Maidenhair at home: growing without problems
Maidenhair is one of the most common ferns that growers grow at home. Dense openwork greenery of bright light green leaves, bringing a touch of spring forest, and relative unpretentiousness in care - that for which almost all lovers of indoor plants appreciate it.
Origin and distribution
The maidenhair, or the Venus of hair, is rightfully one of the most graceful ferns. According to legend, he appeared from the hair of Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, thrown to the ground.
And it is no coincidence that this fragile-looking plant is compared to the hair of a goddess: its foliage, indeed, looks like a lush maiden hair
This plant belongs to the pteris family (ferns), one of the oldest on Earth. Its ancestors appeared 400 million years ago, in the Paleozoic, but some of them are still found on the South American continent, representing giant fern-like trees. The diversity of species is widely represented on the globe, especially in the subtropical and tropical zones.
The maidenhair can be found both in Western Europe and at the foot of the mountains of North Africa and Central Asia. In Russia, this plant thrives on the Crimean peninsula and the Caucasus.
Most often it can be seen in shaded places along rivers, lakes, streams - where moisture seeps through the nutrient soil.
Maidenhair easily assimilates rocky shores thanks to its well-developed powerful rhizome
The fern is a sprawling, creeping herb with beautiful, as if carved, leaves. Their distinctive feature is the repulsion of water: when watering, it flows down in jets, without wetting the sheet plate. Because of this unusual property, the fern got its name Adiantum (from Greek a - not, diaino - to moisten).
Individual leaf segments, often fan-shaped, do not exceed 2-3 cm in length
This airy, delicate fern is not so delicate: it is quite hardy and undemanding at home.
Variety of species
The genus has about two hundred species. Usually, hair venus is grown as a houseplant, which thrives outdoors only in the spring and summer. However, some of the wild maidenhair species can also be planted outdoors. But remember that in winter they still need to provide more benign conditions (move the plant to a cool, draft-free place). So, the most popular and practical types of care are:
- The maidenhair is transparent: a fern with feathery broad-oval leaves of a faded green color, concave at the bottom. Horseshoe-shaped spores are distributed along the top of the leaf.
- Delicate maidenhair: with short root shoots and leaves of various shapes (broadly lobed, wedge-shaped on black petioles). Feels good in a cool room, used for decoration. In nature, it lives in the tropical zone of the American continent, in the Greater and Lesser Antilles.
- Maidenhair finely pubescent, or finely hairy. Lanceolate, carved leaves, drooping down on both sides, on strong, small cuttings with bristles. Disputes are frequent. Cultivated as a houseplant. In the wild, it is found in the mountain ranges of the African continent, in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, on the mountain plateaus of Australia, in Madagascar.
- Beautiful maidenhair, or Adiantum formosum, is a fern with a thin creeping root and oval dark green leaves. The petiole of this species has a rough surface. Disputes are mainly concentrated in the upper part of the leaf plate. Lives on the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
- Wedge-shaped adiantum (Adiantum cuneatum) is similar to the previous one, but it has bud-shaped spores in the notches along the edge of the leaf. Found on the South American continent.
- Maidenhair Venus hair. Very popular with indoor ferns. Up to 70 cm in height, a fern with a creeping long rhizome in dark narrow scales. The leaves are segmented, very thin, on petioles similar to female hair. Sori are visible on the thin body of the leaf. Indoors it is grown with a bang. It is widespread on the Mediterranean coast (in the mountains), in Europe, the Crimean mountain ranges, the American continent, and on numerous Asian plateaus.
- The foot maidenhair is considered one of the most beautiful species of this genus. Graceful perennial plant with fan-shaped double-pinnate leaves. It has long been grown in winter gardens, greenhouses.
- Maidenhair Ruddy: Native to the South American tropics. It has long (45 cm) creeping leaves with characteristic tooth segments, each of which is no more than a centimeter. Petioles are dark brown or almost black. Maidenhair Ruddy is popular in indoor floriculture, several varieties are cultivated at home:
- Victoria Elegans;
- Fragrantissima (also known as Fragrant);
- Fritz Lithii;
Photo gallery: variety of adiantums
Venus hair at home: minimum requirements
All the charm of the maidenhair is its unpretentiousness, it is not very capricious, but nevertheless requires at least minimal conditions (by the way, they are the same for all seasons).
Table: conditions of the adiantum
Transplant and planting of the maidenhair
When planting a flower, you should give preference to a clay pot: it allows the air to pass through better for the roots. Drainage is poured onto 1/3 of the pot, then covered with special soil intended for ferns. As a rule, such a mixture consists of identical parts of turf or deciduous humus, peat and fine sandstone.
An overgrown flower is transplanted mainly after 2-3 years from planting, preferably in spring. According to the observations of experienced flower growers, maidenhair grows better in cramped containers: the roots are clamped, they do not grow much, thereby stimulating the growth of leaves. When transplanting, rotten roots should be removed, carefully, without injuring healthy ones.
Video: step by step planting hair Venus
We care properly
This beautiful fern does not tolerate direct sunlight. Bright sunlight with low humidity is the main cause of leaf burns. Ideally, partial shade, and in a warm period of time, the most relevant place for the maidenhair is a loggia sheltered from direct sunlight. The temperature regime should be maintained at 150-200... In summer, no higher than 220. Maidenhair also suffers from intolerance to drafts and tobacco smoke. It is good if the air humidity is always normal, otherwise the tips of the leaves begin to turn yellow.
Seasonal watering and feeding
Ferns prefer regular watering, but the plant should not be flooded either. In winter, the heating of most houseplants will cause the leaves to dry out, so you can put some water in the pan.
Watering is best done with soft water, preferably thawed or rainwater, if possible.
This plant also prefers high humidity: it is necessary to periodically spray the leaves from a spray bottle with settled water. It is advisable to apply fertilizers in summer and spring. Fern feeds are available from specialized stores.
The maidenhair does not bloom. This is due to the fact that in antiquity, when the first ferns appeared, there were no Compositae plants and insects pollinating them. Reproduction occurs by spores, like all ferns. Spores scatter over great distances, because of this, the distribution area of ferns is quite wide.
You can determine the type of maidenhair by the zone of maturation of spores
In winter, there is a dormant period, like many plants. At this time, watering is reduced to 1 time per week.
Diseases and pests
With all the relative unpretentiousness of maidenhair ferns (if irrigation, light and feeding regimes are not followed), they can hurt and be damaged by flower insects. One of the first signs of the disease of the hair venus is the dried or yellowing (blackening) tips of its carved leaves, in addition, the plant unnaturally drops the leaves or begins to dry out.
Never keep the maidenhair in a draft!
A plant is infested with pests if:
- a characteristic cobweb appears on the back of the leaves, the leaf curls (spider mite);
- on the trunk and leaves you can see small greenish insects with wings (aphids);
- colonies of brown small insects (scale insects) appear on the trunk;
- on the leaves a white bloom, similar to flour, the plant becomes slippery, sticky (mealybug).
The causes of pests and diseases, as well as ways to get rid of them, can be found in more detail in the table below.
Table: fern disease prevention
Video: about improper maidenhair care firsthand
The maidenhair reproduces mainly by dividing the root. Remove all rotten / dried roots so that the plant will grow well afterwards and will not hurt. It is necessary to try not to damage the plant, its root collar, to ensure a sufficient flow of air to it, not to plant it too deep in the ground.
In a small hole, transplant a part of the maidenhair with a root, sprinkle with earth, without pressing hard, do not forget to moisturize. When choosing a place for transplanted plants, give preference to partial shade. And most importantly, remember about watering. After a week, the maidenhair should be fed with a special fertilizer.
Only mature plants should be propagated by dividing the root, but if the operation is unsuccessful, you may lose the mother plant.
You can grow maidenhair and spores. But the process is quite time consuming:
- Collect mature dark spores from the back of the sheet in a linen bag or on a sheet of paper.
- Pour seeds randomly into a prepared pot with soil, lightly sprinkle with soil.
- Cover with foil or glass on top.
- As it dries, the soil should be moistened.
- The temperature should remain 200-220FROM.
- After 2-3 weeks, the first shoots will appear in the form of small shoots.
- Wait until they grow up, creating all the necessary conditions, thin out and plant.
The life cycle of the maidenhair includes the change of asexual and sexual generations
All types of indoor maidenhair are unpretentious, if you follow simple requirements: the right temperature, moderate humidity and partial shade. If these components are kept in balance, this fern will delight its owners for a very long time with lush foliage of emerald green color.
Good day! I am Natalia, I am 30 years old. A geographer by education, a loving soul by vocation.
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Maidenhair, or Venus hair: delicate fronds - a delight for lovers of exotic
The maidenhair, or the Venus of the hair, is the most graceful of the ferns. Without exception, all representatives of this family are distinguished by their refined beauty. But the maidenhair is special. He is the best among equals. It is no coincidence that this fragile plant is compared to the beautiful curly hair of the goddess of love. Lush green hairstyle rests on dark elastic petioles and sways picturesquely at the slightest movement of air. It is necessary to care for the maidenhair as diligently as for the hair. It is moistened, washed, nourished and cut. But the hair venus has a significant advantage over other indoor plants; when grown at home, it does not need a lot of light to feel good. With proper care, the maidenhair fern will delight you with luscious and patterned greenery for many years, which will decorate even the northern windows and dark corners of your home.
Types and varieties
The small family includes 200 species of maidenhair. There are varieties that can live only indoors, such as the maidenhair Venus hair, and varieties suitable for growing in the gardens of central Russia, including the maidenhair Stopovidny.
The most frost-resistant species can be considered the stopoid maidenhair. It can withstand frosts down to -35 degrees. It is a graceful plant up to 60 cm high. On black petioles, leaf plates are horizontally arranged, strongly dissected, pinnate. The color of the leaves is light green. The rhizome is thin and short. Prefers shady places in the garden with soil rich in humus, slightly acidic or acidic loose soils. The main requirement for growing is moderate humidity, the plant does not tolerate drought. The homeland is the forests of North America, on the territory of Russia it is found in the Amur region, and Primorye, the Kuril Islands and the south of Sakhalin. In the middle lane, decorativeness remains from May to November, before the onset of frost.
Breeders have bred several successful varieties: Compactum (height 35 cm), Imbricatum (height 15 cm), Aleutikum (height 12 cm, suitable for home cultivation), Yaponikum (height 45 cm, young shoots of copper-pink color).
Maidenhair Venus hair
Maidenhair Venus hair is a short plant found in Britain, the Caucasus Mountains, Crimea and Asia. The plant barely reaches 30 cm in height. It is distinguished by thin, shiny, black petioles and fan-shaped leaf plates of light green color. It is grown more often as a houseplant. The soil prefers slightly acidic, well-moisturized. The air in the room should also be about 60-70% humidity. Does not suffer from lack of light even in winter. Growing on northern windows is possible. To maintain moisture, the plants are placed in terrariums or placed on a tray with pebbles filled with water. Hair Venus loves fresh air, rich in oxygen, does not tolerate drafts. It will not grow well in the kitchen and in the room where people smoke.
Adiantum Fragrans - common in the Andes and mountains of South Asia. In culture, it is grown as a houseplant. Height reaches 50 cm. It grows rapidly and forms dense bushes. The leaf blade (3 cm) on petioles (10-15 cm) is oval, light green in color.
A miniature representative of the Pteris family, it grows up to 20 cm. The birthplace of Venustum (Venustum) or the adiantum of the Enchanting is Nepal and Kashmir. Light green plates with a slightly pointed tip are located on dark purple petioles. Can be grown in the gardens of central Russia. After frost, the foliage acquires a brown color.
The adiantum Reniforme came to our windowsills from the Canary Islands. The plant is miniature. Depending on the subspecies, the size of the plant ranges from 5 to 25 cm. Solid horseshoe-shaped leaves are located on thin black petioles.
A compact species that lives on the slopes of the mountains. Its leaves have rounded teeth and are tightly pressed against each other, overlapping the leaf plates. Chilean adiantum (Adiantum Chilense) is able to withstand drought, but not for long.
Ethiopian adiantum (Adiantum Aethiopicum) is distributed not only in Africa, but also in New Zealand and Australia. A characteristic feature is a change in the color of the petioles. The lower part is black, purple closer to the leaf. Wedge-shaped leaf plates with a rounded edge, strongly branched.
Adiantum Caudatum is a large representative of the family. On purple petioles, reaching a length of 60 cm, light green leaves. Each leaf ends with a scion. The plant is grown only as a houseplant, very demanding on moisture. In the event of drying out, the clod of earth may die. At home, it is grown as an ampelous plant.
Maidenhair Wedge-leaved variety "Lady Geneva"
The plant is about 35 cm high.The petioles are black, the shape and arrangement of the leaf is very similar to that of Venus's hair, only more crowded. One leaf plate, like the scales of a fish, finds itself on the other.
Maidenhair Wedge-shaped variegated
Maidenhair Wedge-shaped variegated
In nature, it grows in the south of Brazil. Large view, up to one meter in height. The petioles are dark purple in color. The leaf plate is obovate, green in color, with white stripes. Horseshoe-shaped sori on the back of the leaf.
Large-leaved adiantum (Adiantum Macrophyllum) is a large representative. The leaf can grow from 30 to 50 cm. Young shoots are colored brown-red, eventually turn green. In South America, it grows along roads and gutters.
A delicate look, very sensitive to the content of lime and fluoride in the water. Dislikes when moisture gets on the leaves. The height of the maidenhair is about 15 cm. The bush can reach up to 30 cm in diameter. The leaf plates are light green, on shiny black petioles.
One of the names of this species is Maidenhair pink. Includes such varieties as Farleyens (maidenhair with strongly twisted leaves) and Scutum Roseum (young shoots are colored light pink). The rhizome is creeping and short. The leaf blade is wedge-shaped, strongly dissected, up to 70 cm long, up to 50 cm wide. Black petioles up to 30 cm. Tender maidenhair is used as a houseplant.
Small-leaved view of Ruddy's maidenhair
Adiantum raddianum is an epiphytic plant in South America. The petiole is black, very thin, up to 20-25 cm long. The leaves are triangular and triple pinnate. The length of the leaf is up to 45 cm, the width is up to 25 cm. Each small leaf has the shape of a fan (up to 1 cm). On the reverse side of the leaf, semicircular sporangia are located in a depression. Grows well at home.
Maidenhair finely pubescent or finely haired
Maidenhair finely pubescent or finely haired
Adiantum Small pubescent has another name - fine-haired or bristly-haired (Adiantum Hispidulum). It got its name due to the hairy covering of leaves and petioles. Perennial herb suitable for home cultivation. Found in the wild on the island of Madagascar, India, Australia, Africa and New Zealand. The plant is resistant to cold and not demanding on the soil, it can grow on mountain ledges. The root system is represented by a thin rhizome. Leaflets 1.5-2 cm long, rhomboid. Brown, covered with fine bristles, the petiole grows up to 35 cm. Feels great as a houseplant.
My Maidenhair leaves appeared yellowing from the base, along which spots went, and then the leaf fell off. What's the matter?
Too dry air may be the cause.
Why do the tips of the leaves dry out?
The reason is too dry air.
What if the leaves of the plant are lethargic?
Improper watering may be the cause. Adjust watering (see the watering section for more details).
Pale color of leaves, traces of burns on the surface of the leaf blade.
Excessive sunlight may be the cause. In summer, the fern should be shaded from the midday sun.
If the leaves curl but don't dry out?
The reason may be hypothermia or drafts with high soil moisture. Move the Maidenhair to a warmer place, do not water until the top layer of the earth is dry.