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When and how to plant tomatoes correctly

When and how to plant tomatoes correctly


To get excellent flavoring tomatoes at the end of the season, the first thing you need to take care of is the correct choice of variety and the purchase of seeds for planting. Because, in order to get the desired result on the tomato harvest, the gardeners themselves prefer to plant the seedlings, and do not purchase ready-made ones on the market.

Planting a tomato

Growing a tomato is not particularly difficult for gardeners. the main thing provide the necessary conditions and then in the end there will be a good harvest of this vegetable.

General rules:

  • Seed selection;
  • Sowing seeds;
  • Growing seedlings;
  • Landing in open ground;

How to plant from seed

You can grow seedlings in various ways:

  1. Planting seeds into prepared containers - this is a method in which they are first planted in one box, and after diving, they are seated in separate containers;
  2. Wrapping the seeds in diapers - it is also called the Moscow method and they do it like this - put a tape of cellophane, a piece of toilet paper on it, moisten it with warm water, lay out the seeds in increments of 1 cm and 1.5 cm from the top edge, another layer of paper on top, moisten and put another cellophane tape. After all the manipulations, we turn everything into a roll and put it in a container where water is poured so that the diapers touch it;
  3. Planting seeds in open ground under the film - seeds are planted in the warmed-up ground and covered with a greenhouse film from recurrent frosts;

It is important to choose the appropriate option so that growing does not become a laborious task.

How to plant seedlings

To understand how best to plant a tomato, you can give an example based on the Tretyakovsky F1 hybrid. The plant is determinate and suitable for growing in greenhouses. From the first shoots to the ripe fruit passes 3.5 months, which means you can plant seeds until April 1.

It is best to plant each individual seed in a peat tabletto reduce trauma to the roots. Further care for seedlings does not differ from generally accepted rules.

Hybrids do not transmit their genetic data through seeds.

When and how to sow a tomato

Sowing tomatoes for seedlings is carried out starting from the third decade of February to April 1... You can learn the seed sowing technology by reading this article.

At home, tomatoes can be grown on a windowsill, a glazed balcony, on a table, if it is equipped with a backlight so that the seedlings do not stretch out.

The gardener himself decides how to choose the method of planting tomato seeds for seedlings. But first of all, you need to purchase good seeds and they are usually purchased in specialized garden centers from trusted manufacturers. This gives you the confidence to get the right crop.

Selection of seed material

If tomatoes are planted for the first time on the site, then you should choose the variety that will correspond to the gardener's taste preferences and be cultivated in a certain region.

Therefore, there are certain rules that should be followed when choosing tomato seeds:

  1. First of all it is period of full ripening of fruits... Since in the northern region, where the summer is long and warm, the gardener can afford later varieties.
  2. Also worth considering the height of the bushes, since if the planting of tomatoes will be carried out in a greenhouse, in connection with saving space, it is worth paying attention to tall, high-yielding varieties. If the tomato planting area is large, then it is best to plant varieties with a height of 50-100 cm, since in large areas it is not profitable to put supports for tall tomatoes.
  3. Tomato growing region - here you can see that some varieties zoned for a specific region, which means that it is in this region that there is an opportunity to get a consistently large harvest of this variety.
  4. If the package says that this type of tomato is only able to grow in a greenhouse, then it should not be planted in open ground, since most likely the tomato will not survive there.
  5. The size of fully ripe fruits is important, since large tomatoes can only be used for slicing salads, and with a diameter of 5-6 cm and the correct shape, it is good to use for preservation.

When choosing a variety for yourself, read the data written on the package, this will help decide how the tomatoes correspond to the region and the gardener's taste preferences.

Seedling dishes

There are now many different specialized cultivation utensils on sale. But it should be borne in mind that first the seeds are planted in a seedling box with a height of about 12 cm, and then, during the dive, the seedlings are planted in separate containers. not less than 200 gr.

Therefore, the following can be adapted for seating boxes:

  • Milk and juice boxes;
  • Cropped 5 liters. plastic bottles;
  • Wooden boxes.

For the container into which the dived sprouts are transplanted, disposable cups with a volume of 200 and 500 gr.

It is necessary that the dishes have holes for draining excess water.

Required soil composition

After choosing the pots, it is worth choosing the right soil where you can plant the seeds. First of all, it must be nutritious and loose... Therefore, you can purchase primer at the appropriate store.

Or you can compose it yourself, taking everything in equal proportions:

  1. Peat.
  2. Garden land.
  3. Sand.

Any land bought or compiled with your own hands must be disinfected. Suitable for this freezing or calcining - the main thing is that various microorganisms die.

Preparing seeds at home

To find out if the seeds are suitable for sowing in the ground, you need to determine the viability. This is recognized in two ways:

  • A saline solution is made and seeds are poured into it, those that have surfaced can be safely thrown out, the rest are suitable for growing.
  • Seeds germinate on a damp cloth, and as soon as the sprout's nose springs, it is planted in a glass with soil.

Seeds purchased from reputable companies have already been tested for germination and treated with growth stimulants, so they should not be soaked.

How to sow seeds in the ground correctly

The prepared soil is poured into containers and moistened with bottom irrigation. After the excess water leaves on the surface of the soil, small trenches are made with a depth less than 5 mm, it is convenient to do this with a ruler, so the rows turn out exactly. Seeds are placed in the trenches with a step of 2.5 cm and sprinkled with earth. 4 cm is left between the trenches.

After sowing the seeds, cover the containers with glass or put them in a plastic bag. This will protect the soil from drying out and create greenhouse conditions with the help of which friendly tomato shoots will appear.

Dive

A dive of tomatoes is done when the seedling has two true leaf plates... To do this, the soil is well soaked and carefully removed one seedling at a time and transplanted into a separate container according to the root system. It is most convenient to do this at home or in an apartment.

When diving, seedlings must be planted quickly and carefully without breaking away from the process, so as not to destroy the seedlings.

Care

Further care will consist of watering, which should be regular, but to prevent waterlogging of the soil. Also, the seedlings should stand on a warm and sunny windowsill so that there is no excessive stretching of the shoots. It is turned once a week in different directions to the light source so that it does not grow lopsided.

Fertilization is not necessary, since the soil does not age in 1.5 months. Before planting in open ground or a greenhouse, the seedlings are gradually accustomed to open air - hardening is carried out.

Good seedlings have a vigorous appearance, green foliage, 6 leaf plates and a height does not exceed 15-20 cm.

Growing errors

The main mistakes of novice gardeners when growing seedlings:

  1. Incorrectly selected seeds.
  2. Bad land in boxes for growing.
  3. Incorrect temperature and bad light.
  4. Overfeeding seedlings with fertilizers in poor lighting.

Shelf life

Without soil, seedlings are not stored for a long time, no more than two hours, provided that they are wrapped in a wet cloth and lie not in the sun.

Dates for planting tomatoes

Since tomato seedlings after 2 months are ready for planting at the main growing site, the seedlings are sown 60 days plus five days for seed germination.

Sowing in the ground

If this is the Krasnodar Territory of Russia, then the seedlings begin to be planted in open ground in early May, and in the greenhouse you can 2 weeks earlier.

Based on these terms, we count back 65 days and get the date:

  • For open ground - the planting of seeds for seedlings begins on February 25 and not earlier because it is difficult for overgrown seedlings to take root in a new place;
  • For greenhouses, they begin to sow seeds for seedlings on February 20.

You need to sow on time to get healthy seedlings.

Seeds for seedlings are sown before April 1, since if you plant later tomato bushes only for decorative purposes, the tomatoes will tie on them, and will not have time to ripen. This period especially applies to the northern regions of Russia.

When can you plant seed for large-fruited varieties

First of all, tomatoes and tomatoes are the same plant name. Large-fruited tomatoes are grown quite often by planting them in a greenhouse. To grow seedlings of such tomatoes, they are already starting to sow seeds in the third decade of February.

Harm from early landing

Early planted seeds are, as a result, too elongated tomato seedlings, not only with flowers, but also with fruit ovaries. Such seedlings, after landing in the main place, get sick for a long time and throw off both flowers and fruits.

It is necessary to plant the seeds within a specific time frame to produce healthy seedlings. Adhering to all the rules for growing seedlings, you will get a good harvest of the tomato of the desired variety.


When and how to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2021 according to the lunar calendar

The harvest of tomatoes and the taste of the fruit largely depend on the correct planting time. There are several techniques for determining when and on what days to plant seeds in the ground.

The most important assistant for gardeners and gardeners is the Lunar calendar, which indicates favorable and unfavorable days for planting tomatoes for seedlings in 2021.

The orbital motion of the planet around the Earth affects its magnetic field. And the field, in turn, affects all living organisms of the Earth, including people and plants.

Taking into account the lunar calculus, territorial, climatic factors and varietal affiliation, the optimal time is chosen for planting seeds in the soil, transplanting grown seedlings into the ground or a greenhouse.

Following the link you will find information on when to plant eggplants for seedlings.


Calculation of the timing of sowing tomatoes for seedlings, taking into account the varietal affiliation and the region

Growing tomatoes by the seedling method allows you to get ripe fruits 2 weeks earlier than when sowing in open ground, so most summer residents prefer to deal with seedlings with their own hands, placing them on the windowsills of city apartments. When calculating the sowing time, it is imperative to take into account the region and the growing method, the characteristics of the variety.

Crops of tomatoes depending on the variety

Each tomato variety has its own growing season. The full development cycle of plants before harvest can take 80-140 days.

Depending on the timing of ripening, tomatoes are divided into groups:

  • Ultra-ripe - with a ripening period of 80-85 days. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place at the age of 40-50 days.
  • Early maturing e - with a ripening period of 90-95 days. Seedlings are planted in the ground after 50-55 days from the moment of emergence.
  • Mid-ripening - with a ripening period of 100-115 days. The seedlings will be ready for transplanting at the age of 55-60 days.
  • Late ripening - with a ripening period of 120-130 days. Seedlings are relocated to the garden at the age of 60-65 days.

If you make simple calculations, it turns out that mid-season and late varieties are sown for seedlings, about a month earlier than others. Such tomatoes are usually grown in a greenhouse so that early autumn frosts cannot harm the crop. Ultra-ripe and early-ripening tomatoes can be cultivated both outdoors and indoors.

Differences in planting dates are also determined by the type of tomato growth. Depending on the size of adult bushes, tomatoes are divided into determinant and indeterminate varieties. Determinant varieties grow short, and indeterminate tomatoes are not limited in growth, they can reach a height of 2 m or more.

On a note! Tall tomatoes require early planting for seedlings, as they need more time to build up green mass.

Read also:

When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in the regions?

Weather conditions in Russia vary greatly depending on the climatic zone. While in the southern regions, seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place as early as April, the northern regions allow this to be done not earlier than mid-June.

From the moment of sowing to the relocation of tomatoes into the ground, an average of 55-65 days pass. Seeds must be embedded in the soil in such a way that the finished seedlings get to the garden bed in favorable conditions after planting.

Tomato is a thermophilic culture. For normal growth, she needs a temperature of 15 degrees and above. If the temperature indicator drops to 10 degrees, the tomatoes stop growing. Staying at temperatures slightly above 0 ° for a long time, plants may die altogether.

Depending on the region, the following favorable periods can be designated for sowing tomatoes for seedlings:

  1. IN Moscow suburbs and other central regions, sowing is recommended from mid-March to early April.
  2. In conditions Siberia and the Urals sowing begins from 15 to 30 March, and the seedlings are transplanted into a greenhouse from 15 May to 25 May, and into open ground in the first decade of June. Depending on the weather conditions, when exactly you can be sure that the frost will not return.
  3. Leningrad region belongs to the zone of risky agriculture due to frequent climatic anomalies, cool summers and a large amount of precipitation. Spring is almost always protracted here. It is better to sow tomato seeds for planting in the 20th of March, and then grow the crop in a greenhouse.
  4. IN Belarus tall tomatoes are sown in the last days of February, and on March 10 they start sowing low-growing varieties.
  5. On the Kuban, belonging to the Krasnodar Territory, tomato sowing begins in early February. Many in this area grow tomatoes in a seedless way, planting seeds in open ground in mid-April.
  6. IN Karelia tomatoes ripen well under a film cover and in greenhouses. It is recommended to sow mid-ripening indeterminate tomato varieties here from 15 to 31 March. Sowing low-growing early tomatoes is postponed at the end of March - beginning of April.

On a note! Be sure to adjust the timing depending on real weather conditions. Seedlings by the time of planting in the ground should be strong and strong, but not overgrown. Experienced summer residents recommend collecting their own tomato seeds for planting, adapted to the local climate.


How to plant tomatoes: steps (step by step instructions with video)

When planting tomatoes, there are five main stages, which are called "broad strokes":

  1. Sowing seeds for seedlings
  2. Seedling care
  3. Planting seedlings in open ground or greenhouse
  4. Tomato care
  5. Harvesting

The last stage, of course, does not apply to the landing itself, but for a complete presentation we decided to leave it here.

For clarity, for each period of growing tomatoes, we made a selection of videos, use them as instructions with practical tips and tricks.

Stage 1.How to plant tomatoes for seedlings (video)

At this stage, it is important to decide on the variety of tomatoes and choose the seed that you plan to plant. And also prepare the ground and containers for seedlings. How exactly to plant - see the video.

Stage 2. Care of tomato seedlings (video)

During this period, it is necessary to carefully monitor the light, temperature and humidity of the seedlings.

Stage 3: How to plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse or open ground (video)

Congratulations, at this stage you will have to start planting seedlings in a permanent place. It can be a greenhouse or open ground, depending on the climate of your region and possibilities.

Stage 4. Caring for tomatoes (video)

Care is somewhat different depending on how you grow tomatoes on your site - in a greenhouse or open field.

See step-by-step instructions for caring for tomatoes if your plantings grow outdoors:

If you plant tomatoes in a greenhouse (polycarbonate or glass), this video will be useful for you:

Stage 5: Harvesting tomatoes (video)

The most enjoyable and exciting moment for any gardener to start harvesting.

Congratulations on getting to this stage. Here are some video tips:

Hopefully, after reading this article, you have no questions left about how to plant tomatoes, and when is the best time to do it in 2020.

By the way, if you liked the format, see another material - with detailed and step-by-step instructions, from planting seeds to picking ripe tomatoes: How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse


The gardener's lunar calendar, focusing on the phases of the waxing and waning moon, is becoming more and more popular with gardeners and gardeners.

In January, the numbers are best suited for working with tomatoes: 1, then from 5 to 9, 11, 27 and 29.

In February, it is better to sow from 10 to 15, from 17 to 20 or 25.

In March, numbers can be distinguished, starting from 3 to 6, 17 and 18, 22 and the last date from 27 to 30.

April assumes work from 5 to 7, from 10 to 14, 18 and 19, 23 and from 25 to 29

May provides the gardener with numbers for sowing and transplanting tomatoes from 2 to 6, then from 15 to 17 and from 24 to 26. The 30th and 31st will also be favorable.

It is late to sow seeds in June, but you can plant seedlings in the ground from 1 to 3, from 6 to 8, 12, 14 and 22-23.

Not suitable for working with tomatoes:

  1. January - 2nd, 3rd, 10th, 25th and 31st.
  2. February - 8 and 9, 21 and 22, 26 and 27 days.
  3. March is the 7th and 8th day of the month, the 25th and 26th.
  4. April - 3 and 4, from 15 to 17, from 20 to 22, 30 days.
  5. May - 1, 13, 14 and 18, 21, from 27 to 29 inclusive.
  6. June - from the 9th to the 11th, 14th, 15th and 16th, 24th and 25th day of the month.

The gardener decides whether or not to believe the lunar calendar, based on his experience. In any case, in each month, you can pick up the days that coincide in table 1 and 2.

The general rules for using the phases of the moon are as follows:

  1. Do not sow seeds or transplant three days before and after the new moon.
  2. The same rules apply for a full moon.
  3. Do not transplant seedlings on a waning moon.
  4. On the new moon, tomatoes are easier to tolerate diving and replanting.

Of course, you can sow seeds on other days - it is not always possible to guess the work by a certain date. Observance of the lunar calendar assumes that the gardener is responsible for the matter and all the nuances of care will be observed.


The choice of container for seedlings

In order for the seedlings to feel comfortable and develop normally, it is necessary to select a suitable container for them, which will become a "dwelling" for several months before transplanting into open ground. Now you can choose containers for growing home seedlings, as they say, for every taste and color.

1) Peat pots (cups) - a convenient container made of environmentally friendly materials, easy to use. The photo shows peat cups of different shapes and volumes:

The main advantage of such a container is that seedlings in open ground can be transplanted directly in a peat pot, because the material will dissolve in the soil without any problems. Therefore, pots are very often used for picking tomato seedlings.

We sow tomato seeds in peat pots

2) Peat tablets - pressed peat saturated with nutrients and surrounded by a special cloth. No less convenient companion of peat pots. It is popular for planting many crops, including for sowing tomatoes. Photo of peat tablets before planting seeds and during cultivation:

You can grow seedlings without picking and transplant into open ground directly in a tablet. Peat tablets need additional preparation before sowing.

How to plant tomato and pepper seedlings in peat tablets.

3) Plastic cups are a very popular option for growing seedlings, summer residents fell in love with containers made of this material because of the low cost, ease of use (for example, it is convenient to extract the plant). It is also beneficial to use plastic cups, since multiple use is possible.


Transplanting

When the seedlings have developed, they should be transplanted into a greenhouse. The scheme for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse is selected based on the variety of tomatoes. Remember that the planting does not need to be thickened to get an excellent yield. However, they need sunlight.

There is no single correct answer to the question "how to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse correctly," since there are a wide variety of planting schemes:

  • for low-growing early-ripening varieties that form several stems, the distance between tomatoes should be 40 cm, and between their rows - 50 cm.It is recommended to use a checkerboard pattern when creating two rows
  • for determinant varieties that form 1 stem, the distance between their rows is 50 cm, and between plants - 25 cm.
  • indeterminate tall varieties must be planted in a checkerboard pattern in 2 rows. The distance between the rows here should be 80 cm, and between adjacent plants - 60 cm.

When the planting scheme has been chosen, transplanting seedlings is carried out as follows:

  • we dig holes in the soil, the depth of which is 5 cm. The roots should not be very crowded in the hole. They need to be cooked about 2 weeks before the seedlings are planted. This is done so that the soil warms up well. Otherwise, there is a risk that the bush will not take root in a new place.
  • We extract the young plant and place it in the hole. Remember to act carefully so as not to damage the root system of the bush.
  • seedlings in the hole are sprinkled with earth so that it is not too crushed. But the stem must be stable.

After planting the plants, moderate watering is required. It is recommended to spray the soil with water. This watering should be done at first. When the seedlings have taken root, watering is carried out every 4-5 days. One sq. m. you need to pour out about 4 liters of water. Usually, this procedure is carried out at the root in the morning. During the flowering period, it is recommended to increase the number of waterings by 2-3 times.

Greenhouse ventilation should be carried out approximately 1.5-2 hours after watering.

Another important aspect of fondant care is pinching. The resulting stepchildren weaken the plants. Therefore, they should be removed. This procedure is carried out in the morning. Tomatoes can be propagated with the help of cut stepchildren. The first feeding is carried out 2 weeks after planting.

Growing a tomato in a greenhouse is troublesome. The main thing is to adhere to the correct sowing and plant care. If everything is done correctly, then the harvest will turn out to be abundant and tasty. This is a real reward for any gardener.


Watch the video: Correct Way To Plant Tomatoes