenced by the biological feature of its flowers to fall to the ground fresh, not wilted. This property formed the basis for the symbol of the samurai's fearlessness to die young - "not withered." Until now, the depiction of sakura blossom is the main motif of the heraldry of the Japanese armed forces. Sung in folk epics, depicted on scrolls, ceramics, military paraphernalia, in ancient temples, Buddhist and Shinto, sakura has become an unofficial symbol of the land of the rising sun.

Another plant symbol with which the samurai identified themselves is iris (hana-shobu). In Japan, "iris" and "warrior spirit" are denoted by the same hieroglyph, and the narrow xiphoid leaves of the iris serve as a reminder of the blade of a samurai sword. In Japan, the Day of Boys (Future Warriors) is very popular, where the iris is the main symbol of the day. Along with sakura and iris, camellia (tsubaki) was also directly related to the military class. Originally a symbol of the goddess Amaterasu, camellia later symbolized

a short, but bright life and loyalty to the master, and the camellia flowers falling entirely resembled the severed heads of samurai.

Plant symbolism is one of the attributes of Japanese heraldry. The official symbol and coat of arms of the imperial power, the emperor and members of the imperial family is a yellow or orange sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum (kiku), the image of which was sacred and only the emperor of Japan could use it as a symbol. Chrysanthemum is a symbol of the sun and a symbol of the nation, longevity, laughter, joy, prosperity and happiness.

The importance of plants in the culture of the peoples of any country, especially in Japanese culture, is enormous. Philosophy, religious beliefs, traditions and aesthetic preferences directly influence the principles of plant selection, thereby shaping the style and character of traditional Japanese gardens.

BOTANICAL GARDEN IN THE CONTEXT OF A MEGAPOLIS

Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]

Traditionally, the role of botanical gardens is reduced to the task of preserving the gene pool. It is implemented through the study of the natural flora of the regions, the development of scientific foundations and methods for the introduction of plants, the scientific substantiation of the introduction of plants for various economic purposes into the culture, implies the development of effective methods for the preservation and reproduction of the gene pool, including the justification for the development of a system of specially protected natural areas and the protection of rare and endangered species. ... These functions of botanical gardens must be recognized as basic. However, botanical gardens cannot be separated from the historical, sociocultural and economic realities of the society in which they exist. Collections of botanical gardens are significant as a socio-cultural phenomenon. This can be evidenced by their growing popularity as a place of cultural leisure and recreation, organized educational activities and active educational work, a zone of aesthetic comfort, as well as an experimental site for the production of planting material. These additional functions of botanical gardens come to the fore when it comes to botanical gardens located in major cities.

The purpose of this work is to show effective ways of interaction between the botanical garden and society within the metropolis by the example of the activities of the Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences is located on one of the central streets of Yekaterinburg, covers an area of ​​slightly less than 50 hectares, surrounded by densely populated neighborhoods, several of which are associated with it by name. Excursions are organized on the basis of the greenhouse complex and landscape expositions of open ground throughout the calendar year. It is important to note that the excursion program is correlated with the calendar of secular holidays and major city events, such as the City Day and the international multicultural project "Night of Museums". Thematic excursion marathons for Defender of the Fatherland Day, Valentine's Day, March 8, costume programs for the New Year, Halloween and the Day of the Goddess Pomona (patroness of plants, flowers and gardens) were of particular interest. Quests have been developed that


Benjamin Driscoll's blog

For the sake of greater environmental friendliness and practicality, I want to buy a Christmas tree in a pot - and after the holidays give it a chance outside, in the country or on the balcony. It seems to be alive, with roots, small, to grow and grow ... And in general, why not get yourself a completely indoor Christmas tree? How convenient it would be.

But alas, conifers do not live in captivity. And even the chances of taking root in the open field with such a Christmas tree are not very great. Basically, potted trees are also intended for temporary use - they just have a root system, which means they will last a little longer in a living room, under stressful conditions, before withering away.
Though miracles do happen. How can you help it happen?

To begin with, determine - did you really buy the Christmas tree, from all types of the New Year's assortment of conifers (it may turn out to be, for example, a pine tree), and if the tree, whose?

This can be, for example, common spruce (Picea abies) Colorado spruce (Picea pungens var. Glauca "Blue Colorado spruce") gray spruce "Konica" (Picea glauca "Conica") Serbian spruce (Picea omorica) ...


Picea abies "Merkii" photo: F.D. Richards


Picea pungens var. glauca "Blue Colorado spruce" photo: Anna M. Stevenson

And also pine or fir. (If the pot says "Canadian" - this does not necessarily mean that the spruce comes from Canada - it means that the spruce is blue. Comparisons of names in reference books are indispensable ...)

The main suppliers of potted Christmas trees for the holiday are Denmark, Holland, Poland, the Baltic countries, Sweden and Finland. There are practically no Russian nurseries.


photo: Mark Bolin

Winter hardiness depends on where the trees were bred. Domestic varieties take root much better in our conditions, northern varieties are more resistant than German or Dutch ones. Fir trees and ate trees brought from Denmark and Holland on the site, most likely, will not survive in frosts.

As a general rule, the frost resistance of a Christmas tree in a pot should be 1-2 zones higher than your region.

If our conditions are theoretically suitable for a Christmas tree bought for a holiday (pine, fir), you can try to give it a chance. And if the tree survives until spring, transplant it into the ground.

The herringbone does not adapt well and survives in rooms. In winter, the coniferous period of dormancy, hibernation, they need fresh moist air and cold. If the Christmas tree wakes up ahead of time and gives shoots or bumps, it means that spring has come in the middle of winter, which requires appropriate lighting, and on the street in frosts it will already die. If it is too hot and dry at home, it is also bad, the needles will begin to crumble and dry.

In a heated room, any tree can be kept for no longer than two weeks without harm to its health. It is necessary to install it away from batteries and heating devices, in a well-lit place.

Since the trees need moist air, it is good to place a humidifier nearby, or at least put a wide vessel with water that would evaporate. The tree also needs regular spraying and moderate watering, avoiding waterlogging or drying out of the soil. It is better to take water for irrigation and spraying at room temperature. You do not need to water the tree with fertilizers until spring.

You can, of course, try to plant it on the site in winter, on one of the more or less warm days. However, winter planting of Christmas trees is not the easiest option (it would be easier to either plant a Christmas tree in early spring, growing it until next New Year, or contact a company that deals with winter planting of large trees).
At the end of the holidays, the tree is supposed to be sent to winter in a cool place. A large tub tree can be prepared for wintering by "reverse acclimatization" in a cold room - a sharp change in temperature is stressful for them. The tree is taught back to "wildness" gradually, by arranging for her acclimatization in the intermediate room.


photo: Niall McAuley

For wintering spruce and Christmas trees, a glazed balcony is suitable - with a temperature no higher than 10-15 degrees. Moisten the soil well (without flooding) before moving it out into the cold. Watering at the beginning of January should be reduced (especially during periods of severe frost), but not to allow the earthen coma to completely dry out. On the balcony, continue to spray the needles from time to time, keeping the air moist.
In addition to moisture, the Christmas tree will need light - however, not direct sunlight in order to avoid burns to the needles (this danger is especially relevant in spring). (Yes, there are many round dances with Christmas trees ...)

If there is no balcony, some growers get by with a cold window sill (with a constantly slightly open window with a micro-opener, for example) - but this does not always work, due to the batteries located under the windowsill. Others carry the Christmas tree to a cooler windowsill in the staircase. (And some inventors even overexpose the plant in the refrigerator for a while!)

It is better to put the plant not on the south window, but on the north - all because of the same direct sun. The side of the Christmas tree standing on the windowsill facing the room may begin to turn yellow and dry - from time to time turn the Christmas tree with different sides to the light source.

Despite the fact that the roots of the Christmas tree are considered one of the most frost-resistant, the pot with the Christmas tree must be insulated to prevent it from freezing.

Already in early spring, a Christmas tree from a pot can be transplanted to a permanent place. When choosing a place, keep in mind that it should be shaded, and also that coniferous trees grow 20-30 cm annually. And if the Christmas tree takes root, then over time it will grow into a large spruce.


F.D. Richards

A pit is prepared, which is larger in diameter than a lump of earth, by 20-30 cm, the walls of the pit are vertical. The composition of the earthen mixture for the tree: two parts of sod land and one part of peat and sand. When planting a plant, pay attention that the root collar does not go deep, it is at ground level. After planting, water the tree abundantly. A stressed and transplanted plant will take root better if you treat it with a stimulant solution such as Epin, Zircon or Radifarm. In the first year, the tree will require regular watering and sprinkling of the crown.
But about whether the Christmas tree has finally taken root - you will find out for three whole years - they do it slowly.


photo: Joe Thomissen

So, is there no more compact option with growing conifers at home? Not really. All conifers are capricious in the rooms and love coolness, but you can try to buy not a Christmas tree, but something similar to it - southern species. Cypress, thuyu (these can live on the northern windows), araucaria or even cryptomeria (for the south side). Cryptomeria is the most photophilous of the listed ones. You can also purchase mountain pine, sciadoptis or holly. They grow rather slowly, and do not reach gigantic proportions with age. However, any conifers should also be constantly sprayed. At the same time, temperatures above +18 are undesirable for cypresses, thujas and other subtropical conifers. For araucaria, a winter temperature of no higher than +20 is suitable, for at least six weeks.

Cryptomeria

photo: James Gaither

Thuja

photo: .Bambo.

Araucaria

photo: James Gaither

Cypress

photo: Leonora Enking
________
Caption illustration: Biodiversity Heritage Library


Medium and tall ornamental coniferous shrubs for summer cottages

There are also a lot of tall and medium-sized representatives of conifers. For example, frequent guests in garden compositions are:

  • Mountain Pine "Gnome"... It grows 1 m in height, but upon reaching 20 years. Annual growth is up to 15 cm in height and 10 cm in spread. The crown has a spherical configuration, over the years it becomes oval. Densely growing shoots reach up to 90 centimeters in diameter. The needles are painted in a dark green color, the needles are up to 4 centimeters long. Prefers sunny areas and loose types of soil.
  • Yew "Elegantissima"... The width of the plant is up to 3 m, the height is from 1.2 to 3 m. During the season, the branches grow by 14 centimeters. Young shoots are painted in a golden-yellow hue, starting from the middle of summer they become greenish-yellow. It develops well in sunny areas or in small shade. The culture is quite winter-hardy, loves neutral types of soils.
  • Spruce Glauca Globosa. Despite the fact that this is a tree, it develops rather slowly, therefore, visually it looks more like a shrub. The height of 3 meters will be only by 30 years of growth. It has a rounded crown, its diameter is up to 2 meters. The fertility of the soil does not matter, it is light-loving, it can withstand temperatures down to minus 35 degrees.

Among tall representatives, it is worth paying attention to:

  • Drakht cypress. Its height is up to 3 meters, the crown is conical. The diameter of the culture is up to 1.5 meters. The branches are fan-shaped, which makes the bush as lush as possible. The needles are green in color with grayish reflections. In winter, these plants turn bronze. The variety is frost-resistant, but it does not withstand drought well, therefore it requires moderate moisture.
  • Berry Yew "Hixie". It differs in a columnar-shaped crown, upward it visually expands. Height - up to 3-4.5 meters, and in volume - up to 2 meters. It develops rather slowly - up to 15 cm per year. The needles are soft, dark green in color, their length is up to 3 centimeters. Berries should not be consumed. Prefers planting in well-drained soils.

The right combination of these crops allows you to create incredible compositions on the site.


Bonsai classification

Returning to history, recall that bonsai is a whole culture of growing a plant in a shallow vessel, dish. "Seeing the great through the small" is the basic principle that bonsai masters have been using for over a thousand years, skillfully reproducing the endless variety of nature in a small space.

Japanese bonsai masters have developed the basic rules for tree formation, abandoning the slightest accident. Bonsai styles are simple, laconic, natural, as close to nature as possible, devoid of any bombast and pretentiousness. The material for creating bonsai is not only trees, but also herbs and shrubs. Depending on the growth of the trunk, roots and branches, bonsai are classified into fifteen styles.

At the same time, despite the canonization established by the Japanese, every bonsaist in any country brings something of his own to this art. At the same time, the master, as a rule, uses plants of the local flora, giving these works of his national flavor.

Here is a list of the main styles of bonsai:

Style "Straight". Ideally straight stem of the plant, the crown is conical, the branches grow symmetrically around the entire circumference of the trunk. The size of the branches and the spacing between them are reduced from the base to the top. A small round or oval container is used.

Style "Broom". Absolutely straight trunk, branches figurative foliage, you can use containers belonging to the first style.

Style "Twisted". In this style, the tree has a slightly curved trunk with a few major bends. The top of this tree rises up and slopes slightly forward. Different containers are used.

Style "Inclined". The trunk deviates from the vertical by 30 degrees. Shoots that are longer on the inside of the corner than shoots on the outside give optical balance. Rectangular and oval pots of medium depth are used.

Style "Swept away by wot". A tree of this style has a weeping crown with branches shifted in one direction. The root system is strongly developed and protruding. The crown is balanced either by roots that come from the outside or light pebbles. Containers are used for the" oblique style ".

Style "Half cascade". Strong, stocky, steeply protruding and tapering trunk. The trunk line can be either straight or curved. The main part of the top dominates the first trunk and rests on the roots. Its height should be 1/3 of the visible part of the tree. Branches are formed in the form triangles and arranged radially.The cap of the foliage is carefully trimmed, removing details that violate the contour of the crown.Containers are used in various shapes, but of great depth.

Style "Cascade". The trunk and branches define the character of this style. The top of the curved trunk falls below the base of the pot. The trunk is short and stocky, the branches are long. The pots are deep, of various shapes.

Style "Pattern". The trunk of the tree is free of branches, forks only at the top and bends in several places. This style uses a second trunk that is lower in height than the first. Simplicity and elegance of the style are given by the trunk and branches of the patterned architectonics (trunk bending, upper crown formation). The foliage forms a dome in profile Round, shallow containers can be used.

Style "Creeping forest"The tree has multiple trunks, with a single base and a common root system. The main trunk is located in the right third of the container, usually in a diagonal direction to create a visible perspective. The trunks are accelerated and bleached.

Style "Twins". It is characteristic to have two or more trunks growing from one root, but different in diameter. Containers are used round, square, shallow or medium depth.

Style "Fetus". A short stocky trunk, creeping along the ground, with branches extending from it. Rectilinear - a creeping straight trunk and outgoing straight branches. Curved - serpentine branches with a straight and curved trunk. Perspective is created by deflecting the trunk forward or backward.

Style "Tree on a rock"This style is modeled on trees and shrubs growing in a crevice. Round and oval shallow containers are used."

Style "Roots on the rock". The trunk is S-shaped and is located at the edge of the container or in 1/3 of its part. Use of shallow and medium depth of vessels.

Style "United roots". This style is characterized by many trunks from the same root system. Containers for multi-stem bonsai.

Style "Grove". A group of trees in this style is positioned together, creating the illusion of perspective. The top of the tallest tree does not pass through the central axis. Oval, round and rectangular containers.

You can also create artificial bonsai. To do this, you need to pick up the trunk, then define the style, and then process it and pick up the branches. If there are already branches in the trunk, then you do not need to touch them. The barrel should be washed in hot water and soap and dried. Clean the old, blackened branch with a sandpaper, then polish. You should also give a tone to the branch, covering it with either a stain or gouache with PVA - toning should be light. After placing a branch in a container, it should be fixed with a fill. Foam or window sealant is used. By cutting off the foam, you can shape the landscape for your composition. For the formation of needles, needles are used, and so that they do not deform, they should be kept under steam. Then holes are made in the trunk with a drill, into which the branches are fixed with glue. In the final formation of the landscape, moss and pebbles are used, choosing colors and sizes.

Bonsai art. Views.

Bonsai can be formed from a variety of wild and cultivated trees and shrubs. Classic bonsai grown primarily from conifers, which usually have small evergreen leaves, and which live surprisingly long. Common species include Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis), pea cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera), Kempfer larch (Larix kaempfera), Japanese cryptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Deciduous species are also widespread - finger or Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) and serrata zelkova, or gray elm (Zelkova serrata).

Particularly interesting are flowering and fruit trees, many of which are grown as adorable bonsaifor example: cherry, apricot, peach, azalea, quince, magnolia, compact roses, wisteria, apple (especially Grab), laburnum and pyracantha. Almost any wood can be grown like bonsai, so you can try this with an oak, beech, birch or maple seedling from your garden... Consider the main plant speciesused to create bonsai.

Ager Maple... The most popular palm-shaped or Japanese maple (A. palmatum) is a shrub with a beautiful crown shape and heavily dissected leaves, which turn red or crimson in autumn. In summer, plants must be protected from direct sunlight, which can burn the leaves. In winter, during severe frosts, bring it into a cool, frost-free room. Young branches are formed with the help of wire, adult branches become brittle and cannot be formed. The crown is cut in the summer. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings.

Chaenomeles Chaenomeles - Japanese quince... Chaenomeles beautiful, or Japanese quince (C. Speciosa). It blooms in spring with white, red, pink flowers. In autumn, medium-sized spherical fruits are formed. The choice of a variety with simple flowers will be successful. This common type of shrub can be given any shape, but it has only one drawback - thorns, which make it difficult to tie and shape. The plant is frost-resistant. The crown is pruned after flowering. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings.

Cotoneaster Cotoneaster... In the deciduous horizontal cotoneaster (C. horizontals) with pink flowers and red fruits, shiny small leaves turn red in autumn. Shaped in a variety of styles. The cascade style is most effective for a cotoneaster. In winter, in severe frosts, they are brought in at any time of the year. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2 years. New plants are grown from semi-lignified or lignified cuttings.

Cryptomeria Cryptomeria... In Japanese cryptomeria or Japanese cedar (C. japonica), the branches are horizontal, so it is usually grown in a symmetrical vertical style. In summer, the plant is kept in a sunny place or in partial shade, for the winter it is brought into a frost-free room. The soil is kept moist. Formative pruning is done in summer. Transplanted, forming roots, every 3 years.

Juniperus Juniper... The most popular is the undersized Chinese juniper (J. Chinensis). Many junipers develop spiny young (juvenile) and scaly mature leaves on one branch. In the summer they are kept in a sunny place or in partial shade. The ends of the branches are pinched in the summer. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 3 years. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings.

Pinus Pine... The star among the bonsai is the small-flowered pine (P. parviflora) with small needles and bluish bark. Young shoots are pinched in spring or summer. In winter, watered very sparingly. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 3-4 years. New plants are grown from seeds.

Quercus Oak... The common oak (Q. Robur) and some other types of oak have large and, moreover, leaves falling off in autumn, which is why oaks are rarely grown in miniature form. Branches are wrapped in winter, pinched in summer. Oaks are transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. New plants are grown from acorns.

Rhododendron Rhododendron... The most popular evergreen Indian azalea, which is spectacularly blooming in early summer. This thermophilic plant must be protected from strong winds in summer. Shoots are pruned after flowering. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. Propagated by semi-lignified cuttings. Use acidic soil.

Stewartia Stewart... In the form of bonsai, two types of stewarty are grown - stewarty false camellia (S.pseudocamellia) and single-sided stewarty (S.mon-adelpha). Both species have beautiful bark and leaf color in autumn and large white flowers. The crown is cut off during the dormant period, shaded in the summer. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings. Use acidic soil.

Ulmus Elm, Elm... Several types of elm are used to grow bonsai, including the thermophilic small-leaved elm (U. parvifolia), tall elm (U. procera), and rough or mountain elm (U. glabra). These deciduous species are pruned in winter. In the summer they are kept in a sunny place. Transplanted by pruning the roots every year or every two years.

Larix Larch... Deciduous larch is inferior in popularity to evergreen pine and juniper. Its advantages include beautiful flaking bark and bright yellow foliage in autumn. For the formation of bonsai, you can also use Chinese golden larch, or Kempfer's larch (Pseudolarixkaempferi). The ends of the branches are pinched in the summer. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings.

Malus Apple tree... For flowering bonsai, the berry apple or Siberian (M. Baccata), with white flowers and small fruits, is ideal. In summer, the plant is kept in the sun or in partial shade. Young shoots are formed in the spring, the crown is cut in the fall, the fruits (spurs) are not removed. Transplanted by pruning the roots every year or every two years. Propagated by cuttings.

Prunus Plum... Any variety of P. serrulate plum or Japanese cherry can be used to grow bonsai. The branches are wrapped in late spring, pruned immediately after flowering. In summer, if necessary, pinch the ends of the branches to maintain the shape of the crown. Transplanted by pruning the roots annually in winter. Do not breed at home.

Wisteria Wisteria, Wisteria... Both cultivated species, wisteria wisteria (W. sinensis) and flowering wisteria or japanese wisteria (W. Floribunda), are grown in vertical and cascading style.In late spring, the plants are adorned with drooping clusters of lilac flowers. They are pruned after flowering and continue to form the crown throughout the summer. Transplanted, pruning the roots, every 2-3 years. Propagated by cuttings.

Zelkova Zelkva... Serrata, or Japanese elm, is one of the best plants for producing broom style bonsai and composing with other bonsai. It is a tree with gray bark and dark green leaves with a serrated edge. The plant is kept in a sunny place or in partial shade, protected from strong winds. The branches are cut in winter, in summer the ends of the branches are pinched to maintain the shape of the crown. Transplanted every 2-3 years. New plants are grown from seed or rooted by cuttings.

Bonsai species are also classified by plant size:

  • large with a height of 60-120 cm
  • medium height 30-60 cm
  • small 15-30 cm high
  • miniature with a height of 5-15 cm, among them "bonsai-with marigold" (5-15 cm) and "baby-bansai" (7.5-15 cm),
  • by choice of cultivation (garden or indoor bonsai).

Bonsai art. Forms.

Systematization bonsai according to the form was produced Japanese designers, so the classification uses japanese titles. We present a list of the main forms bonsai.

CHOKKAN - symmetrical vertical the form: straight vertical tapered barrel shapeevenly covered with branches (formal vertical style). Suitable for spruce larch, juniper, zelkova and ginkgo. If a tree does not experience competition from other trees, is not exposed to strong prevailing winds, has enough nourishment and water, it will grow straight up and its trunk will have a conical shape. Bonsai tree branches should not be symmetrical, the upper branches should be shorter and thinner than the lower ones. The branches should extend horizontally from the trunk, and some of the lower branches may bend slightly downward. To prevent the container from tipping over, its weight and the weight of the tree should be approximately equal.


SHAKAN - oblique shape. Here the sloped trunk, the top and root system are directed in the opposite direction than the base of the trunk, a strong root system (oblique style). Suitable for a wide variety of species. Under the influence of strong prevailing winds, the tree grows inclined, the same shape can be observed in a plant growing in the shade and reaching towards the sun. The trunk of the tree, which may be straight or slightly curved, should be tilted at an angle of 70 to 90 degrees with respect to the surface of the container. On one side of the tree, the roots are strongly developed, it seems that they firmly hold on to the soil, and from the side of the inclined trunk, they go into the ground.


MIOGI - asymmetrical vertical shape: a conical trunk with a slight slope towards the base and with a maximum of three small bends, evenly covered with branches. Suitable for almost all types of trees. This style is widely found in nature and in many bonsai. The trunk of the tree has a number of bends, the lower of which should be pronounced. As with the formal upright style, the trunk is tapered, the branches are symmetrical, and the crown matches the thickness of the trunk.


FUKINAGASHI - wind-bent shape: an inclined trunk, especially at the top, with branches directed towards the slope.


HOKIDACHI - fan-shaped: straight trunk, fan-shaped (broom style). Suitable for broad-leaved trees with thin branches such as zelkova, elm and hornbeam. In nature, this style can be used for some other species as well. The trunk is strictly vertical, but not too long, all branches diverge from one point. The crown is spherical and very dense. Thanks to its many thin branches, the tree looks attractive even without foliage. In general, the tree resembles an old panicle.


KENGAY - hanging or cascading form: curved trunk and branches hanging down over the edge of the vessel ("cascade" style). Suitable for pines, cotoneaster, pyracantha and juniper. Not recommended for trees with sturdy, poorly bending trunks. A tree growing on a steep cliff can bend for many reasons: from falling stones, under its own weight or the weight of snow, due to lack of light. This is the "cascade" style created by nature itself. Applied to bonsai, this means that the crown of the tree should be located below the top edge of the container. It is quite difficult to keep a cascade-style plant healthy as it tends to grow upward.


KHAN - KENGAY - half hanging or half cascading shape: the trunk and branches are horizontal in relation to the edge of the vessel (semi-cascading style). Suitable for all types, except for sturdy, poorly bending trees. This style, like the "cascade", occurs naturally in trees growing on steep slopes, along river banks and in swamps. Due to the proximity of water, the trunk does not grow downwards, but rather in a horizontal direction. For trees - semi-cascading style bonsai, the crown only drops slightly below the top edge of the container.


ISHITSUKI - rock form (bonsai on a stone): the roots of a plant cover a stone in the ground (style "embracing a stone"). Suitable for pine, maple, flowering quince and rhododendron. In the composition of this style, trees grow from cracks in the stones. The roots seem to go into the stone, and from there the plant receives all the necessary food and water. For this style of bonsai, regular watering is very important, since the moisture supply in the cracks is limited. To ensure high humidity in the surrounding air, the stone can be placed in a shallow dish filled with water. By planting a few trees, you can create a landscape.


ICADABUKI - raft: a trunk lying in the ground or on it with vertical branches growing upward. The plant looks like a forest arrangement of several trees ("fallen tree" style). Suitable for all types of trees. Sometimes a fallen tree can survive. Throwing up the side branches, from which the trunks of new trees are formed. The old horizontal wellbore is still visible. This style is often used in bonsai, especially when the source material has branches on one side. Unlike a group of individual plants in this style, the distance between individual trunks does not change.


BUJING - literary style. Suitable for most coniferous or deciduous trees. This style takes its name from the painting style used by Chinese artists to paint imaginary trees. The peculiarity of this style: the elegantly curved line of the trunk with the complete absence of lower branches, the crown is located only in the upper part of the tree. We can meet similar trees in the forest, when the lower branches die off from the lack of sunlight and tightness, and the trunk looks rough and rough.


SEKIDJOJU - "Bare roots on stone" style. Suitable for all species with highly developed roots, such as maple, Chinese elm, pine and juniper. On rocky soils, some plants survive because their roots, covering boulders, crawl under them in search of water and nutrients that accumulate in cracks and voids. The roots, exposed to the winds and subject to various vicissitudes of the weather, soon begin to resemble a trunk. An important element of bonsai is a spectacular root plexus that looks old. The tree itself can be grown in any style, but "formal upright" and "whisk" will not be the best choice. Since the plant draws its nourishment from the container, caring for it is no more difficult than for other plant styles. To carry out a transplant so that the stone with roots is clearly visible.


SOKAN - twin or bifurcated form: two trunks, different in height and power, growing from one root ("double trunk" style). Suitable for all types of trees. This silhouette is widespread in nature. Two trunks grow from one trunk, and one is much more powerful than the other. For bonsai, this style can be created artificially when a second trunk is formed from a branch. Make sure the branch is not too high, or it will create a "fork" that does not fit the bonsai style.


SANKAN - three-barreled form (the description is similar to the "sokan" form).


KABUDACHI - multi-stem form: plants with many stems of various thicknesses, resembling a shrub. The number of trunks must be odd (octopus style). This style is suitable for all types of trees. All trunks grow from the same root and cannot be separated. This is the main difference between these plants and a group of separately growing specimens. It is similar to the "twin barrel" style, but here we are talking about three or more barrels.


YOSE-YU - forest composition: many trees of various sizes and ages in one vessel.


To give the trunk and crown a well-thought-out shape, bonsai craftsmen use a set of special tools and devices: weights, ropes, soft wire, wedges, turnbuckles and spacers, wire cutters, chisel, saw, tongs, pruning shears, scissors .... First of all, the master cuts off the roots, branches and nascent buds - the plant should not stretch upward. The main principle of the bonsai master is the same as that of the sculptor: to cut off everything unnecessary. We will tell you more about the formation of bonsai and the necessary tools below.


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5. Juniper

Chinese juniper (Juniperus chiensis). Dwarf forms are especially good for decorative planting at home:

  • Aureo-variegata (shrub with golden-variegated needles),
  • Aurea (with golden needles),
  • Alba (with white needles),
  • Stricta (with blue-gray needles).

Juniper is photophilous, but needs protection from direct sunlight. The optimum air temperature is in the range of 12-15 ° С in summer, and in winter - about 7-10 ° С.

The plant does not tolerate a sharp cold snap. At high temperatures, the needles can wither, turn yellow and even crumble. Water the plant in the summer 2-3 times a week, and in the winter - 3 times a month. Top dressing is carried out once a month.

Junipers are transplanted annually. The soil mixture is prepared from 2 parts of leafy soil, 2 parts of humus and 1 part of coarse sand. Drainage is recommended at the bottom of the pot.

Juniper readily propagates by seed. They need to be sown at the end of summer in a light nutritious soil.

Try it, and you will definitely succeed in growing a coniferous tree in an apartment.


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