Hemantus flower - care: watering, transplanting, feeding. Hemantus species
Gemantus was first described in 1753 by Karl Linnaeus, and in 1984, 21 species of this plant were brought into a separate genus. The name of the flower comes from two Greek words "haemo" and "anthos", meaning "blood" and "flower". "Bloody flowers" of hemantus are not similar to any of the plants of the amaryllis family. Hemantus comes from the tropics of Africa (Namibia, Cape Province). Plants of this genus are highly decorative, many of them are suitable for indoor culture.
Bulbous plant of the genus of monocotyledonous flowering family Amaryllis, hemantus, while not blooming, looks like amaryllis: no more than three pairs of opposite leaves, long, slightly widened to oval edges, depart from the bulb. They hang symmetrically on two sides. Usually Hemantus has 4-6 leaves, new ones grow as the old ones die off. The bulb of the hemantus, ovoid or pear-shaped, is usually completely submerged in the ground.
But as soon as the hemantus blooms, it can no longer be confused with any of the representatives of its family: the umbrella inflorescence consists of many small flowers of red (less often white) color, long stamens extend from the middle of each flower. The inflorescence is often framed by four or more leathery succulent bracts of the same color as the flowers. Hemantus flowers have an unpleasant smell, but they are able to self-pollinate, after which fruits are formed on the arrow - round berries of white, orange, pink or red color, 1-2 cm in diameter, with a characteristic aroma.
In culture, the most common types of hemantus are evergreen Haemanthus albiflos (white-flowered hemantus)blooming, as the name implies, with white flowers, and Haemanthus kafherinae (Hemantus Katarina), the plant is not as beautiful as a peculiar one, known as a medicinal one. Hemantus purple (Haemanthus Coccineus) it is distinguished by the bright red color of the bracts, of which, around the inflorescence, consisting of scarlet flowers, from six to nine are formed.
Gemantus - the plant is undemanding, it is easy to care for it. The main thing that must be strictly observed is lighting plants during the growing season with bright diffused light. For this, western or eastern windows are most suitable. Shade it out of direct sunlight. During the dormant period, when the hemantus loses its leaves, it can be placed in a cool, dimly lit room. Move evergreen species during rest to partial shade.
Optimal temperature conditions for hemantus in summer 16 ° -20 ° С, during dormancy - 8 ° -10 ° С. On warm summer days, it can be taken out into the fresh air, placed in partial shade and sheltered from drafts and precipitation. Watering the hemantus in the summer it is abundant, as the upper layer of the substrate dries up, in September watering is gradually reduced, from October to January it is watered very rarely, thereby slowing down the growth of the plant and providing it with rest. For irrigation, use soft, settled water. Humidity for hemantus not the most important factor, but if the room is too dry, then you can lightly spray the leaves and flowers during the growth period. During the dormant period, the plant cannot be sprayed.
Hemantus are transplanted in spring every 2-3 years before the start of growth, so that they do not lose the ability to bloom abundantly. Sod, humus, leafy soil and sand are mixed in equal parts. The pots should be spacious, wide, and a good drainage layer is required. When transplanting, try not to damage the roots. Propagate hemantus daughter bulbs. Separate the shoots from the mother's bulb, plant them in the substrate and water moderately for the first weeks, and then care as usual, and after two years the young plants will bloom.
Feed the plant needs once every two weeks from the beginning of growth until the moment when flowering begins. Of the minerals, phosphorus and potash fertilizers will be useful. Hemantus is practically not affected by pests, except that scabbards or spider mites, which must be dealt with by spraying with a 15% actellic solution, although wiping the leaves with soapy water may be enough. Sometimes hemantus are sick with anthracnose and stagonosporosis. They can be eliminated by treating the plant with a solution of foundationol in the proportion of 2 g of the drug per 1 liter of water.
- Indoor Plants Information
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Gemantus is a plant of the Amaryllis family native to Africa. Perennial, propagated by bulbs. It has short dense leaves with a rough surface, reminiscent of a tongue, therefore its second name is a deer tongue, as well as a bloody flower due to its bright red color. Hemantus blooms with small flowers, collected in a rather dense umbrella.
The stamens give it an elegant and exotic look, as they stand out above the inflorescences and have a beautiful bright yellow color. Another name for it is elephant ear.
Gemantus belongs to the bulbous. Discovered by Karl Linnaeus in the 15th century, but for a long time was not recognized as a separate plant species. This recognition took place only in the 17th century, two centuries after its discovery.
Outwardly, the hemantus resembles amaryllis, which many are bred as an indoor plant that is familiar to us. The main difference between Hemantus and their fellows in appearance - amaryllis and clivia - is the unusualness of the flowers. They are small and collected in umbrellas, and some of their species do not exude a very pleasant aroma. Leaves, depending on the type of plant, can be smooth, rough and even have a sticky surface. A photo of the flower is on our website.
Hemantus flower - care: watering, transplanting, feeding. Hemantus species - garden and vegetable garden
Gemantus can be found on the windowsills of flower growers often. But not everyone knows its "official" name, it is often called "deer tongue" or "elephant's ear" in everyday life.
Gemantus is a bulbous plant of the amaryllis family, a relative of amaryllis (as you might guess), clivia, eucharis. In translation, the name "hemantus" means "bloody flower", although there are also species with white flowers - white-flowered hemantus.
Some Hemantus species have a dormant winter period when the plant loses its leaves, others are evergreen. These types for indoor floriculture are more convenient and easier to care for. The most common type of hemantus in culture with a dormant period is Katarina's hemantus, evergreen - white-flowered hemantus, it is precisely called “deer tongue” or “elephant's ear”.
The appearance of plants depends on the species. Hemantus Catherine's leaves are elongated, wavy at the edges, located on a high, up to 15 cm long, false stem. The flower grows on an arrow released next to the false stem.
In the white-flowered hemantus, the leaves are rather dense, wide, oval in shape, smooth on top, and have hairs along the edges.
Flowers also vary greatly from species to species. So in Gemantus Katarina they are red, form large spherical inflorescences on long peduncles, sometimes up to 15-20 cm in diameter. This species has abundant flowering.
In the white-flowered hemantus, the inflorescence is denser, the flowers are white with yellow anthers, because of which it looks as if sprinkled with yellow powder on top. The peduncle is thicker and shorter.
The plant blooms in July-August. In September, the fruits are tied, which ripen by November - December, the capsules of the ripe seeds acquire a bright red-orange color. These seeds can be harvested and used for propagation.
The hemantus plant is rather unassuming to care for, usually at home it feels great.
Loves a lot of light, but requires shading from direct sunlight. Evergreen species are less demanding on light, but it is still not recommended to place them in deep shade.
Gemantus grows well at room temperature, can tolerate heat, but it is optimal for it - 18-22 degrees Celsius. In winter, during the rest period - 12-15 degrees.
A few words about the dormant period for those types of hemantus that have it. The dormant period lasts from October to February. Already in September, they begin to limit watering of the plant, the leaves of the hemantus gradually dry out, as they are removed. During the wintering period, the bulbs are kept at a temperature of 12-15 degrees in slightly damp soil and in a dark place. In February, the hemantus is transferred to light, transplanted into fresh soil, or the top layer of the earth is renewed and watering is resumed as usual.
In summer, the hemantus is watered abundantly, the water accumulated in the pan after watering is drained. The next watering is carried out when the soil dries out about 1-2 cm deep. The plant is not afraid of short-term overdrying. Hemantus does not need spraying. In the autumn-winter period, watering for evergreen species is reduced, for species with a dormant period, slightly moisten the ground with a bulb as needed.
Fertilizer is applied every 2-3 weeks during the period of active growth and flowering. Both organic and mineral fertilizers are suitable.
The transplant is carried out in early spring, it is recommended to do this every 2-3 years. Gemantus grow well in wide, shallow pots with a drainage layer on the bottom. The bulbs are buried half or three quarters of the height. The soil needs light, breathable. It can be composed on the basis of sod, leafy soil, peat and river sand. You can add humus earth to this mixture.
Most often, hemantus are propagated by baby bulbs, which are separated during transplantation. A plant grown from such a baby begins to bloom in 4-5 years.
You can propagate hemantus and seeds of your own production. They quickly lose their germination, so they must be sown immediately after ripening. Sowing is carried out on the surface of the soil.
White-flowered Gemantus is also propagated by leaf cuttings. To do this, cut off the top of the sheet, dry it for several hours, you can process the cut with crushed coal. Then the cutting is rooted in the ground, it quickly gives rise to shoots that separate and grow new plants from them.
Diseases and pests rarely affect the hemantus. However, amaryllis worms can be found on the hemantus, fungal diseases or a red burn (staganospore) can occur.
Recommendations for the reproduction of the "bloody flower"
You can get a new plant "deer tongue" by sowing seeds, separating young "children" or leaf cuttings.
As soon as the seed material ripens in the hemantus, it is necessary to collect it so that it does not lose its germination. A container with a moistened peat-sandy substrate is used and seeds are sown on its surface, they are not embedded in the ground. The container must be covered with a piece of glass or placed under plastic wrap - this will create the conditions for a mini-greenhouse. You will need to carry out daily spraying and airing of seedlings. As soon as sprouts appear, and a pair of real leaves grow on them, they pick young hemantus in separate pots. Plants grown in this way bloom only 5-6 years from their planting.
The easiest way is to reproduce with the help of "babies" that form next to the mother's bulb. This must be done by transplanting the parental hemantus. Removing the flower from the pot, carefully separate the small bulbs and plant them in separate containers with a ready-made substrate. Until the plants take root well, they are not tolerated in bright light. Such young Hemantus will delight with flowers already 3-4 years from the time of planting.
It is more difficult to grow with the help of cuttings with leaves. In an adult maternal hemantus, it will be necessary to separate any of the lower old leaf plates that have a fleshy base. It is recommended to powder the cut points for disinfection with a powder of crushed activated charcoal or charcoal. Next, you will need to air dry the sheet for at least a day. Then the sheet plate is planted in a peat-sand mixture and covered with a plastic bag. As soon as it can be seen that the cutting has taken root, it is transplanted into a separate container with the necessary soil. Such plants also bloom for 3-4 years.
Pests and diseases
Despite the ease of care, when growing hemantus, novice growers have to face problems - lack of flowering, slow growth, yellowing of the leaves. All these symptoms are the result of improper care. Proper care of hemantus includes moderate but timely watering, regular transplantation, application of special fertilizers, and frequent airing of the room. In favorable conditions, the plant blooms almost all summer and half of autumn.
The indoor plant hemantus is practically not affected by pests. Only scale insects and spider mites pose a threat to him. Pests most often affect the foliage of the plant, sucking nutrients from the cells of the leaves. As a result, the foliage begins to dry, turn yellow, and then simply fall off.
The first signs of damage to the flower by pests is the loss of leaf elasticity, their deformation, the appearance of spots and small drops on the leaves. Pests are usually activated when the temperature rises. You can get rid of them simply by wiping the leaves with soapy water. If this method is ineffective, an insecticidal solution is used to spray the plant.
Sometimes hemantus are sick with anthracnose and stagonosporosis. They can be eliminated by removing the affected leaves and treating the plant with special preparations. With improper care of the hemantus flower at home, namely, excessive watering, it can be affected by root rot. The first signs of the disease are wilting of the leaves and their wrinkling. Lack of watering, lack of a dormant period, or inappropriate temperature conditions can cause the plant to stop blooming.
When a gray bloom appears on the leaves of a plant, it can be concluded that too hard water was used to water it. When the leaves turn yellow, the plant must be removed to a darker place. Also, quite often, the hemantus is affected by fungi. This is evidenced by spots on leaves of various sizes and shapes, which are constantly increasing in size or the appearance of a kind of plaque. At the first symptoms of fungal infection, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of the plant and, if necessary, correct them. You can also treat the plant with preparations specially designed for this.
As you can see, it is not so difficult to grow hemantus at home. But this does not mean that the plant does not need to be paid attention at all. If you adhere to simple recommendations and simple rules, then the plant will surely answer you with gratitude and will delight you with regular and very beautiful flowering. Therefore, before purchasing such a flowering perennial, you should familiarize yourself with the basic rules and maintenance and care of a deer tongue flower in an apartment or office space. He looks extremely attractive at any time of the year.
|Growing||Temperature + 18-22 ° С, does not tolerate drafts, water moderately.|
|Humidity||Humidity is not particularly important if the room is dry and during the growth period the plant is sprayed with a spray bottle.|
|Top dressing and pruning||Once every two weeks, during the flowering period, the plant is not fed, does not need pruning.|
|Flowering period||In July-August.|
|Landing, transplanting||Once every 2-3 years.|
|Reproduction||Daughter bulbs, cuttings, seeds.|
|Pests||Scabbards, spider mites.|
|Diseases||Anthracnose, stagonosporosis, fungus, root rot.|
Description of Hemantus
Gemantuses develop from bulbs up to 12 cm in size. They are egg-shaped or pear-shaped, and sometimes flattened on the sides. Such an onion forms several belt-like leaves with rounded ends. Green leaf blades appear in pairs. Moreover, each such pair can grow in an arbitrary direction, asymmetrical to the previous one. In one season, only one pair can form, and their total number on one plant can reach up to 3. The leaf blades can have a glossy surface, be slightly pubescent or slightly sticky. Foliage and peduncles that form later reach 20 cm in length. Several plant species are considered succulents.
Hemantus flower stalks appear in the second half of summer. During this period, an umbrella inflorescence is formed on them, which is a spherical bundle of small flowers with long stamens, creating the effect of a single, large and fluffy flower. The inflorescence is framed by 4 bracts. Their color is orange, white or red and completely coincides with the color of the stamens. The color palette depends on the type of plant. But the external decorativeness of the "flower" is complemented by a not very pleasant aroma that appears when nectar is released and pollen is formed. Flowering can last until October. After it, fruits are formed on the plant in the form of small reddish berries. They can be used for propagation of the bush, but the germination capacity of the black seeds contained in the fruits is lost very quickly.
The popularity of the white-flowered hemantus in home floriculture is associated with the peculiarities of the development of plants of this species. Unlike other amaryllis, they are considered evergreen and do not lose their visual appeal in winter. Other species rest at this time and shed their foliage.
Gemantus does not bloom - what to do
Gemantus is a flower that blooms only in conditions that are as close to natural as possible. The main reasons for the lack of flowering:
- Too poor watering during the growing season.
- For deciduous varieties, poor dormancy organization. They need to be transferred to a cool, lighted place for the winter, having canceled watering.
- Excessive watering. The crop can more easily tolerate a lack of watering than an excess of it.
- Exposure to direct sunlight or insufficient plant lighting.
This unique houseplant will decorate any home with its original shapes and variety of species. It will be pleasant to look after him for any owner, regardless of employment and workload.